### According To Little’S Law, Which Of The Following Ratios Is Used To Find Throughput Rate?

- Marvin Harvey
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According to Little’s law, which of the following ratios is used to find flow time? Little’s law says there is a long-term relationship among the inventory, throughput, and flow time of a production system in steady state. The relationship is: Inventory = Throughput rate × Flow time.

#### Which of the following is correct about Little’s Law?

Which of the following is correct about Little’s law? It is a product of average arrival rate and average time spent by the user in the systemSum of response time and Think time multiplied with Throughput will give the number of system.

#### What is Little’s law in manufacturing?

Introduced by John Little in 1961, Little’s Law is summed up with the equation L=lW. The average arrival rate of items in the system, l, is multiplied by the average amount of time an item spends in the system, W. The result is the average number of items in the system, L.

### What does Little’s law show about inventory quizlet?

Little’s Law shows the relationship between throughput rate, throughput time, and the amount of work-in-process inventory. Specifically, it is throughput time equals amount of work-in-process inventory divided by the throughput rate.

### What is throughput time?

Benefits of Knowing Throughput Time – Throughput time refers to the total amount of time that it takes to run a particular process in its entirety from start to finish. For example, a manufacturer can measure how long it takes to produce a product, from initial customer order to sourcing raw materials to manufacturing to sale. Throughput time can be further broken down into components:

Processing time is how long all of the steps of producing a good or service take Inspection time involves running quality control and monitoring finished goods Move time includes how long it takes to transport, ship, and deliver items across the logistics chain Queue time, or wait time, is computed as all idle time in between these other components.

Adding these together gives you the total throughput time. If you can identify areas where there are backlogs, bottlenecks, or slowdowns, company managers can address these and improve efficiency. Quicker throughput times increase return on investment (ROI) and profitability.

#### What is throughput in Little’s law?

Little’s Law Formula – Now, you’ve got the three Little’s law variables. So, what’s the formula? It’s super simple: L = λ x W

- Work in Progress (L) is the number of items in process in any system.
- Throughput (λ) represents the rate at which items arrive in/out of the system.
- Lead time (W) is the average time one item spends in the system.

Still, seems a bit complicated? Let’s take a look at some real-life examples to add some practical knowledge and visualization to the formula.

#### What does Little’s law calculate?

What is Little’s Law? – Little’s Law is a theorem that determines the average number of items in a stationary queuing system, based on the average waiting time of an item within a system and the average number of items arriving at the system per unit of time. The law provides a simple and intuitive approach for the assessment of the efficiency of queuing systems. The concept is hugely significant for business operations because it states that the number of items in the queuing system primarily depends on two key variables and is not affected by other factors, such as the distribution of the service or service order.

## Why is it called Little’s Law?

What is Little’s Law? – Little’s Law is named after a professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management, Dr. John Little. The law aimed to provide a simple approach for the assessment of the efficiency of queuing systems. It’s become a hugely significant concept for businesses and their operations.

This is because it states that the number of items in a queuing system depends on two key factors that are not affected by other factors. Almost any queuing system can be assessed using Little’s Law. It can also be applied in a number of different fields. When it was first published in 1954, there was no proof of the theorem.

But in 1961, Little finally managed to publish proof that there is no queuing situation where the relationship he described does not hold.

### How does Little’s law help in computing the process flow cycle time?

Year-end Deals on Lean Six Sigma Courses Up to 50% Off – We can reduce Cycle Time with Little’s Law. Let me explain. We know that Little’s Law is the average number of customers in a system (over some interval) is equal to their average arrival rate, multiplied by their average time in the system.

- TH = throughput (arrival rate). This is the velocity or speed of production and is calculated by determining how many items are produced and dividing it by the length of time it took to produce them. It can, of course, be computed from Little’s Law as TH = WIP/CT.
- CT = cycle time (average time in the system). This is the time it takes to complete the production cycle or the average time it takes to produce one unit. Generally, determining cycle time requires either direct measurement or can be computed from Little’s Law as CT = WIP/TH.
- WIP = work in process (average number of units or customers in a system). This is the number of items currently in production or being serviced in some way. This figure must be measured (counted) directly or can be computed from Little’s Law.

In other words, And, you can also transform the equation below to find the average wait time for a system, whereas the above tells us the average length of the queue, or how many people are waiting in line. So what are the applications of Little’s Law in business? Considering a typical production situation of accepting new orders into a production process, let’s assume we are running a process in which throughput (TH), the number of units we produce, equals 50 units per day.

(CT = WIP/TH, CT = 200/50, CT = 4).

This means we can accommodate new orders of 50 units each day and the system will remain balanced. But suppose we receive an order for 85 units, 35 more than the standard order of 50. The WIP would increase from 200 units to 235, and because TH would remain constant at 50 units per day, CT would immediately increase from four days per unit to 5.4 days per unit.

Significant levels of new orders cause production efficiency to decrease.

### Which is a process metric in Little’s law?

Little’s Law, also commonly referred to as Process Lead Time (PLT), is a powerful metric to measure the speed and throughput of any process. The PLT is a function of the number of items already in the process queue (WIP) and the speed at which items leave the process (Exit Rate).

#### What does Little’s law say about a stable system?

Little’s Law – Scrum & Kanban What is Little’s Law? If you have a stable system (e.g. one-in-one-out), then the average number of customers you have within that system is equal to the average rate of customer arrivals multiplied by the average time a customer spends in the system.

That was the law proposed by John Little in the mid-1900s. This is commonly expressed as L = λW (where “L” is the average number of customers, “λ” is average arrival rate and “W” is the average time in the system). Popular in queueing theory, the law proves that when you increase the number of customers in the system, and keep the arrival rate constant, the average time in the system increases.

In short, increasing the number of customers means that it takes longer for each one to be served.

- Maybe you remember from school, that you can rework L = λW to show that λ = L / W and W = L / λ
- Why do we care?
- We slightly redefine the terms as follows:

- average number of customers becomes average items of work in progress (WIP)
- average arrival rate becomes average delivery rate (DR) – we can change this because arrival and departure time will be the same in a stable one-in-one-out system
- average time in the system, the average time it takes to go from start to finish, is known to us as lead time (LT)

- For us, Little’s Law tells us that WIP = DR x LT (which can also be expressed as DR = WIP / LT and LT = WIP / DR).
- We can then use Little’s Law to prove that increasing the average amount of work in progress (WIP) has the effect of increasing the average time it takes for each work item to be completed (Lead Time).
- For example:
- We have an average of 6 work items in progress, an average delivery rate of 2 items per day, and an average lead time of 3 days.

If you remember your childhood lessons on refactoring algebra, this can also be expressed as: Using this refactored equation, we can see what happens to lead time if we increase WIP to 12:

- LT = WIP / DR
- LT = 12 / 2
- LT = 6

- Lead time increases from 3 days to 6 days.
- But doesn’t this also prove that increasing WIP can increase Delivery Rate?
- If we take our initial example, increase WIP to 12 but keep lead time as 3 days, then we get:

- DR = WIP / LT
- DR = 12 / 3
- DR = 4

By increasing WIP, we have also increased delivery rate! Isn’t this a good thing? Although that might be true from an algebraic perspective, it’s not what usually happens. If I doubled your workload, you’re unlikely to suddenly become twice as productive and complete it in the same time; you will just take twice as long to complete twice as much work, delivering at about the same rate as before*.

- OUT NOW!
- The Innovation Revelation: A story about how to satisfy customer needs.
- A real-world guide to taking a customer-focused approach to creating products and services that people actually want and are happy to pay for.

You have already completed the quiz before. Hence you can not start it again. You must sign in or sign up to start the quiz. You have to finish following quiz, to start this quiz:

- Incorrect
- Oops, you’ve got your calculation wrong.
- L = λW is actually saying:
- WIP (L) = Throughput Rate (λ) x Lead Time (W)
- So you need to shuffle the formula around to calculate Throughput Rate:
- Throughput Rate (λ) = Work In Progress (L) / Lead Time (W)
- Throughput Rate = 6 / 8 = 0.75

- Incorrect
- Oops, you’ve got your calculation wrong.
- L = λW is actually saying:
- WIP (L) = Throughput Rate (λ) x Lead Time (W)
- So you need to shuffle the formula around to calculate Throughput Rate:
- Throughput Rate (λ) = Work In Progress (L) / Lead Time (W)

Throughput Rate = 5.5 / 10 = 0.55

- Incorrect
- Oops, you’ve got your calculation wrong.
- L = λW is actually saying:
- WIP (L) = Throughput Rate (λ) x Lead Time (W)
- So, this question:
- Work In Progress = 1.5 x 4 = 6

- Incorrect
- Oops, you’ve got your calculation wrong.
- L = λW is actually saying:
- WIP (L) = Throughput Rate (λ) x Lead Time (W)
- So, this question:
- Work In Progress = 0.625 x 16 = 10

- Incorrect
- Oops, you’ve got your calculation wrong.
- L = λW is actually saying:
- WIP (L) = Throughput Rate (λ) x Lead Time (W)
- So you need to shuffle the formula around to calculate Lead Time:
- Lead Time (W) = Work In Progress (L) / Throughput Rate (λ)
- So, this question:

Lead Time = 4 / 0.33333 = 12.00012

- Incorrect
- Oops, you’ve got your calculation wrong.
- L = λW is actually saying:
- WIP (L) = Throughput Rate (λ) x Lead Time (W)
- So you need to shuffle the formula around to calculate Lead Time:
- Lead Time (W) = Work In Progress (L) / Throughput Rate (λ)
- So, this question:
- Lead Time = 7 / 0.7 = 10

- Incorrect
- Oops, you’ve got your calculation wrong.
- L = λW is actually saying:
- WIP (L) = Throughput Rate (λ) x Lead Time (W)
- So you need to shuffle the formula around to calculate Throughput Rate:
- Throughput Rate (λ) = Work In Progress (L) / Lead Time (W)
- Therefore, our 2 options are calculated as follows: Throughput Rate A = 10 / 16 = 0.625
- Throughput Rate B = 3 / 5 = 0.6

: Little’s Law – Scrum & Kanban

## What is throughput and How Is It measured?

Network throughput and bits per second – In data transmission, network throughput is the amount of data moved successfully from one place to another in a given time period. Network throughput is typically measured in bits per second (), as in megabits per second () or gigabits per second ().

### How do you calculate throughput in performance testing?

‘Throughput is calculated as requests/unit of time. The time is calculated from the start of the first sample to the end of the last sample. This includes any intervals between samples, as it is supposed to represent the load on the server. The formula is: Throughput = (number of requests) / (total time).’

## How many types of throughput are there?

Maximum throughput – Users of telecommunications devices, systems designers, and researchers into communication theory are often interested in knowing the expected performance of a system. From a user perspective, this is often phrased as either “which device will get my data there most effectively for my needs?”, or “which device will deliver the most data per unit cost?”.

- Systems designers are often interested in selecting the most effective architecture or design constraints for a system, which drive its final performance.
- In most cases, the benchmark of what a system is capable of, or its “maximum performance” is what the user or designer is interested in.
- The term maximum throughput is frequently used when discussing end-user maximum throughput tests.

Maximum throughput is essentially synonymous to digital bandwidth capacity, Four different values are relevant in the context of “maximum throughput”, used in comparing the ‘upper limit’ conceptual performance of multiple systems. They are ‘maximum theoretical throughput’, ‘maximum achievable throughput’, and ‘peak measured throughput’ and ‘maximum sustained throughput’.

- These values represent different quantities, and care must be taken that the same definitions are used when comparing different ‘maximum throughput’ values.
- Each bit must carry the same amount of information if throughput values are to be compared.
- Data compression can significantly alter throughput calculations, including generating values exceeding 100% in some cases.

If the communication is mediated by several links in series with different bit rates, the maximum throughput of the overall link is lower than or equal to the lowest bit rate. The lowest value link in the series is referred to as the bottleneck,

### Why is throughput calculated?

Throughput rate calculations can help a business determine the rate at which deliverables reach consumers. Sometimes referred to as flow rate, this information can help a business make knowledgeable decisions about the production process from investment to production to revenue.

### What is the formula for calculating throughput costing?

Limiting factor analysis and throughput accounting – Once an organisation has identified its bottleneck resource, as demonstrated in Step 1 above, it then has to decide how to get the most out of that resource. Given that most businesses are producing more than one type of product (or supplying more than one type of service), this means that part of the exploitation step involves working out what the optimum production plan is, based on maximising throughput per unit of bottleneck resource.

- In key factor analysis, the contribution per unit is first calculated for each product, then a contribution per unit of scarce resource is calculated by working out how much of the scarce resource each unit requires in its production.
- In a throughput accounting context, a very similar calculation is performed, but this time it is not contribution per unit of scarce resource which is calculated, but throughput return per unit of bottleneck resource.

Throughput is calculated as ‘selling price less direct material cost.’ This is different from the calculation of ‘contribution’, in which both labour costs and variable overheads are also deducted from selling price. It is an important distinction because the fundamental belief in throughput accounting is that all costs except direct materials costs are largely fixed – therefore, to work on the basis of maximising contribution is flawed because to do so is to take into account costs that cannot be controlled in the short term anyway.

One cannot help but agree with this belief really since, in most businesses, it is simply not possible, for example, to hire workers on a daily basis and lay workers off if they are not busy. A workforce has to be employed within the business and available for work if there is work to do. You cannot refuse to pay a worker if he is forced to sit idle by a machine for a while.

Example 1 Beta Co produces 3 products, E, F and G all in the same factory, details of which are shown below:

- There are 320,000 bottleneck hours available each month.
- Required: Calculate the optimum product mix each month.
- Solution: A few simple steps can be followed:

- Calculate the throughput per unit for each product.
- Calculate the throughput return per hour of bottleneck resource.
- Rank the products in order of the priority in which they should be produced, starting with the product that generates the highest return per hour first.
- Calculate the optimum production plan, allocating the bottleneck resource to each one in order, being sure not to exceed the maximum demand for any of the products.

It is worth noting here that you often see another step carried out between Steps 2 and 3 above. This is the calculation of the throughput accounting ratio for each product. Thus far, ratios have not been discussed, and while I am planning on mentioning them later, I have never seen the point of inserting this extra step in when working out the optimum production plan for products all made in the same factory. It is worth noting that, before the time taken on the bottleneck resource was taken into account, product E appeared to be the most profitable because it generated the highest throughput per unit. However, applying the theory of constraints, the system’s bottleneck must be exploited by using it to produce the products that maximise throughput per hour first (Step 2 of the five focusing steps).

- This means that product G should be produced in priority to E.
- In practice, Step 3 will be followed by making sure that the optimum production plan is adhered to throughout the whole system, with no machine making more units than can be absorbed by the bottleneck, and sticking to the priorities decided.

When answering a question like this in an exam it is useful to draw up a small table, like the one shown below. This means that the marker can follow your logic and award all possible marks, even if you have made an error along the way. Each time you allocate time on the bottleneck resource to a product, you have to ask yourself how many hours you still have available. In this example, there were enough hours to produce the full quota for G and E. However, when you got to F, you could see that out of the 320,000 hours available, 270,000 had been used up (120,000 + 150,000), leaving only 50,000 hours spare.

- Therefore, the number of units of F that could be produced was a balancing figure – 50,000 hours divided by the four hours each unit requires – ie 12,500 units.
- The above example concentrates on Steps 2 and 3 of the five focusing steps.
- I now want to look at an example of the application of Steps 4 and 5.

I have kept it simple by assuming that the organisation only makes one product, as it is the principle that is important here, rather than the numbers. The example also demonstrates once again how to identify the bottleneck resource (Step 1) and then shows how a bottleneck may be elevated, but will then be replaced by another. The demand for the product is 1,000 units per week. For every additional unit sold per week, net present value increases by $50,000. Cat Co is considering the following possible purchases (they are not mutually exclusive): Purchase 1: Replace machine X with a newer model.

This will increase capacity to 1,100 units per week and costs $6m. Purchase 2: Invest in a second machine Y, increasing capacity by 550 units per week. The cost of this machine would be $6.8m. Purchase 3: Upgrade machine Z at a cost of $7.5m, thereby increasing capacity to 1,050 units. Required: Which is Cat Co’s best course of action? Solution: First, it is necessary to identify the system’s bottleneck resource.

Clearly, this is machine Z, which only has the capacity to produce 500 units per week. Purchase 3 is therefore the starting point when considering the logical choices that face Cat Co. It would never be logical to consider either Purchase 1 or 2 in isolation because of the fact that neither machines X nor machine Y is the starting bottleneck. From the table above, it can be seen that once a bottleneck is elevated, it is then replaced by another bottleneck until ultimately market demand constrains production. At this point, it would be necessary to look beyond production and consider how to increase market demand by, for example, increasing advertising of the product. The company should therefore invest in all three machines if it has enough cash to do so. The example of Cat Co demonstrates the fact that, as one bottleneck is elevated, another one appears. It also shows that elevating a bottleneck is not always financially viable.

## What is Little’s formula for calculating average lead time?

Process lead time calculation using Little’s Law –

- The process lead time equation is analogous to Little’s Law, but uses manufacturing terminology. With a little algebra, you end up with the following equation:
- PLT = WIP / ER
- Process lead time (PLT) is equivalent to the work in process (WIP) divided by the exit rate (ER).
- For example, if you have 20 widgets in process and they exit the line at 2 every minute, then you have a process lead time of 10 minutes.

### What is Littles formula prove it?

We consider here a famous and very useful law in queueing theory called Little’s Law, also known as l = λw, which asserts that the time average number of customers in a queueing system, l, is equal to the rate at which customers arrive and enter the system, λ, × the average sojourn time of a customer, w.

#### What identifies the maximum throughput of a process?

Process Performance Measures – Operations managers are interested in process aspects such as cost, quality, flexibility, and speed. Some of the process performance measures that communicate these aspects include:

Process capacity – The capacity of the process is its maximum output rate, measured in units produced per unit of time. The capacity of a series of tasks is determined by the lowest capacity task in the string. The capacity of parallel strings of tasks is the sum of the capacities of the two strings, except for cases in which the two strings have different outputs that are combined. In such cases, the capacity of the two parallel strings of tasks is that of the lowest capacity parallel string. Capacity utilization – the percentage of the process capacity that actually is being used. Throughput rate (also known as flow rate ) – the average rate at which units flow past a specific point in the process. The maximum throughput rate is the process capacity. Flow time (also known as throughput time or lead time ) – the average time that a unit requires to flow through the process from the entry point to the exit point. The flow time is the length of the longest path through the process. Flow time includes both processing time and any time the unit spends between steps. Cycle time – the time between successive units as they are output from the process. Cycle time for the process is equal to the inverse of the throughput rate. Cycle time can be thought of as the time required for a task to repeat itself. Each series task in a process must have a cycle time less than or equal to the cycle time for the process. Put another way, the cycle time of the process is equal to the longest task cycle time. The process is said to be in balance if the cycle times are equal for each activity in the process. Such balance rarely is achieved. Process time – the average time that a unit is worked on. Process time is flow time less idle time. Idle time – time when no activity is being performed, for example, when an activity is waiting for work to arrive from the previous activity. The term can be used to describe both machine idle time and worker idle time. Work In process – the amount of inventory in the process. Set-up time – the time required to prepare the equipment to perform an activity on a batch of units. Set-up time usually does not depend strongly on the batch size and therefore can be reduced on a per unit basis by increasing the batch size. Direct labor content – the amount of labor (in units of time) actually contained in the product. Excludes idle time when workers are not working directly on the product. Also excludes time spent maintaining machines, transporting materials, etc. Direct labor utilization – the fraction of labor capacity that actually is utilized as direct labor.

### What are the conditions for Little’s law to hold?

Customers in the store – Imagine a small store with a single counter and an area for browsing, where only one person can be at the counter at a time, and no one leaves without buying something. So the system is roughly: entrance → browsing → counter → exit If the rate at which people enter the store (called the arrival rate) is the rate at which they exit (called the exit rate), the system is stable. Assume customers arrive at the rate of 10 per hour and stay an average of 0.5 hour. This means we should find the average number of customers in the store at any time to be 5. Now suppose the store is considering doing more advertising to raise the arrival rate to 20 per hour. The store must either be prepared to host an average of 10 occupants or must reduce the time each customer spends in the store to 0.25 hour. The store might achieve the latter by ringing up the bill faster or by adding more counters. We can even apply Little’s Law to the counter itself. The average number of people at the counter would be in the range (0, 1) since no more than one person can be at the counter at a time. In that case, the average number of people at the counter is also known as the utilisation of the counter.

- However, because a store in reality generally has a limited amount of space, it can eventually become unstable.
- If the arrival rate is much greater than the exit rate, the store will eventually start to overflow, and thus any new arriving customers will simply be rejected (and forced to go somewhere else or try again later) until there is once again free space available in the store.

This is also the difference between the arrival rate and the effective arrival rate, where the arrival rate roughly corresponds to the rate at which customers arrive at the store, whereas the effective arrival rate corresponds to the rate at which customers enter the store.

### What does Little’s law say about a stable system?

Little’s Law – Scrum & Kanban What is Little’s Law? If you have a stable system (e.g. one-in-one-out), then the average number of customers you have within that system is equal to the average rate of customer arrivals multiplied by the average time a customer spends in the system.

- That was the law proposed by John Little in the mid-1900s.
- This is commonly expressed as L = λW (where “L” is the average number of customers, “λ” is average arrival rate and “W” is the average time in the system).
- Popular in queueing theory, the law proves that when you increase the number of customers in the system, and keep the arrival rate constant, the average time in the system increases.

In short, increasing the number of customers means that it takes longer for each one to be served.

- Maybe you remember from school, that you can rework L = λW to show that λ = L / W and W = L / λ
- Why do we care?
- We slightly redefine the terms as follows:

- average number of customers becomes average items of work in progress (WIP)
- average arrival rate becomes average delivery rate (DR) – we can change this because arrival and departure time will be the same in a stable one-in-one-out system
- average time in the system, the average time it takes to go from start to finish, is known to us as lead time (LT)

- For us, Little’s Law tells us that WIP = DR x LT (which can also be expressed as DR = WIP / LT and LT = WIP / DR).
- We can then use Little’s Law to prove that increasing the average amount of work in progress (WIP) has the effect of increasing the average time it takes for each work item to be completed (Lead Time).
- For example:
- We have an average of 6 work items in progress, an average delivery rate of 2 items per day, and an average lead time of 3 days.

If you remember your childhood lessons on refactoring algebra, this can also be expressed as: Using this refactored equation, we can see what happens to lead time if we increase WIP to 12:

- LT = WIP / DR
- LT = 12 / 2
- LT = 6

- Lead time increases from 3 days to 6 days.
- But doesn’t this also prove that increasing WIP can increase Delivery Rate?
- If we take our initial example, increase WIP to 12 but keep lead time as 3 days, then we get:

- DR = WIP / LT
- DR = 12 / 3
- DR = 4

By increasing WIP, we have also increased delivery rate! Isn’t this a good thing? Although that might be true from an algebraic perspective, it’s not what usually happens. If I doubled your workload, you’re unlikely to suddenly become twice as productive and complete it in the same time; you will just take twice as long to complete twice as much work, delivering at about the same rate as before*.

- OUT NOW!
- The Innovation Revelation: A story about how to satisfy customer needs.
- A real-world guide to taking a customer-focused approach to creating products and services that people actually want and are happy to pay for.

You have already completed the quiz before. Hence you can not start it again. You must sign in or sign up to start the quiz. You have to finish following quiz, to start this quiz:

- Incorrect
- Oops, you’ve got your calculation wrong.
- L = λW is actually saying:
- WIP (L) = Throughput Rate (λ) x Lead Time (W)
- So you need to shuffle the formula around to calculate Throughput Rate:
- Throughput Rate (λ) = Work In Progress (L) / Lead Time (W)
- Throughput Rate = 6 / 8 = 0.75

- Incorrect
- Oops, you’ve got your calculation wrong.
- L = λW is actually saying:
- WIP (L) = Throughput Rate (λ) x Lead Time (W)
- So you need to shuffle the formula around to calculate Throughput Rate:
- Throughput Rate (λ) = Work In Progress (L) / Lead Time (W)

Throughput Rate = 5.5 / 10 = 0.55

- Incorrect
- Oops, you’ve got your calculation wrong.
- L = λW is actually saying:
- WIP (L) = Throughput Rate (λ) x Lead Time (W)
- So, this question:
- Work In Progress = 1.5 x 4 = 6

- Incorrect
- Oops, you’ve got your calculation wrong.
- L = λW is actually saying:
- WIP (L) = Throughput Rate (λ) x Lead Time (W)
- So, this question:
- Work In Progress = 0.625 x 16 = 10

- Incorrect
- Oops, you’ve got your calculation wrong.
- L = λW is actually saying:
- WIP (L) = Throughput Rate (λ) x Lead Time (W)
- So you need to shuffle the formula around to calculate Lead Time:
- Lead Time (W) = Work In Progress (L) / Throughput Rate (λ)
- So, this question:

Lead Time = 4 / 0.33333 = 12.00012

- Incorrect
- Oops, you’ve got your calculation wrong.
- L = λW is actually saying:
- WIP (L) = Throughput Rate (λ) x Lead Time (W)
- So you need to shuffle the formula around to calculate Lead Time:
- Lead Time (W) = Work In Progress (L) / Throughput Rate (λ)
- So, this question:
- Lead Time = 7 / 0.7 = 10

- Incorrect
- Oops, you’ve got your calculation wrong.
- L = λW is actually saying:
- WIP (L) = Throughput Rate (λ) x Lead Time (W)
- So you need to shuffle the formula around to calculate Throughput Rate:
- Throughput Rate (λ) = Work In Progress (L) / Lead Time (W)
- Therefore, our 2 options are calculated as follows: Throughput Rate A = 10 / 16 = 0.625
- Throughput Rate B = 3 / 5 = 0.6

: Little’s Law – Scrum & Kanban

#### Why is it called Little’s law?

What is Little’s Law? – Little’s Law is named after a professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management, Dr. John Little. The law aimed to provide a simple approach for the assessment of the efficiency of queuing systems. It’s become a hugely significant concept for businesses and their operations.

This is because it states that the number of items in a queuing system depends on two key factors that are not affected by other factors. Almost any queuing system can be assessed using Little’s Law. It can also be applied in a number of different fields. When it was first published in 1954, there was no proof of the theorem.

But in 1961, Little finally managed to publish proof that there is no queuing situation where the relationship he described does not hold.