According To Newton’S First Law Of Motion, What Will Happen To A Soccer Ball That Is Kicked?
- Marvin Harvey
To paraphrase Sir Isaac Newton, a soccer ball on the grass will stay where it is unless acted on by a force. Similarly, once you kick the ball, it will remain in motion unless acted on by force. This, in so many words, is known as Newton’s First Law of Motion.
How does Newton’s first law relate to kicking a soccer ball?
Laws of Motion – Newton’s First Law According to Newton’s First Law of Motion, a soccer ball will stay at rest unless a force of some sort moves it, and it will stay in motion unless a different force stops it. The force that usually moves the soccer ball is the player’s kick.
What law of motion is kicking a soccer ball?When a soccer ball is kicked the resulting motion of the ball is determined by Newton’s laws of motion, From Newton’s first law, we know that the moving ball will stay in motion in a straight line unless acted on by external forces. A force may be thought of as a push or pull in a specific direction; a force is a vector quantity,
- If the initial velocity and direction are known, and we can determine the magnitude and direction of all the forces on the ball, then we can predict the flight path using Newton’s laws.
- This slide shows the three forces that act on a soccer ball in flight.
- The forces are shown in blue and include the weight, drag, and lift or side force,
Lift and drag are actually two components of a single aerodynamic force acting on the ball. In the figure, the ball is moving from the upper right to the lower left (in perspective), as indicated by the red arrow. Drag acts in a direction opposite to the motion, while lift acts perpendicular to the motion.
Let’s consider each of these forces separately. Weight Weight is a force that is always directed toward the center of the earth. In general, the magnitude of the weight depends on the mass of an object as determined by Newton’s law of gravitation. By rule, the weight of a major league soccer ball is one pound.
A soccer ball is hollow and inflated with high pressure air, so the weight is distributed around the outside of the ball. But we can often think of the weight as collected and acting through a single point called the center of gravity. The center of gravity is the average location of the weight of an object.
- To first order, the center of gravity for a soccer ball is located at the exact center of the ball.
- In flight, the ball rotates about the center of gravity,
- Newton’s laws of motion describe the translation of the center of gravity.
- Drag As the ball moves through the air, the air resists the motion of the ball and the resistance force is called drag,
Drag is directed along and opposed to the flight direction. In general, there are many factors that affect the magnitude of the drag force including the shape and size of the object, the square of the velocity of the object, and conditions of the air; particularly, the density and viscosity of the air.
Determining the magnitude of the drag force is difficult because it depends on the details of how the flow interacts with the surface of the object. For a soccer ball, this is particularly difficult because stitches are used to hold the ball together. So the surface of the ball is not smooth. During the recent World Cup, 2010, grooves were added to the surface of the ball in an attempt to make the surface more uniform.
To determine the magnitude of the drag, aerodynamicists normally use a wind tunnel to measure the drag on a model. For a soccer ball, the drag can be determined experimentally by throwing the ball at a measured speed and accurately measuring the change in velocity as the ball passes between two points of known distance.
Lift Lift is the component of the aerodynamic force that is perpendicular to the flight direction. Airplane wings generate lift to overcome the weight of the airplane and allow the airplane to fly. A rotating cylinder and a spinning ball also generate aerodynamic lift. Like the drag, the magnitude of the lift depends on several factors related to the conditions of the air and the object, and the velocity between the object and the air.
For a spinning ball, the speed of rotation affects the magnitude of the aerodynamic force. The direction of the force is perpendicular to the axis of rotation as noted on the figure. The orientation of the axis of rotation can be varied depending on how the ball is kicked.
If the axis is vertical, the lift force is horizontal and the ball can be made to curve to one side. In soccer this is called “bending” the kick. If the axis is horizontal, the lift force is vertical and the ball can be made to dive or loft depending on the direction of rotation. The surface roughness of a soccer ball introduce some additional complexity in the determination of lift and drag.
For any object, the aerodynamic force acts through the center of pressure, The center of pressure is the average location of the aerodynamic forces on an object. For an ideal, smooth ball, symmetry considerations place the the center of pressure at the center of the ball along with the center of gravity.
- But a soccer ball in flight is neither smooth nor symmetric because of the stitches.
- So the center of pressure for a soccer ball moves slightly about the center of the ball with time, depending on the orientation of the stitches.
- The time-varying aerodynamic force causes the ball to move erratically.
- This motion is also the source of the “dancing” knuckleball in major league baseball that confuses both batters and catchers alike.
To account for the complexities when making predictions of the lift, aerodynamicists make an ideal prediction using theory, and then correct the prediction using experimental data. The lift coefficient – Cl for the soccer ball was determined by high speed photography of the flight of a thrown ball. Navigation, NASA Soccer Home Page Beginner’s Guide Home Page
What Newton’s law is a soccer ball will not move until it is kicked?
Newton’s First Law. Again, the first law of motion states that an object at rest will remain at rest, and an object that is moving at a constant velocity will continue moving at a constant velocity unless acted upon by unbalanced force.
What are the resulting action and reaction forces when you kick a soccer ball?
Answer and Explanation: In kicking a football, the action force is the force applied by the foot on the ball. The reaction force, on the other hand, is the force exerted by the ball on the foot. Neither of the forces is greater because the magnitude of the action force is equal to the magnitude of the reaction force.
How does Newton’s 3 laws apply to soccer?
Newton’s Third Law Of motion Newtons third law states that ‘for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.’ In soccer, when you kick the soccer ball you will feel the force of the kick back into your leg. You wont feel the force as much because your legs have more mass than the soccer ball.
Is kicking a soccer ball an example of inertia?
Overcoming Inertia Until the soccer player kicks the ball in Figure below, the ball remains motionless on the ground. However, when the ball is kicked, the force on it is suddenly unbalanced. The ball starts moving across the field because its inertia has been overcome.
What happen when you kick a ball?
What Happens When You Kick a Ball? –
- WATCH VIDEO
- Teachable Topics:
- Conservation of Energy
- Newton’s Laws
Theory: The collision of a rugby ball and a foot is elastic, meaning the kinetic energy of the swinging foot will be conserved to some extent (but not fully). Before the kinetic energy of the foot translates into the kinetic energy of the ball, there is some compression, meaning the energy first translates to elastic potential energy.
- The reason why this energy exists in the compression of the ball has to do with a couple things.
- Firstly, the balls used in this demo are filled with air.
- When the balls are kicked, the air is compressed.
- This compressed air pushes out on the ball, resulting in the motion of the ball and the return to it’s regular state.
Also, there is the elasticity of the material the ball is made of. How elastic it is defines how well it returns to it’s original shape after it is struck or put under stress. If it is more resistant to stress, then it will be more resistant to the compression and more of the energy will be conserved.
- In the end, the less compression there is, the higher the amount of energy conserved will be.
- Think about bouncing a flat ball versus bouncing an inflated ball.
- There is more air in the inflated ball, which can’t be compressed as much as the flat ball.
- With less compression, there is more energy being conserved.
- various balls (i.e. soccer ball, rugby ball, basketball, etc.)
- high-speed camera
Kick the balls and observe the compression.
: What Happens When You Kick a Ball? – Saint Mary’s Physics Demos
How is law of inertia used in soccer?
How does Newton’s first Law apply to soccer? Answer Verified Hint: Newton’s first law is based on the Inertia(inability to move or change its state) of the motion of an object. Soccer ball is a body at rest and does not move(because of inertia of rest) unless a force is applied on it.Using the definition and concept behind Newton’s Law of motion we will apply the Law to the Soccer ball.
Complete step by step answer: Note: Newton’s Second law states that the rate of change of acceleration is equal to the momentum of the body, such as when the rocket is propelled to be launched to go into the space (acceleration is changed to have momentum) and the Newton’s third law states that, every action has an equal and opposite reaction such as while pulling the cart horse pushes the road back in order to get a forward force to pull the cart.
Let’s discuss Newton’s law in more detail and then we will apply the law to Soccer balls.Newton’s first law states that; A body will remain in its state of rest or of motion until an external force acts on the body. The body will have inertia of motion or inertia of rest unless an external force is applied on it to change its state of inertia(state or rest).Soccer ball remains in its state of rest, when the ball is kicked it starts moving because when we have kicked the ball; the force is applied on it and the inertia of state of rest has changed to inertia of motion after application of force.
Which force causes a soccer ball to take a curved path when it is kicked?One of the most exciting plays in the game of soccer is a free kick. Players are often able to curve the flight of the ball into the net by imparting a spin to the ball. Soccer players call this effect “bending” and it is caused by aerodynamic forces on the ball.
- All that is necessary to create lift is to turn a flow of air.
- The airfoil of a wing turns a flow, but so does a spinning ball.
- The details of how the force is generated are fairly complex, but the magnitude of the force F depends on the radius of the ball b, the spin of the ball s, the velocity V of the kick, the density r of the air, and an experimentally determined lift coefficient Cl,
F = Cl * 4 /3 * (4 * pi^2 * r * s * V * b^3) where pi is the number 3.14159, the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle. As the force acts on the ball, it is deflected along its flight path. If we neglect the viscous forces on the ball, which slow it down and change the magnitude and direction of the force, we have a constant force always acting perpendicular (at a right angle) to the flow direction.
- The resulting flight path is a circular arc.
- On the figure, we see the trajectory of the soccer ball as it moves from right to left.
- The radius of curvature R of the flight path depends on the velocity V of the kick and the acceleration a produced by the side force.
- R = V^2 / a We can determine this acceleration from Newton’s second law of motion using the force for a spinning ball and the mass m of the ball.
a = F / m Since the radius of curvature depends on the force, all the factors that affect the force will also affect the trajectory. Collecting all the information into one equation: R = (3 * m * V) / (16 * Cl * r * s * b^3 * pi^2) We can use this equation to make some predictions about the trajectory of a spinning ball.
- Higher spin s produces a smaller radius of curvature R and a sharper curve.
- Higher velocity V produces a larger radius of curvarture and a straighter curve.
- A ball with a smaller mass, like a ping-pong ball, has a lower radius of curvature and curves more.
- At higher altitudes, the density r is lower producing a larger radius of curvature and a straighter path.
The altitude effect helps to explain some of the complaints at the recent World Cup, 2010. The games were played at 10 different stadiums, some at sea level and some high in the mountains. It is much harder to bend a kick at high altitude. Knowing the radius of curvature and the distance of the kick D we can also calculate the distance that the ball is deflected (Yd) along the flight path.
- There is a right triangle formed by the radius of curvature R, the distance D at the top, and the radius of curvature minus the deflection distance R – Yd on the right.
- We can then use the Pythagorean Theorem to relate the sides of this triangle: R^2 = D^2 + (R – Yd)^2 Now let’s do a little algebra: R^2 – D^2 = (R -Yd)^2 sqrt(R^2 – D^2) = R -Yd Yd = R – sqrt(R^2 – D^2) You can investigate the effect of aerodynamics on kicking a soccer ball by using the SoccerNASA Java Applet.
Have fun ! You can use the browser “Back” button to return to this page. If you want your own copy of SoccerNASA to play with, you can download it for free. Activities: Guided Tours Navigation, NASA Soccer Home Page Beginner’s Guide Home Page
What force causes a kicked ball to slow or come to a stop?
It was usually friction that made moving objects slow down and eventually come to a stop. To keep an object moving, a force had to be applied to overcome the effects of friction. If friction could be removed, an object in motion would continue to move in a straight line with constant speed.
What forces are involved in soccer?
KICKING THE SOCCER BALL Kicking the soccer ball is one of the most important parts of soccer. You have to have the right angle and you also have to make sure you hit the ball with the right part of your foot. Not only do you need to make sure you kick the ball with the right part of your foot, but you also need to make sure you kick the ball with the correct amount of force.
When you kick the soccer ball there are several things happening to the ball. First the ball has to over come air resistance to start moving. It then has to over come the static friction as well and once it finally rolls on the ground it experiences rolling friction. When you kick the ball and it soars through the air, this is when it is experiencing air resistance.
It eventually overcomes the air resistance and the gravity then starts to put an unbalanced force onto the ball, then bringing it back to the ground. Along with forces on the ball, there are also forces acting on the player when they kick the ball. The leg that the player swings back to kick, experiences air resistance.
- Their other leg that is planted on the ground, has friction to help them stand in that place.
- When the player kicks the ball they have to make sure they are kicking the ball with the correct part of their foot.
- They also have to put forth the right amount of force to apply to the ball to get it where it needs to be.
HEADING THE BALL Heading a soccer ball during a game can definitely come in handy, but you need to know where to hit the ball or it does you no good. The forces acting on the ball are air resistance, gravity, and its own weight. When the ball is coming at you it has air resistance, and when the you hit the ball and it is leaving your head it does as well.
- The ball has gravity acting on it when it comes down to meet your head.
- The forces acting on the player is friction, gravity, and air resistance.
- The player will sometimes jump up to get a header.
- When the player jumps, he/she has to overcome air resistance to jump up into the air.
- Then gravity pulls them back down to the earth.
The friction between the cleats and the ground helps the player land. JUGGLING THE BALL Juggling the soccer ball is really good for a soccer player. It helps you become more coordinated with the ball. This can also help you control a ball that is coming toward you in the air, not on the ground.
Juggling is an ideal example of an unbalanced force. I say that because as you are juggling the ball, (no matter where you hit it off of) gravity is wanting to pull it to the ground, while you are trying to keep it from falling. Because of this, the forces acting on the ball are air resistance and gravity.
Some forces acting on the player when juggling are friction, air resistance, and gravity. While juggling, cleats come in handy cause you need the friction to stay on the ground. When the player has to lift up their leg they encounter air resistance and gravity and overcomes that.
- Collisions With Players Soccer is a game full of collisions between you and your opponent.
- You literally use all of the force you can to get the ball away from your opponent without getting called for a foul.
- Although most players try to stay away from fouls, they do get called because some collisions can end up bad for everyone in it or just on player.
Forces acting in collisions are gravity, friction, and impulse. In certain collisions players do go to the ground which is an act of gravity or impulse. Impulse is the strong but short-lived force that two colliding bodies exert on each other.
How do you does the force of which a soccer ball is kicked affect the distance it travels?
Soccer Science Fair Project: Air Pressure & Distance Objectives To determine whether the amount of air in a soccer ball will affect how far it goes when kicked.
- Soccer ball
- Ball pump
- Ball pressure gauge
- Tape measure meter or yardstick
- Inflation needle
- Glycerin oil
- Roll of gym floor tape
- Graph paper
- Data chart
This soccer science fair project serves to acquaint students with basic information on how the amount of air in a soccer ball can affect the distance it travels when kicked with a consistent force. The greater the air pressure in the ball, the farther it will travel when a force is applied.
- In the process of conducting the research, the student will learn that atmospheric pressure may also affect how far the ball will travel.
- The student will learn about the relationship between air pressure and friction: the lower the friction, the farther the ball will go.
- The student will learn about concepts like air pressure, gravitational force, compression and expansion of air molecules, potential energy and kinetic energy.
This science fair experiment also serves to acquaint students with the essential processes of scientific inquiry such as using a control, of identifying dependent and independent variables, collecting data, presenting data, and making good judgments about the validity and reliability of their findings.
- air pressure
- compression of air molecules
- expansion of air molecules
- gravitational force
- kinetic energy
- pressure gauge
- air pump
- How do we measure air pressure?
- How much air pressure is there at sea level?
- How is air pressure inside the ball related to the distance the ball will travel?
- What happens to the air pressure inside the ball when it is kicked?
- Will the atmospheric pressure affect the distance the ball will travel?
- Does friction affect the distance the ball will travel?
Terms, Concepts and Questions to Start Background Research:
- What is a control? A control is the variable that is not changed in the experiment.
- What purpose does a control serve? It is used to determine what the variable changed.
- What are variables? Variables are factors that can be changed in an experiment.
- What is an independent variable? The independent variable is the one that is changed in the experiment.
- What is a dependent variable? The dependent variable is the one that changes as a result of the change in the independent variable.
- State the problem you are going to investigate in this science fair project.
- Create and reproduce the data sheets you will use to record your observations.
- Gather all your materials.
- Select a helper (another student or a parent) to assist you in gathering the data.
- Use the gym floor tape and mark the path along which you will kick the ball.
- Select three air pressure levels for the ball, designating them as low, medium and high. Using the pressure gauge, double check the pressure in the soccer ball each time you change the pressure. Caution: When kicking the ball, try to kick with the same force each time. Have your partner mark the spot where the ball lands each time. Then, measure the distance and record the data in your chart. Repeat the procedure 3 times at each pressure level and then average and record the results for each level.
- Make a line graph of the data, recording differences in pressure on the Y axis and the distance travelled on the X axis.
- Record your conclusion and prepare your report. Include all of the following: a clear statement of the problem, your hypothesis, and a list of the materials used. Include any safety precautions taken. Describe the procedures used. Include all the data that were gathered, including all charts and graphs. For dramatic value, you may include photos of the materials used or of you in the process of conducting this investigation. Include a bibliography of sources you used. You may wish to assess what you did and describe what you would do differently if you were to do this project again. You may wish to expand this research next year. What other experiments might you use to investigate the physics of a soccer ball?
In each section of the experiment, use charts to display the obtained data such the following sample:
How much force is in a soccer kick?
How Much Force is an Average Kick? – An average kick for an adult delivers around 1,000 pounds of force. Experts in martial arts are able to deliver as much as a ton of force, but this is the result of years of training and specifically utilized skills.
The amount of force that is needed to deliver a kick in a sports setting is not as much as this and even 1,000 pounds of force can be quite effective for many sporting needs. Professional soccer players can kick the ball hard enough to send it 30 meters per second, which amounts to about 1,200 pounds of force.
A youth player will be able to deliver a speed of 14.9 meters per second which amounts to about 600 pounds of force.