According To Benjamin What Is The One Unalterable Law?
- Marvin Harvey
The characters in Animal farm can be split into three groups – the humans, the pigs, and the other farm animals. Each group represents a different element of the Russian Revolution in 1917.
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Benjamin is a pessimistic donkey Benjamin is an old and pessimistic donkey, No one on the farm knows exactly how old he is but it is hinted that he has been around for a very long time. He is never enthusiastic when things go well for the animals; likewise, he is never surprised or upset when things go wrong.
|How is Benjamin like this?||Evidence from the text||Analysis|
|Vague||Benjamin is often vague with the other animals. For example, when they ask if he is happier now Mr Jones has gone he doesn’t give a straight answer,||“Donkeys live a long time. None of you has ever seen a dead donkey.”||It is not until we have finished the novel that it becomes clear that Benjamin has seen rebellions come and go in the past and he knows that the happiness they feel after the Rebellion will be short-lived. His comment that they have never seen a ‘dead donkey’ is a hint that he has seen similar events in the past and so he is not as excited as the other animals,|
|Pessimistic||Benjamin’s responses are often negative, he doesn’t share in the enthusiasm of the other animals even in their victories.||He said, life would go on as it always had gone on – that is, badly.||Benjamin’s suggestion that life ‘always’ goes on ‘badly’ reveals that he has a pessimistic view on life, he does not see the Rebellion, the windmill or victories in battle as being positive things – he sees them as struggles,|
|Realistic||In the end, it turns out that Benjamin was right to be so negative about the Rebellion. Although conditions seemed better initially – they soon went back to ‘normal’. Benjamin was not negative, just realistic,||Only old Benjamin professed to remember every detail of his long life and to know that things never had been, nor ever could be much better or much worse – hunger, hardship, and disappointment being, so he said, the unalterable law of life.||By this point in the novel it becomes clear that Benjamin was realistic when he was negative about the Rebellion, He is right to believe that things will never change, they are ‘unalterable’ this explains his attitude toward the changes on the farm and why he is never as enthusiastic as the other animals.|
Move on to Test
What is the one unalterable law?
According to Benjamin, what is the one unalterable law? How does this relate to government? The unalterable law is the Law of Life, the fact that no matter what they do, they will always have to work.
What is the unalterable law of life in Animal Farm?
Summary and Analysis Chapter 10 – Orwell has years pass between Chapters 9 and 10 to stress the ways in which the animals’ lack of any sense of history has rendered them incapable of judging their present situation: The animals cannot complain about their awful lives, since “they had nothing to go upon except Squealer’s lists of figures, which invariably demonstrated that everything was getting better and better.” As Winston Smith, the protagonist of Orwell’s Nineteen-Eight-Four understands, the government “could thrust its hand into the past and say of this or that event it never happened,” This same phenomena occurs now on Animal Farm, where the animals cannot recall there ever having been a way of life different from their present one and, therefore, no way of life to which they can compare their own.
Although “Beasts of England” is hummed in secret by some would-be rebels, “no one dared to sing it aloud.” The pigs have won their ideological battle, as the Party wins its war with Winston’s mind at the end of Nineteen-Eight-Four, Only Benjamin — a means by which Orwell again voices his own opinion of the matter — is able to conclude that “hunger, hardship, and disappointment” are the “unalterable law of life.” While Clover is shocked at the sight of Squealer walking on two legs, the reader is not, since this moment is the logical result of all the pigs’ previous machinations.
Napoleon’s carrying a whip in his trotter — formerly a symbol of human torture — and dressing in Jones’ clothes only cements in readers minds what they have long suspected. The sheep’s new slogan, as before, destroys any chance for thought or debate on the animals’ part, and the new Commandment painted on the wall perfectly (and ironically) expresses Napoleon’s philosophy.
Of course, the phrase “more equal” is paradoxical, but this illustrates the paradoxical notion of animals oppressing their own kind in the name of liberty and unity. When the deputation of neighboring humans arrives, the animals are not sure whom they should fear: The pigs or the men. Orwell implies here that there is no real difference, as he does with the pigs buying a wireless, a telephone, and newspapers, and with Napoleon smoking a pipe, despite old Major’s admonition to avoid all habits of men.
Pilkington’s address to Napoleon is sniveling in tone and reveals his desire to remain on good terms with the intimidating leader of Animal Farm. Excusing all cruelty and apologizing for being “nervous” about the effects of the rebellion, Pilkington offers a stream of empty words said only to keep the wheels of commerce well-greased.
Note that he praises Napoleon for making the animals do more work for less food; flattery from such a man can only suggest that the object of such praise is as corrupt as he who flatters. His final witticism — “If you have your lower animals to contend with we have our lower classes!” — again stresses the political interchangeability between the pigs and the men.
The changes of which Napoleon speaks in his address are the final ones needed to make the farm a complete dictatorship. The abolition of the word “comrade” will create less unity among the animals, the burial of old Major’s skull will figuratively “bury” any notions of the dead pig’s ideals, and the removal of the horn and hoof from the flag will ensure that the animals over which it waves never consider the rewards of struggle and rebellion.
- Finally, the changing of the farm’s name back to Manor Farm implies that everything has come full circle while also implying that the farm is not, in any sense, the animals’.
- Instead, it is the property of those (as Hamlet quips in Shakespeare’s play) “to the manor born”: the pigs.
- The novel’s final scene in which Napoleon and Pilkington argue about two aces of spades brilliantly represents the entire book: After years of oppression, struggle, rebellion, and reform, the pigs have become as corrupt and cruel as their masters.
Smoking, drinking, whipping, killing, and even cheating are now qualities shared by both animal and man. Despite Pilkington’s professed admiration for Napoleon (and vice versa), neither trusts the other because neither can: Each is motivated purely by self-interest and not the altruistic yet ineffectual principles once expounded by old Major.
What was Benjamin’s rule?
Benjamin’s rule was to not read. He never thought anything good was written down, so he saw no need to read anything.
What does Benjamin always say in Animal Farm?
Benjamin (a donkey) in Animal Farm Benjamin is “the oldest animal on the farm and the worst tempered. He seldom talked, and when he did, it was usually to make some cynical remark” (1.3). (Think Eeyore, but smarter.) (Click the to download.) Despite his nasty temper, Benjamin knows what’s up.
After the rebellion, the other animals want to know what Benjamin thinks of the new organization of Animal Farm. The only thing that he’ll say is, “Donkeys live a long time. None of you has ever seen a dead donkey” (3.4). Later, he rolls his eyes about everyone’s windmill enthusiasm. Why? Again, because “donkeys live a long time” (6.17).
You could say that Benjamin has long-term vision: unlike anyone else, he remembers the past and thinks about the future, so he doesn’t bother getting worked up over what he sees as passing phases or fads.
What does Benjamin read to Clover?
In the end, after Muriel’s death, Benjamin breaks his vow and agrees to read the Seven Commandments to Clover. ”There was nothing there now except a single Commandment. It read: ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL BUT SOME ANIMALS ARE MORE EQUAL THAN OTHERS. ”
Which one of the following is not one of the Seven Commandments?
Which of the following is NOT one of the original Seven Commandments of Animalism? No animal shall wear clothes.
What is the one rule in Animal Farm?
The novel begins when all of Manor Farm’s animals meet at the request of Old Major, a prize-winning white boar. We are introduced to most of the farm animals: Benjamin, the cynical donkey; Boxer and Clover, two dumb, yet hard-working horses; Snowball, Napoleon, and Squealer, three cunning pigs; and Jessie and Blue Bell, two dogs.
Major starts off the meeting by sharing his vision of a world where animals existed without man. Starting off by saying that he knows that he won’t be around much longer, he tells of a dream he had in which Man is the root of all animals’ problems. He says all animals should fight for a rebellion against Man and that everybody must tell future generations about their hope for freedom.
Finally, the animals rally together and sing a song called “Beasts of England”, a song that sings the praises of a world without Man. The animals sing it three times before going to bed that night. Major dies shortly thereafter and the animals start to secretly plan for rebellion against the owner of the farm, Jones, and the farmhands.
- The rebellion starts after an incident where the farmhands neglected and starved the animals for two days.
- The cows kick down the barn door and every animal starts to go crazy.
- When Jones tries to whip the animals, they chase every human off the farm, therefore igniting the rebellion.
- After a day of frenzied excitement, order resumes.
The pigs are put in charge and the farm is renamed Animal Farm. Seven commandments are put on the side of the barn, along with the motto, “Four legs good, two legs bad”. The commandments are as follows: 1.Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.2.Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.3.No animal shall wear clothes.4.No animal shall sleep in a bed.5.No animal shall drink alcohol.6.No animal shall kill any other animal.7.All animals are equal.
Despite this last commandment, the pigs position themselves as the intelligence behind the whole operation, and therefore convince the other animals that they need special handling. As an example, they don’t help the other animals during the annual harvesting of hay and they take all of the apples and milk for themselves.
Squealer, the lead pig, convinces the other animals that it is for their own good. Things did not run smoothly on the farm. Snowball warns all the animals that Mr. Jones and his men will be back soon to try and reclaim the farm. He holds a “rally” to rile everyone up.
When Jones and his men do come back, all the animals easily kick them out. Snowball is minorly wounded while charging into battle and gives himself an award: Animal Hero, First Class. Another example of chaos is the feud between the two head pigs. Snowball and Napoleon cannot get along; they disagree on everything from rations to age for retirement.
Snowball proposes the idea of building a windmill on the farm, but Napoleon doesn’t like the idea. He makes his vicious, angry dogs (who were once Blue Bell’s and Jessie’s puppies and who had been secretly trained to be Napoleon’s personal killers) chase Snowball off the property and banish him.
- Napoleon decides to build the windmill after all, and he cancels the weekly meetings he has held since the rebellion.
- When other animals are upset by this, Squealer is able to convince everyone that Napoleon canceled the meetings for their own good.
- He paints Napoleon as a hero.
- Things on the farm continue to deteriorate,
All animals except the pigs work like slaves. Napoleon starts to trade with neighboring farms and the pigs move into the farmhouse. The animals are confused as to why the pigs are breaking the rules about trade and sleeping in a bed. Squealer, once again, convinces the animals that this inequality is for their own good.
- The partially-constructed windmill is blown down in a gale, and Snowball is put at blame.
- Squealer says that Snowball was teaming up with Jones from the very beginning.
- In a public display of shocking violence, Napoleon holds a meeting with all the animals and has his dogs rip the throats out of anyone who he thought to be loyal to Snowball.
Everyone is distraught, and Boxer is especially disturbed. Everyone thought that the sixth commandment said that killing other animals was not allowed, but now when they read it, the commandment read ” no killing without cause.” At one point in the story, the pigs even have a celebration by wearing clothes and drinking alcohol.
The humans destroy what is left of the windmill since they don’t like the thought of Animal Farm succeeding, and Boxer is injured in the battle. It’s in the middle of a bitter winter and the pigs are taking extra rations, so everyone is starving. Boxer’s strength has greatly diminished, and the pigs say that they’re sending him away to a hospital to get better.
The carriage that arrives for Boxer, takes him to a glue factory. The pigs use the money made off of Boxer to buy whiskey. Many more nasty surprises await the reader in the final chapters of this novel. Animal Farm represents the Russian Revolution of 1917.
- Old Major represents Karl Marx, Snowball represents Leon Trotsky, Napoleon represents Josef Stalin, Squealer represents propaganda, and Boxer is a representation for all the Russian laborers and workers.
- Old Major’s dream about equality is a stand in for Karl Marx’s Communist Manifesto.
- Both speeches talk about how laborers and workers produce all the product, but the heads of the organization take everything for themselves.
In Animal Farm’s case, the laborers are the animals and the head of the organization is Mr. Jones and humans in general. The rebellion of the animals is similar to the overthrow of Russia’s Tsar, Nicholas II. Both rebellions happened without much planning and were achieved fairly easily.
The overthrow of Nicholas happened when he sent military out to stop some protestors. The military sympathized with the common people, and instead turned on Nicholas. Napoleon taking charge of the animals and working them harder than ever is symbolic to how Stalin had a “Five Year Plan”. Both of these plans only worsened famine and both Stalin and Napoleon used tricks to make the outside world think that they were thriving.
Boxer’s death doesn’t represent any specific event in the Russian Revolution, but represents it as a whole. Boxer was the poster child of a perfect worker: he worked relentlessly, was eternally loyal, and never doubted the morals of the pigs. Instead of being rewarded for his years of service, he was sent off to be made into glue.
- This represents how Stalin and his men broke the principles of communism they set at the beginning and are just as bad as Nicholas.
- Instead of an improved society, everything is the same as before.
- Squealer represents propaganda throughout the revolution.
- When the animals are skeptic of the pigs’ intentions, Squealer is able to twist things in a positive light so the pigs’ actions are justified.
During the revolution, propaganda was sent out to ease the minds of laborers. I love this book. The diction is simple and enjoyable. The story is fast-paced and Orwell is able to pack a lot of action into a few words. I like how this is written in third person, leaving most the thoughts and feelings of the characters up to the reader’s interpretation.
How many commandments do the animals create which form an unalterable law that they must all live by?
‘They explained that by their studies of the past three months the pigs had succeeded in reducing the principles of Animalism to Seven Commandments. These Seven Commandments would now be inscribed on the wall; they would form an unalterable law by which all the animals on Animal Farm must live for ever after’ (24).
What is Benjamin in the Bible known for?
Benjamin ( Hebrew : בִּנְיָמִין Bīnyāmīn ; “Son of (the) right”) was the last of the two sons of Jacob and Rachel (Jacob’s thirteenth child and twelfth and youngest son) in Jewish, Christian and Islamic tradition. He was also the progenitor of the Israelite Tribe of Benjamin,
Unlike Rachel’s first son, Joseph, Benjamin was born in Canaan according to biblical narrative. In the Samaritan Pentateuch, Benjamin’s name appears as “Binyamēm” ( Samaritan Hebrew : ࠁࠪࠍࠬࠉࠣࠌࠜࠉࠌࠬ, “son of days”). In the Quran, Benjamin is referred to as a righteous young child, who remained with Jacob when the older brothers plotted against Joseph.
Later rabbinic traditions name him as one of four ancient Israelites who died without sin, the other three being Chileab, Jesse and Amram,
Who does Benjamin represent?
Benjamin is Animal Farm’s donkey. He is intelligent and able to read, but he “never exercised his faculty. So far as he knew, he said, there was nothing worth reading” ( Chapter 3 ). He is the only animal who never really believes in the rebellion, but he doesn’t oppose it, and he doesn’t oppose Napoleon’s rise to power either.
When the animals ask him to help them by reading the Commandments which have been changed on Napoleon’s orders, Benjamin refuses “to meddle in such matters” ( Chapter 8 ). Within the novella’s allegory of Soviet history, Benjamin represents the intellectuals who failed to oppose Stalin. More broadly, Benjamin represents all intellectuals who choose to ignore politics.
Benjamin pays a high price for his refusal to engage with the Farm’s politics. When he finally tries to take action and save his best friend, Boxer, it is already too late.
What does Benjamin do in Chapter 9 Animal Farm?
Summary: Chapter IX – Wearily and weakly, the animals set about rebuilding the windmill. Though Boxer remains seriously injured, he shows no sign of being in pain and refuses to leave his work for even a day. Clover makes him a poultice for his hoof, and he eventually does seem to improve, but his coat doesn’t seem as shiny as before and his great strength seems slightly diminished.
He says that his only goal is to see the windmill off to a good start before he retires. Though no animal has yet retired on Animal Farm, it had previously been agreed that all horses could do so at the age of twelve. Boxer now nears this age, and he looks forward to a comfortable life in the pasture as a reward for his immense labors.
Food grows ever more scarce, and all animals receive reduced rations, except for the pigs and the dogs. Squealer continues to produce statistics proving that, even with this “readjustment,” the rations exceed those that they received under Mr. Jones. After all, Squealer says, when the pigs and dogs receive good nourishment, the whole community stands to benefit.
When four sows give birth to Napoleon’s piglets, thirty-one in all, Napoleon commands that a schoolhouse be built for their education, despite the farm’s dwindling funds. Napoleon begins ordering events called Spontaneous Demonstrations, at which the animals march around the farm, listen to speeches, and exult in the glory of Animal Farm.
When other animals complain, the sheep, who love these Spontaneous Demonstrations, drown them out with chants of “Four legs good, two legs bad!” In April, the government declares Animal Farm a republic, and Napoleon becomes president in a unanimous vote, having been the only candidate.
- The same day, the leadership reveals new discoveries about Snowball’s complicity with Jones at the Battle of the Cowshed.
- It now appears that Snowball actually fought openly on Jones’s side and cried “Long live Humanity!” at the outset of the fight.
- The battle took place so long ago, and seems so distant, that the animals placidly accept this new story.
Around the same time, Moses the raven returns to the farm and once again begins spreading his stories about Sugarcandy Mountain. Though the pigs officially denounce these stories, as they did at the outset of their administration, they nonetheless allow Moses to live on the farm without requiring him to work.
- One day, Boxer’s strength fails; he collapses while pulling stone for the windmill.
- The other animals rush to tell Squealer, while Benjamin and Clover stay near their friend.
- The pigs announce that they will arrange to bring Boxer to a human hospital to recuperate, but when the cart arrives, Benjamin reads the writing on the cart’s sideboards and announces that Boxer is being sent to a glue maker to be slaughtered.
The animals panic and begin crying out to Boxer that he must escape. They hear him kicking feebly inside the cart, but he is unable to get out. Soon Squealer announces that the doctors could not cure Boxer: he has died at the hospital. He claims to have been at the great horse’s side as he died and calls it the most moving sight he has ever seen—he says that Boxer died praising the glories of Animal Farm.
- Squealer denounces the false rumors that Boxer was taken to a glue factory, saying that the hospital had simply bought the cart from a glue maker and had failed to paint over the lettering.
- The animals heave a sigh of relief at this news, and when Napoleon gives a great speech in praise of Boxer, they feel completely soothed.
Not long after the speech, the farmhouse receives a delivery from the grocer, and sounds of revelry erupt from within. The animals murmur among themselves that the pigs have found the money to buy another crate of whisky—though no one knows where they found the money.
Why is Benjamin upset Animal Farm?
Why is Benjamin upset when he sees the van taking Boxer away? 7. Benjamin is one of the few animals who can still read, which allows him to see that Boxer is being taken away in a knacker’s van.
What kind of remarks did Benjamin make in Animal Farm?
Character Analysis Benjamin – As horses are known for their strength, donkeys are known for their stubbornness, and Benjamin stubbornly refuses to become enthusiastic about the rebellion. While all of his comrades delight in the prospect of a new, animal-governed world, Benjamin only remarks, “Donkeys live a long time.
None of you has ever seen a dead donkey.” While this reply puzzles the animals, the reader understands Benjamin’s cynical yet not-unfounded point: In the initial moments of the rebellion, Animal Farm may seem a paradise, but in time it may come to be another form of the same tyranny at which they rebelled.
Of course, Benjamin is proven right by the novel’s end, and the only thing that he knows for sure — “Life would go on as it had always gone on — that is, badly” — proves to be a definitive remark about the animals’ lives. Although pessimistic, he is a realist.
What does Benjamin most likely mean when he tells the other animals Donkeys live a long time none of you has ever seen a dead donkey?
What is the meaning of Benjamin the donkey’s cryptic answer? While the narration claims this is a cryptic answer, it is more in the sense of being cryptic to the other animals than to the reader. Benjamin is the oldest animal and the reader can intuit from this that he has seen a lot of events on the farm that the other animals have not.
- This is the meaning of “Donkeys live a long time”.
- None of you has ever seen a dead donkey,” had a twofold meaning: in the first instance, it supports the original statement that donkeys are long-lived and in the second it implies that they are hardy and will survive and endure no matter what privations are inflicted on them.
The key to understanding what Benjamin is implying here is to situation the quote in the context of what he’s being asked: is he happier now that Jones has gone? By refusing to answer in the positive, we can understand that he is not. By his statement about his long life, he is implying that he has seen other attempts at bettering the working life on animals on the farm and that they have not succeeded.
By then stating his endurance he is, in fact, suggesting it will likely do more harm than good. Benjamin is a curious character in the novel because almost all the other characters either represent specific characters from Russian communism (i.e. Napoleon is Stalin), or a particular social class (i.e.
Boxer is the working class). It is not entirely clear who Benjamin represents. His long memory of what has come before suggest he may represent the older people of Russia. His clear intelligence and critical attitude suggest he may be a member of the intelligentsia.
Does Animal Farm have a movie?
|Based on||Animal Farm by George Orwell|
|Written by||Alan Janes Martyn Burke (teleplay)|
|Directed by||John Stephenson|
|Starring||Kelsey Grammer Ian Holm Julia Louis-Dreyfus Patrick Stewart Julia Ormond Paul Scofield Pete Postlethwaite Peter Ustinov|
|Theme music composer||Richard Harvey|
|Country of origin||United States United Kingdom|
|Producers||Greg Smith Robert Halmi|
|Running time||91 minutes|
|Production company||Hallmark Entertainment|
|Original release||3 October 1999|
Animal Farm is a 1999 political comedy-drama television film directed by John Stephenson and written by Alan Janes, Based on the 1945 novel of the same name by George Orwell and serving as an allegory of the Russian Revolution and its aftermath, it features Kelsey Grammer, Sir Ian Holm, Julia Louis-Dreyfus, Sir Patrick Stewart, Julia Ormond, Paul Scofield, Pete Postlethwaite and Sir Peter Ustinov,
What horrific sight did clover see?
Summary and Analysis Chapter 10 – Summary Years pass, and Animal Farm undergoes its final changes. Muriel, Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher are all dead, and Jones dies in an inebriates’ home. Clover is now 14 years old (two years past the retiring age) but has not retired.
- No animal ever has.) There are more animals on the farm, and the farm’s boundaries have increased, thanks to the purchase of two of Pilkington ‘s fields.
- The second windmill has been completed and is used for milling corn.
- All the animals continue their lives of hard work and little food — except, of course, for the pigs.
One evening, Clover sees a shocking sight: Squealer walking on his hind legs. Other pigs follow, walking the same way, and Napoleon also emerges from the farmhouse carrying a whip in his trotter. The sheep begin to bleat a new version of their previous slogan: “Four legs good, two legs better!” Clover also notices that the wall on which the Seven Commandments were written has been repainted: Now, the wall simply reads, “ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL / BUT SOME ANIMALS ARE MORE EQUAL THAN OTHERS.” Eventually, all the pigs begin carrying whips and wearing Jones’ clothes.
- In the novel’s final scene, a deputation of neighboring farmers are given a tour of the farm, after which they meet in the dining-room of the farmhouse with Napoleon and the other pigs. Mr.
- Pilkington makes a toast to Animal Farm and its efficiency.
- Napoleon then offers a speech in which he outlines his new policies: The word “comrade” will be suppressed, there will be no more Sunday meetings, the skull of old Major has been buried, and the farm flag will be changed to a simple field of green.
His greatest change in policy, however, is his announcement that Animal Farm will again be called Manor Farm. Soon after Napoleon’s speech, the men and pigs begin playing cards, but a loud quarrel erupts when both Napoleon and Pilkington each try to play the ace of spades.
As Clover and the other animals watch the arguments through the dining-room window, they are unable to discriminate between the humans and the pigs. Analysis This final chapter depicts the complete transformation (not only in name) from Animal Farm to Manor Farm. There will never be a “retirement home” for old animals (as evidenced by Clover), and the pigs come to resemble their human oppressors to the degree that “it was impossible to say which was which.” The completion of the second windmill marks not the rebirth of Snowball ‘s utopian vision, but a further linking of the animals and humans: Used not for a dynamo but instead for milling corn (and thus making money), the windmill’s symbolic meaning has (like everything else) been reversed and corrupted.
Animal Farm is now inexorably tied to its human neighbors in terms of commerce and atmosphere. Continued on next page.
Does Benjamin know how do you read?
He is one of the wisest animals on the farm and is able to ‘read as well as any pig’.
Do Muslims believe in the 10 Commandments?
Muslims do accept the Ten Commandments as laws given to mankind from God, due to the fact that they are confirmed in the Qur’an. For example, the commandment, “Thou shall not take any god except one God” is a belief found in Islam, as it is stated in the Qur’an, “There is no other god besides GOD,”, There are many other verses in the Qur’an that confirm the various other commandments as well.
What is the main violation against the Seventh Commandment?
Roman Catholic doctrine – Catholic teaching regards the commandment “You shall not steal” as an expression of the commandment to love your neighbor as yourself. The Catechism of the Catholic Church states : The seventh commandment forbids unjustly taking or keeping the goods of one’s neighbor and wronging him in any way with respect to his goods.
It commands justice and charity in the care of earthly goods and the fruits of men’s labor. For the sake of the common good, it requires respect for the universal destination of goods and respect for the right to private property. — Catechism of the Catholic Church Catholic teaching states that in economic matters, respect for human dignity requires practicing temperance, a virtue that moderates attachment to worldly goods; justice, a virtue that preserves our neighbors rights and renders what is due; and solidarity, in accordance with the golden rule,
Even if it does not contradict explicit provisions of civil law, any form of unjustly taking and keeping the property of others is against the seventh commandment: thus, deliberate retention of goods lent or of objects lost; business fraud; paying unjust wages; forcing up prices by taking advantage of the ignorance or hardship of another.
The following are also considered morally illicit: speculation by which one contrives to manipulate the price of goods artificially in order to gain an advantage to the detriment of others; corruption in which one influences the judgment of those who must make decisions according to law; appropriation and use for private purposes of the common goods of an enterprise; work poorly done; tax evasion; forgery of checks and invoices; excessive expenses and waste.
Willfully damaging private or public property is contrary to the moral law and requires reparation. In addition, Catholic teaching demands that contracts and promises be strictly observed. Injustices require restitution to the owner. Following Thomas Aquinas, Catholic teaching holds that “if the need be so manifest and urgent, that it is evident that the present need must be remedied by whatever means be at hand (for instance when a person is in some imminent danger, and there is no other possible remedy), then it is lawful for a man to succor his own need by means of another’s property, by taking it either openly or secretly: nor is this properly speaking theft or robbery”.
Catholic teaching also supports the doctrine of occult compensation, Catholic teaching reminds that Jesus enjoins his disciples to prefer him to everything and everyone, and bids them “renounce all that ” for his sake and that of the Gospel. Jesus gave his disciples the example of the poor widow of Jerusalem who gave out of her poverty all that she had to live on.
Detachment from riches is portrayed as obligatory for entrance into the Kingdom of heaven. “Blessed are the poor in spirit” represents the expectation that those who do not receive all their physical longings are more inclined to seek fulfillment of their spiritual longings through Jesus Christ.
- The Lord grieves over the rich, because they find their consolation in the abundance of goods.” “I want to see God” expresses the true desire of man.
- The water of eternal life quenches the thirst for God.
- Attachment to the goods of this world are a bondage.
- The Scriptural remedy is the desire for true happiness that is found in seeking and finding God.
Holy people must struggle, with grace from on high, to obtain the good things God promises. Faithful Christians put to death their cravings and, with the grace of God, prevail over the seductions of pleasure and power. For what does it profit a man to gain the whole world, yet lose his own soul?
What are the 1st and 2nd Commandments?
Given the purpose of our existence, if we do not love God and neighbor, whatever else we do will be of little eternal consequence. The attention of people around the world has been drawn, during the past four weeks, to the willful, intentional, and destructive acts of terrorism and hatred.
Hatred is the antithesis of love. Lucifer is its chief proponent and perpetrator and has been since his approach to the plan of salvation was rejected by the Father. It was he who influenced Judas to deliver Jesus to the chief priests for 30 pieces of silver. It is he, the enemy of all righteousness and the father of contention, who, “as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour” ( 1 Pet.5:8 ).
On the other hand, it was that same Jesus whom Judas delivered to the chief priests who said, “Love your enemies, and pray for them who despitefully use you and persecute you” ( 3 Ne.12:44 ; see also Matt.5:44 ). And it was He who pleaded for the soldiers who crucified Him, saying, “Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do” ( Luke 23:34 ).
- I thought for many years that love was an attribute.
- But it is more.
- It is a commandment.
- In His dialogue with the lawyer, a Pharisee, Jesus said: “Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind.
- This is the first and great commandment.
- And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
“On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets” ( Matt.22:37–40 ; see also Gal.5:14 ). President Hinckley has said that “love is like the Polar Star. In a changing world, it is a constant. It is the very essence of the gospel.” “Without love there is little else to commend the gospel to us as a way of life” ( Teachings of Gordon B.
- Hinckley, 319, 317).
- The Apostle John said that “God is love” ( 1 Jn.4:8 ).
- Thus, on Him, as the embodiment of love, hang all the law and the prophets.
- The Apostle Paul taught that faith, which is the first principle of the gospel, works by love (see Gal.5:6 ).
- What a valuable doctrine to understand! Love is the driving force behind faith.
Just as a fire at home on a cold winter night makes it warm, so love of God and neighbor gives us faith, with which anything is possible. Most of us profess to love God. The challenge, I have observed, is loving our neighbor. The term neighbor includes family, people with whom we work, those whom we see in geographical proximity to our home and at church, and even the enemy, though we do not condone what the latter does.
- If we do not love all of these, our brothers and sisters, can we truly say that we love God? The Apostle John declared “that he who loveth God love his brother also,” and added, “If a man say, I love God, and hateth his brother, he is a liar” ( 1 Jn.4:21, 20 ).
- Love of God and neighbor must therefore be inseparably connected.
Our eternal progression leans heavily on the degree to which we love. Webster defines love as the “unselfish, loyal and benevolent concern for the good of another; an affection based on admiration, benevolence or common interests” ( Longman Webster English College Dictionary, overseas edition).
And Moroni treats as synonymous the terms “pure love of Christ” and “charity” (see Moro.7:47 ). We can best demonstrate our love to God by keeping His commandments. And we can show our love to God and neighbor by charitable acts of service. Permit me two illustrations. In the Transylvanian Alps of Romania, a man, with his wife and two children, was baptized into the Church.
He became the leader of his branch; however, due to economic and family pressures, he became inactive for a time. Upon his return to activity, he reported that as he had stepped out of the water at the time of his baptism, someone whispered in his ear, “I love you.” No one had ever told him that before.
- His recollection of that expression of love, and the loving and charitable acts and expressions of members of his branch, brought him back.
- Several years ago, a young man became involved in the ways of the world.
- For a time, his parents had no influence on him.
- Two high priests who were neighbors and members of his ward but who had no specific calling to serve him, together with an uncle and others, put their arms around and befriended him.
They nursed him back into activity and encouraged him to prepare for a mission. They told him that they loved him and demonstrated that love by their conduct towards him. This changed the young man’s life. It takes an abundance of love and a cooperative effort to raise a child.
No one can assist in this work he shall be humble and full of love” ( D&C 12:8 ). “By love serve one another” ( Gal.5:13 ). Just as service is a natural consequence of love, so is love a natural consequence of service. Husbands, serve your wives. Wives, serve your husbands. Husbands and wives, serve your children.
And to all we say, serve God and neighbor. As we do so, we will come to love the object of our devotion and thus be obedient to the first and great commandment of love. Following His Resurrection in Jerusalem, Jesus appeared to the Nephites in the Americas.
- After teaching about baptism, He warned against anger and contention, saying, “And there shall be no disputations among you.
- For verily, verily I say unto you, he that hath the spirit of contention is not of me, but is of the devil, who is the father of contention, and he stirreth up the hearts of men to contend with anger, one with another” ( 3 Ne.11:22, 29 ).
Brothers and sisters, if we are obedient to the commandment of love, there will be no disputations, contention, nor hatred between nor among us. We will not speak ill of one another but will treat each other with kindness and respect, realizing that each of us is a child of God.
There will be no Nephites, Lamanites, nor other “ites” among us, and every man, woman, and child will deal justly one with another. Early one morning in Bucharest, as I jogged through Cismigiu Park, I observed an old tree which was struggling to give new branches—to give new life. The symbol of life is to give.
We give so much to family and friends and to community and Church that at times we, as the old tree, may think that life is too difficult—that constantly giving is a burden too heavy to bear. We may think that it would be easier to give up and to do only that which the natural man does.
But we should not and will not quit. Why? Because we must continue to give, just like Christ and the old tree gave. As we give just a little bit, let us think of Him who gave His life that we might live. Jesus, near the end of His mortal life, revisited the doctrine of love when He instructed His adherents that as He had loved them, so they also should love one another.
“By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love one to another” ( John 13:35 ). I conclude that, given the purpose of our existence, if we do not love God and neighbor, whatever else we do will be of little eternal consequence. I testify of the divinity of Christ and the reality of His mission to bring to pass the immortality and eternal life of man.
What happened to the milk in Animal farm?
The milk and apples were taken by the pigs. In chapter three, Squealer announces that the pigs will be adding the milk and apples to their mash. His argument is that the pigs need this extra food to fuel their brainpower.
What are the ways an agreement can be invalidated quizlet?
What are the ways an agreement can be invalidated? Fraud. Misrepresentation. Undue influence.
Which of the following is a recognized exception to usury law quizlet?
Which of the following is a recognized exception to usury law? The court will declare the usurious loan void and award the debtor an equity interest in the subject lending institution.
Which of the following is most likely to be considered automatically void?
Which of the following is most likely to be considered void automatically? A contract that violates a public policy. A nominal amount of money, such as one dollar, is sufficient consideration to form a valid contract.