Frederick Law Olmsted Conceived Of Which Common Architectural Concept?
- Marvin Harvey
Father of Landscape Architecture Frederick Law Olmsted (1822-1903) is best known for his design, in collaboration with Calvert Vaux, of Central Park in New York City. He has been widely credited with establishing the concept of the public park as a common green space to be preserved and enhanced for everyone to enjoy.
Which of these is a basic principle of green architecture?
Energy Efficiency – The efficient use of energy is the most important element of green architecture, as using less energy reduces a building’s carbon emissions. Energy efficiency is achieved by using technology that requires less energy to perform the same task.
Which architectural work was the centerpiece for the 1889 Paris Exposition?
Overview – The Universal Exposition of 1889 (Exposition Universelle de 1889) was a highly successful international exhibition and one of the few world’s fairs to make a profit. Its central attraction was the Eiffel Tower, a 300-meter high marvel of iron by Gustave Eiffel.
Over eighty other structures on the Champ de Mars housed exhibits, including the impressive 1,452 foot long Galerie des Machines by Ferdinand Dutert. The fair attracted exhibits from Europe, South America, the United States, and the French colonies, yet in the final analysis it was a celebration of French achievements on the centennial of the French Revolution.
Photographs in the Prints and Photographs Division document many of the achievements in architecture, the fine arts, and new technology that the exposition was designed to highlight.
How did Gothic architects compensate for the lateral thrust of the cathedrals?
How did Gothic architects compensate for the lateral thrust of the cathedrals? With flying buttresses. Johnson and Burgee’s University of Houston, College of Architecture is said to be a postmodern building because it: Borrows from many different styles and time periods.
What architectural element was essential for creating larger interior spaces?
True arches can span greater distances than a simple post-and-lintel. The use of concrete, combined with the employment of true arches allowed for vaults and domes to be built, creating expansive and breathtaking interior spaces.
What are concepts in architecture?
An architectural concept is a thought, idea, or notion that serves as the foundation of a design project, as well as the engine that propels it forward. It becomes the power and identity of an architectural project’s development, and it is regularly consulted at all stages.
- The concept, as a result of all the readings and analysis by the architects, can be define as an idea, thought, abstraction, philosophy, belief, inspiration, intention, theory or hypothesis.
- Your concept should affect all aspects of the project, from its proportions to interior effects, from facade design to flooring materials.
Each components should be designed and created by a concept in architectural projects. Photo Source: Gallery of Saint-Michel Soccer Center / Côté Leahy Cardas Architects – 7 (archdaily.com) How can you generate your concept? Primarily, readings are one of the important studies for the process of the concept development. Readings which include site readings can give the architects various inspirations.
You may have many ideas and explore the problems, potentials and opportunities while you are reading on the projects site. Site reading means analysis and the understanding process of the site with its environment, culture, sociology and etc. The more you try, the more you find. Seeing the 2D and 3D versions of your ideas with scaled sketches and sketch models improves your concept.
Sketching is always generate your ideas. Do not afraid to sketch on your sketchbooks or making some 3D models as drafts. You may use any material for your sketch models, it is important to improve your ideas. Making your model in scaled is much more critical at this point. Photo Source: 10 Tips on how to Develop Design Concepts in Architecture – (re-thinkingthefuture.com) Try to understand the others! Before studying on a new project, you should make case studies to understand. Make a case study on projects that are similar to the site you will work on, the initial concepts that formed your first ideas, the programs that will take place in your building, and similar climate and geographical conditions. Photo Source: What is an Architectural Concept? – archisoup | Architecture Guides & Resources Book Suggestion: Le Corbusier, an analysis of form Curiosity is essential for creativity. Wonder what Le Corbusier had in mind when designing his building? What was Frank Gehry’s starting point and why? Asking these questions will help you to develop the concept. Photo Source: Pinterest Examining the surrounding buildings, being influenced by their materials, styles and proportions gives you new ideas. Examine everything to find and develop your concept, learn about people’s movements, their lives. Understand the physical conditions and what is done in these conditions, see hard and soft surfaces by making landscape analysis.
What is green architecture concept?
green architecture, philosophy of architecture that advocates sustainable energy sources, the conservation of energy, the reuse and safety of building materials, and the siting of a building with consideration of its impact on the environment, In the early 21st century the building of shelter (in all its forms) consumed more than half of the world’s resources—translating into 16 percent of the Earth’s freshwater resources, 30–40 percent of all energy supplies, and 50 percent by weight of all the raw materials withdrawn from Earth’s surface.
- Architecture was also responsible for 40–50 percent of waste deposits in landfills and 20–30 percent of greenhouse gas emissions.
- Many architects after the post-World War II building boom were content to erect emblematic civic and corporate icons that celebrated profligate consumption and omnivorous globalization,
At the turn of the 21st century, however, a building’s environmental integrity—as seen in the way it was designed and how it operated—became an important factor in how it was evaluated.
Who designed the architecture of Paris in the 19th century?
The man who created Paris In the 19th Century George-Eugène Haussmann completely redesigned and rebuilt the French capital. Jonathan Glancey describes how the city of today was born. P Paris remains one of the world’s most visited cities, and of those tens of millions drawn to its remarkably compact centre each year, the Marais district exerts a magnetic pull. Napoleon III and Haussmann had their sights on areas like the Marais, a jumble of streets and houses that is now a major draw for tourists (Credit: Alamy) Walking through these lively and endearing medieval streets, it seems almost incredible that they were once considered the enemy, to be demolished in haste – and not, it has to be added, by the German military, who had less than healthy designs on Paris at various times between 1870 and 1945.
- No, it was none other than the Emperor of France, Napoleon III, and his Prefect for the Seine, George-Eugène Haussmann – who died 125 years ago – who had districts like the Marais in their sights.
- Like much of Paris, however, the Marais stank to high heaven in 1853 when the emperor instructed Haussmann to rebuild the odorous city along grand and salubrious lines.
Entire medieval quarters of the city were to be razed with modern avenues taking their place. “It was the gutting of Paris,” wrote Haussmann proudly in his Memoires, Demolition man A public administrator with no training in architecture or urban planning, Haussmann turned Paris into a titanic building site for 20 years. Haussmann engineered grand squares, a sewage system and city parks like the Bois de Boulogne (Credit: Age fotostock / Alamy Stock Photo) Conceived and executed in three phases, the plan involved the demolition of 19,730 historic buildings and the construction of 34,000 new ones.
- Old streets gave way to long, wide avenues characterised by rows of regularly aligned and generously proportioned neo-classical apartment blocks faced in creamy stone.
- Along with imperious avenues, Haussmann engineered grand squares, city parks modelled on London’s Hyde Park, a comprehensive sewage system, a new aqueduct giving wide access to fresh water, a network of underground gas pipes for lighting streets and buildings, elaborate fountains, grandiloquent public lavatories and rows of newly planted trees.
This urban infrastructure was matched by bold new railway stations – Gare du Nord and Gare de L’Est – the opulent Paris Opéra, new schools, churches, two dozen city squares, a brace of ambitious theatres at Place du Châtelet, the giant, iron-framed Les Halles food market, (Èmile Zola’s “Belly of Paris”), and the sensational network of a dozen avenues radiating from the Arc de Triomphe at the core of Haussmann’s Place de l’Ètoile. A dozen avenues radiate from the Arc de Triomphe at the core of Haussmann’s Place de l’Ètoile – renamed Place Charles de Gaulle (Credit: Alamy) Since renamed Place Charles de Gaulle, l’Ètoile is every foreign driver’s nightmare experience: well, you try heading into fast and furious traffic coming at you from 12 directions simultaneously while attempting to negotiate, or fight, your way around Napoleon Bonaparte’s monumental victory arch.
- Rip it up and start again No other major city, before or since, has been transformed so radically during peacetime.
- It employed huge numbers of skilled and unskilled workers along with architects, engineers and landscape gardeners.
- It restored the city to health after long decades of cholera and typhus.
It gave Parisians of all classes parks to play and relax in. Theoretically, its broad avenues allowed government troops free movement to maintain public order at times of barricades, riots and other disturbances. And, at a time when the city doubled in size and its population trebled, it gave Paris a sense of unity together with an air of bourgeois prosperity.
- What still seems astonishing is that so much of the city was demolished and reordered on what seems like the whim of an emperor and his Prefect of the Seine, Haussmann.
- Napoleon III, however, was following in the footsteps of his uncle, Napoleon Bonaparte, who had equally grand designs on Paris.
- If only the heavens had given me twenty more years of rule and a little leisure”, he wrote in exile on Saint Helena after the Battle of Waterloo, “one would search vainly for the old Paris; nothing of it would remain but vestiges.” In 1925, the visionary Swiss-French architect, Le Corbusier, published his Plan Voisin for Paris, a project sponsored by Gabriel Voisin, the French aviation pioneer and luxury car maker.
Famously, Le Corbusier’s iconoclastic scheme envisaged the demolition of much of the city centre north of the Seine. This would be superseded by parkland sprouting a generously planted forest of high- rise concrete residential towers. Cars would speed across the city on elevated concrete roads free of pedestrians. Speaking perhaps of his transformation of the Île de la Cité, de Villefosse said “the old ship of Paris was torpedoed by Baron Haussmann and sunk during his reign” (Credit: Alamy) If Le Corbusier’s unrealised plan was considered too extreme, Haussmann’s before him was criticised, too.
The renowned statesman Jules Ferry (1832-93) wrote, “We weep with our eyes full of tears for the old Paris, the Paris of Voltaire the Paris of 1830 and 1848, when we see the grand and intolerable new buildings, the costly confusion, the triumphant vulgarity, the awful materialism that we are going to pass on to our descendants.” Or, as the 20th-Century historian René Héron de Villefosse put it, thinking in particular of Haussmann’s transformation of the Île de la Cité, “the old ship of Paris was torpedoed by Baron Haussmann and sunk during his reign.
It was perhaps the greatest crime of the megalomaniac prefect and also his biggest mistake His work caused more damage than a hundred bombings.” We’ll always have Paris When in 1944, as Allied forces marched to liberate the city and Adolf Hitler gave orders for the wholesale demolition of Paris, the German military governor Major General Dietrich von Choltitz refused to obey. Haussmann’s monumental plan remains impressive – his vision lives on in the typical building facades seen all over Paris (Credit: Hemis / Alamy Stock Photo) Although bombastic, Haussmann’s monumental plan remains impressive, not least because he achieved so much so quickly to such a high, uniform standard.
A public administrator by training, Haussmann was a commanding figure who, although a talented musician, was no sentimentalist. He even demolished the house he was born in – 55 rue de Faubourg-du-Roule – despite fond memories of childhood. Of his first meeting with Haussmann in 1853, Napoleon III noted, “I had in front of me one of the most extraordinary men of our time; big, strong, vigorous, energetic, and at the same time clever and devious, with a spirit full of resources.” The partnership between the ambitious French emperor and his vigorous prefect was a truly remarkable one.
Within a year of Haussmann’s dismissal for overspending, however, Napoleon III had fallen after France’s defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. Released from a newly unified Germany, he went into exile at Chiselhurst, Kent where he died in 1873. After his dismissal, Haussmann was elected Bonapartist deputy for Ajaccio, Corsica, birthplace of Napoleon Bonaparte.
What name was given to the style of architectural design popular in the 1890s?
Read a brief summary of this topic – Art Nouveau, ornamental style of art that flourished between about 1890 and 1910 throughout Europe and the United States, Art Nouveau is characterized by its use of a long, sinuous, organic line and was employed most often in architecture, interior design, jewelry and glass design, posters, and illustration.
- It was a deliberate attempt to create a new style, free of the imitative historicism that dominated much of 19th-century art and design.
- About this time the term Art Nouveau was coined, in Belgium by the periodical L’Art Moderne to describe the work of the artist group Les Vingt and in Paris by S.
- Bing, who named his gallery L’Art Nouveau.
The style was called Jugendstil in Germany, Sezessionstil in Austria, Stile Floreale (or Stile Liberty) in Italy, and Modernismo (or Modernista) in Spain, In England the style’s immediate precursors were the Aestheticism of the illustrator Aubrey Beardsley, who depended heavily on the expressive quality of organic line, and the Arts and Crafts movement of William Morris, who established the importance of a vital style in the applied arts.
On the European continent, Art Nouveau was influenced by experiments with expressive line by the painters Paul Gauguin and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, The movement was also partly inspired by a vogue for the linear patterns of Japanese prints ( ukiyo-e ). The distinguishing ornamental characteristic of Art Nouveau is its undulating asymmetrical line, often taking the form of flower stalks and buds, vine tendrils, insect wings, and other delicate and sinuous natural objects; the line may be elegant and graceful or infused with a powerfully rhythmic and whiplike force.
In the graphic arts the line subordinates all other pictorial elements—form, texture, space, and colour—to its own decorative effect. In architecture and the other plastic arts, the whole of the three-dimensional form becomes engulfed in the organic, linear rhythm, creating a fusion between structure and ornament.
Architecture particularly shows this synthesis of ornament and structure; a liberal combination of materials—ironwork, glass, ceramic, and brickwork—was employed, for example, in the creation of unified interiors in which columns and beams became thick vines with spreading tendrils and windows became both openings for light and air and membranous outgrowths of the organic whole.
This approach was directly opposed to the traditional architectural values of reason and clarity of structure. There were a great number of artists and designers who worked in the Art Nouveau style. Some of the more prominent were the Scottish architect and designer Charles Rennie Mackintosh, who specialized in a predominantly geometric line and particularly influenced the Austrian Sezessionstil; the Belgian architects Henry van de Velde and Victor Horta, whose extremely sinuous and delicate structures influenced the French architect Hector Guimard, another important figure; the American glassmaker Louis Comfort Tiffany ; the French furniture and ironwork designer Louis Majorelle ; the Czechoslovakian graphic designer-artist Alphonse Mucha ; the French glass and jewelry designer René Lalique ; the American architect Louis Henry Sullivan, who used plantlike Art Nouveau ironwork to decorate his traditionally structured buildings; and the Spanish architect and sculptor Antonio Gaudí, perhaps the most original artist of the movement, who went beyond dependence on line to transform buildings into curving, bulbous, brightly coloured, organic constructions.
After 1910 Art Nouveau appeared old-fashioned and limited and was generally abandoned as a distinct decorative style. In the 1960s, however, the style was rehabilitated, in part, by major exhibitions organized at the Museum of Modern Art in New York (1959) and at the Musée National d’Art Moderne (1960), as well as by a large-scale retrospective on Beardsley held at the Victoria & Albert Museum in London in 1966.
The exhibitions elevated the status of the movement, which had often been viewed by critics as a passing trend, to the level of other major Modern art movements of the late 19th century. Currents of the movement were then revitalized in Pop and Op art,
What inspired the shape of the Eiffel Tower?
No Access Submitted: 02 April 2001 Accepted: 12 September 2001 Published Online: 10 January 2002 The distinctive shape of the Eiffel Tower is based on simple physics and is designed so that the maximum torque created by the wind is balanced by the torque due to the Tower’s weight.
What were 3 common elements of Gothic architecture?
Classic Elements – Leon Cathedral (Photo: Adrian Farwell via, ) While the Gothic style can vary according to location, age, and type of building, it is often characterized by 5 key architectural elements: large windows, pointed arches, rib vaults, flying buttresses, and ornate decoration.
What was Gothic architecture influenced by?
The Gothic style of architecture was strongly influenced by the Romanesque architecture which preceded it; by the growing population and wealth of European cities, and by the desire to express grandeur. It was also influenced by theological doctrines which called for more interior light as a symbol of divinity, and by the practical necessity of many churches to accommodate large numbers of pilgrims.
What was Gothic architecture known for?
By Dr. John Breihan The gothic style of architecture originated in Europe’s Middle Ages. It is characterized by vertical proportions, pointed arches, external buttressing, and asymmetry. At great gothic cathedrals like Chartres in France and Salisbury in England, pointed arches allowed for heavy stone ceiling vaults despite the fact that the walls were pierced for huge stained-glass windows.
- These daring structures were made possible by external buttressing that bore the weight of the vaults.
- Not only were the arched windows tall in proportion, but gothic cathedrals often included lofty pointed steeples.
- Gothic architects did not strive for symmetry, as is famously seen in the west façade of Chartes Cathedral, where the two steeples do not match.
Cathedrals were not the only gothic structures in the middle ages. Parish churches copied the designs of the cathedrals on a smaller scale, though usually with lighter timber roofs in place of heavy stone vaults. Although they were usually constructed of wood and plaster, houses also were built with vertical proportions, in tall windows and steep gabled roofs.
- Universities were invented in the middle ages; their most characteristic buildings were residential colleges built as closed courtyards.
- Called “quads” at Oxford and “courts” at Cambridge, medieval colleges consisted of four ranges of two- or three-story buildings entered by a gatehouse that often resembled a castle gate.
Within the court, rooms of differing functions could be identified by differing windows: evenly spaced for scholars’ bedrooms, close together for the college library, tall and airy for the dining hall and chapel. In Europe, the era of gothic architecture came to an end with the Renaissance.
Tastes changed in favor of a return to the more symmetrical and balanced classical Roman architecture. The change of taste occurred earliest it Italy; in Northern Europe a hybrid “Northern Renaissance” style continued into the 16th century, combining the large windows and tall proportions of gothic with decorations (columns, pediments) modeled on Roman architecture.
In England this style is associated with the Tudor monarchs, especially Queen Elizabeth I, and with her successor James I – hence the titles “Tudor,” “Elizabethan,” “Jacobean,” and even “Jacobethan.” Gothic architecture was revived in the 18th century as appropriate for romantic cottages or for churches.
St. Mary’s Seminary Chapel in the Seton Hill neighborhood of Baltimore is one of the earliest Gothic revival buildings in America. Built in 1807, it served as chapel for Baltimore’s first college, which later became St. Mary’s Seminary. After the Civil War, American architecture was heavily influenced by Victorian architecture in England.
“Victorian gothic” stressed the verticality and asymmetry of the original style, but in its massing and use of bright colors did not often resemble original gothic designs. A good example familiar to all Baltimoreans is Mount Vernon Place Methodist Church.
This changed in the 1890s with a generation of architects whose education had been thoroughly grounded in architectural history. Among them were Walter Cope and John Stewardson of Philadelphia. In 1895 they were hired to design an entire campus for Bryn Mawr College. They based their designs on gothic colleges at Oxford and Cambridge, including castellated gateways, long steep-gabled ranges of dormitories with tall, narrow windows, and soaring pointed-arched windows for the library.
Instead of the dark brick and sandstone of Victorian gothic designs, this new “collegiate gothic” was constructed of rough fieldstone walls with white limestone moldings for entrances, window surrounds, buttress caps, and parapets. One striking innovation was that American collegiate gothic buildings usually did not form closed courtyards as at medieval Oxford and Cambridge, where students were literally locked up at night.
- American students were given more freedom to come and go by looser arrangements of college buildings around central lawns or along picturesque ridge lines.
- Cope and Stewardson were eloquent proponents of their gothic style in preference to classical (Roman) buildings, especially for college campuses.
Classic architecture expresses completion, finality, perfection: Gothic architecture expresses aspiration, growth, and development. To the beholder, the Classic says: This is the sum – Here is perfection – Do not aspire further. The Gothic says to him: Reach higher – Spread outward and upward – There are no limitatations.
- The new style caught on right away, particularly at nearby Princeton University and Haverford College.
- Cope and Stewardson designed another whole campus for Washington University in St. Louis.
- Other architects took up the style, including Charles D.
- MacGuinnes, of the Irish Catholic architecture firm of Maginnes & Walsh, who designed an ambitious new collegiate gothic campus for Boston College in 1907, when the college moved from inner-city Boston to suburban Chestnut Hill.
As described by Jocelyn Salisbury (no relation to the cathedral!), Loyola College followed the same pattern in moving from downtown Calvert Street to suburban Evergreen in the early 1920s. New collegiate gothic buildings were placed on three sides of a central lawn or quad in front of the existing Tudor mansion (now the Humanities Center).
What is the concept of space in architecture?
Not to be confused with Space architecture,
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Space is one of the elements of design of architecture, as space is continuously studied for its usage. Architectural designs are created by carving space out of space, creating space out of space, and designing spaces by dividing this space using various tools, such as geometry, colours, and shapes,
Who established the 3 elements of architecture?
Firmness Commodity and Delight Writing near the end of the first century B.C.E., Roman architect Vitruvius Pollio identified three elements necessary for a well-designed building: firmitas, utilitas, and venustas, Firmness or physical strength secured the building’s structural integrity.
- Utility provided an efficient arrangement of spaces and mechanical systems to meet the functional needs of its occupants.
- And venustas, the aesthetic quality associated with the goddess Venus, imparted style, proportion, and visual beauty.
- Rendered memorably into English by Henry Wotton, a seventeenth century translator, “firmness, commodity, and delight” remain the essential components of all successful architectural design.
Architecture has been a part of the Library’s holdings since 1891, when President William Rainey Harper purchased the complete stock of a Berlin book dealer for the University of Chicago. Among the treasures acquired for the Library with this collection were early editions of works on classical architecture, sculpture, and design, along with a 15th-century manuscript of Leon Battista Alberti’s influential architectural treatise, De re aedificatoria,
Subsequent gifts, acquisitions, and archival transfers have brought added distinction and variety to the Library’s architecture collections: theoretical works and popular manuals, records of the University’s physical development, papers of urban planners, postcards and ephemera, photographs, and architectural drawings and blueprints.
Based on the holdings of the Special Collections Research Center, the architectural selections displayed in this exhibition suggest the diversity of these resources and their rich potential for research across a broad range of topics in the arts of building and design.
What are the main architectural elements?
1. Introduction – If you want to become a building architect or a designer, you will learn the four basic elements of architecture and design: Point, Line, Plane and Volume. With these four elements, you actually can create any architecture or design. And if you make use of architecture principles and design principles, you will create beautiful and unforgettable things.
- The point of making use of architecture to design and realize a structure or solution is, that it will be more robust, more esthetic and more usable/functional as a structure or solution than it would be if it was designed without making use of architecture.
- The architecture of a structure or solution is the total concept that is or will be applied to a structure or solution upon realization.
And that differs from the normal design of structures and solutions because architecture takes concepts and principles into account. It starts at a conceptual level. Normal design often only starts at the logical/functional level or physical/technical and complies with standards and regulations.
- Without architecture you can design any building, bridge or landscape.
- With architecture, you can design buildings, bridges and landscapes, people will travel thousands of miles to come and see it, like Central Park in New York or The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco.
- One could argue analog to this that enterprises like Facebook and Google also have been designed and constantly evolve with the smartest enterprise architecture (total concept) thinkable, instead of just designing and managing it like a normal average company.
Although anyone in building architecture and design knows about these four elements and uses them daily, almost any enterprise architect does not know of them or use them daily.
What are the types of concept?
Types of Concepts: Superordinate, Subordinate, and Basic.
What is the origin of the concept of architecture?
Architecture came from the Latin word ‘architectura’ or from the Greek word ‘arkhitekton.’ Arkhi meaning ‘chief’ and tekton meaning ‘builder.’ The product of architecture are often buildings, and historical buildings are usually considered achievements in architecture. Architecture, however, is a general term.
Who proposed green architecture?
Development history –
- In the 1960s, American architect Paul Soleri proposed a new concept of ecological architecture.
- In 1969, American architect Ian McHarg wrote the book “Design Integrates Nature”, which marked the official birth of ecological architecture.
- In the 1970s, the energy crisis caused various building energy-saving technologies such as solar energy, geothermal energy, and wind energy to emerge, and energy-saving buildings became the forerunner of building development.
- In 1980, the World Conservation Organization put forward the slogan “sustainable development” for the first time. At the same time, the energy-saving building system was gradually improved, and it was widely used in developed countries such as Germany, Britain, France and Canada.
- In 1987, the United Nations Environment Program published the “Our Common Future” report, which established the idea of sustainable development.
- In 1990, the world’s first green building standard was released in the UK.
- In 1992, because the “United Nations Conference on Environment and Development” promoted the idea of sustainable development, green buildings gradually became the direction of development.
- In 1993, the United States created the Green Building Association.
- In 1996, Hong Kong introduced green building standards.
- In 1999, Taiwan introduced green building standards.
- In 2000, Canada introduced green building standards.
- In 2005, Singapore initiated the “BCA Green Building Mark”
- In 2015, according to the Berkeley National Laboratory, China implemented the “Green Building Evaluation Standards”
- In 2021, the first, both low-cost and sustainable 3D printed house made out of a clay -mixture was completed
What is called green concept?
Green Concept: A Case Study on Manufacturing Firm DOI : 10.17577/IJERTV3IS100642 Swapnil V Ghinmine, Prof D.I. Sangotra, M.A. Gaodi, 2014, Green Concept: A Case Study on Manufacturing Firm, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY (IJERT) Volume 03, Issue 10 (October 2014), Swapnil V.
Ghinmine*, Prof.D.I. Sangotra**, M.A. Gaodi*** *Lecturer. Dept. of Mechanical engineering, DMIETR, Sawangi (M), Wardha,Maharashtra, India. **Associate Prof. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Y.C.C.E., Wanadongri, Nagpur,Maharashtra, India. ***Assistant Prof. Dept. of Mechanical engineering, DMIETR, Sawangi (M), Wardha,Maharashtra, India.
Abstract – The Aim of the study is to look after the green concept factors which helps to achieve the economic stability. By adopting the green concept strategies the manufacturing sector helps in the increase of environmental performance. The present study includes questionnaire survey and advice from the industrial experts about the green concept.
The result categories the green concept in 8 factors.Policies related to the Environment, Top Management Commitment, Green Manufacturing, Green Design, Green Purchasing, Customer Awareness Program, Green Distribution, Training and Employee Involvement. The data was analyzed on the basis of mean score.
The result shows that factors which has less mean score should be provided more stress for the implementation of green concept in the manufacturing industry. Keywords: Green Concept, Green Manufacturing, Green Design, Green Distribution. INTRODUCTION Today there is increasing pressure for almost every manufacturer to go green.
Green concept in manufacturing is defined as the creation of manufactured products that use processes that are non-polluting, conserve energy and natural resources, and are economically sound and safe for employees, communities, and consumers. Green manufacturing is also called as sustainable manufacturing.
Going green in manufacturing includes the manufacturing of sustainable products and the sustainable manufacturing of all products. It includes manufacturing of renewable energy, energy efficiency, green building, and other green & social equity-related products.
- The past decade of rapid economic growth has brought many benefits to India, the environment has suffered, exposing the population serious air and water pollution.
- A new report finds that environmental degradation costs India $80 billion per year or 5.7% of its economy.
- Green concept strategies are needed promote sustainable growth and to break the pattern of environmental degradation and natural resource depletion.
Emission reductions can be achieved with minimal cost to GDP. ISO 14001, the environmental management systems (EMS) standard is a good start for green concept. It contains requirements for the prevention of pollution and for continual improvement. That means it should act as a foundation for environmental performance enhancement and Green manufacturing is a natural extension of EMS.
- Each aspect of the MMTC Green Manufacturing program is fully compatible with ISO 14001.
- LITERATURE SURVEY Only little amount of work has been done on green concept in manufacturing.
- A lot amount of work is still under process.
- Many researchers has proposed there work on green concept.KshitijDashore, Dr.
NagendraSohani 2013 various barriers and drivers of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) were identified based upon the GSM literature and on consultations with experts in the academics. The barriers that were identified are eco design, green manufacturing, green distribution, green packaging, Hence to overcome the difficulties and for proper implementation of GSCM in the organization proper attention must be paid to these barriers and drivers.
Walton et al. (1998) identified several ways through which the impact of green procurement has on the environment. Quinghu Zhu et al (2008) has given the concept of different factors like Green Procurement,, Customer Cooperation, Internal Environmental Management, Eco Design, and Investment Recovery.
Lamming and Hampson (1996) linked the concept of supply chain management practices with environmentally sound Management practices like environmental procurement policy and working with Suppliers to enable improvements, collaborative supply strategies, vendor assessment.
- OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
- To look for the various eco drivers that were practicing in the industry and there implementation in the manufacturing industries.
Research methodology consist of developing the benchmarking questionnaire and to conduct a case study based on these questionnaire. Case study consist of discussing the various factors of green concept in manufacturing industry with industrial expert who have the fair knowledge and judgment of the green concept.
- Research methodology consist of 8 eco factors which helps manufacturing industry to achieve the green sustainability.
- Performance of each of the green strategy will depends on the aggregate score.
- The company responded to the survey and was marked on the five point scale (1- good, 2- average, 3- better, 4- important, 5 best) to the extent which they were practicing.These green concept factors helps industries to evaluate their strength and weakness and helps the industries for the implementation of the green supply chain management.
CASE STUDY: Case study was conducted on the manufacturing industry which mainly manufacture fasteners for the transmission lines. According to the general practices followed in the industry following factors has been observed in the industry.1] Green Purchasing (Average mean score 1.792) Green purchasing is nothing but environmental friendly purchasing which helps in reducing harm to the environment.
- It can be helpful if we give more stress on the following points 1] paperless work.2] Transportation.3] Vendor identification.4] Appreciation of ecofriendly vendors.
- For establishing Green Purchasing materials and spares part purchasing department should actively guides suppliers of chemicals oils, construction materials, and packaging materials.2] Policies related to the Environment (Average mean score 1.253) Reduce environmental risk through operating practicing and emergency preparedness program.
Encouragement of recycling, recovery and reuse of residual materials as well as the reduction and prevention of emission and release to the extent demonstrated feasible.3] Green Design (Average mean score 1.960) Green design is a plan which has a goal to minimize the use of recyclable materials that clog landfills and replacing them with materials that are reusable.
- Green Design is also called as sustainable designer environmental design, environmentally sustainable design or environmentally conscious design.
- The steel that was used in the industry contains 93.3 % recycled scrap steel.
- This steel is recycled back into new steel product with no loss of its physical properties.
This steel is not just recycled but multicycled as it can be recycled over and over again.
- 4] Green Manufacturing (Average mean score 1.385)
- Green Manufacturing is the process which constantly focuses on the reduction of the waste materials
- For this purpose Industry has implemented JIT manufacturing in there pocess, which gives prime focus on the reduction of the waste materials and produce products at minimum cost with more stress on green manufacturing.
- The scrap material that was collected during the manufacturing process was sent to the SMS (Steel Melting Shop) where it is again casted into steel slabs.
- 5] Green Distribution (Average mean score 1.472)
Green Distribution consist of green packaging. Packaging characteristics of the materials such as size,shape and materials have an impact on distribution because they affect the transportation characteristics of the product. For packaging the fasteners gunny bags were used instead of using the plastic or steel containers.
These gunny bags are recyclable and can be used again and again.6] Training and Employee Involvement. (Average mean score 1.395) Industry ask employee and workers to form quality circles which will focus on problem solving driven by ecofriendly measures thereby making them more aware about green concept.
Seminar session are arranged for the workers and senior managers from the other industries are welcomed to give them training on green practices.7] Customers Awareness Program. (Average mean score 1.826) Customer meetings is carried out for green purposes also interaction and feedback from customers is taken on green product to create awareness about green concept and green manufacturing.8] Top management commitment.
- COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EFFECTIVENESS OF GREEN CONCEPT FACTORS.
- Comparative analysis of effectiveness of green concept factors
- FactorFactorFactorFactorFactorFactorFactorFactor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
While analyzing the green concept factors the most important factor is Green design which has the greatest impact on the green concept or green supply chain management. Green design has the mean score of (1.960) followed by Customer awareness programme (1.862) Green purchasing (1.792) Green Distribution (1.472) Training and Employee Involvement (1.395) Green manufacturing (1.385) Top management commitment (1.364)Environmental policy (1.253).Therefore from management point of view more stress should be given on less mean value factors.
CONCLUSION Present research says that there are 8 green concept factors for the implementation of green supply chain management in the manufacturing industry. Green concept is relatively a new concept in the Indian manufacturing industries. These green concept factors should be implemented in the industries.
Frederick Law Olmsted Lecture: Aaron Sachs
It develops the relationship between green concepts and the environmental performance. This study also focus that if the Earth has to keep green appropriate strategy has to be adopted and should be implemented in the industry. This will minimize the detrimental effect on the environmental and will helps us to save the environment.
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: Green Concept: A Case Study on Manufacturing Firm
What is the main concept of green building?
Green Building Concept – Sangath IPL
SAVEEnvironment – Water – Energy – Mother EarthGreen building, or sustainable design, is the practice of increasing the efficiency with which buildings and their sites use energy, water, and materials, and reducing building impacts on human health and the environment over the entire life cycle of the building.
What are the basic principles of green technology?
12 Principles of Green Engineering –
Inherent Rather Than Circumstantial Designers need to strive to ensure that all materials and energy inputs and outputs are as inherently nonhazardous as possible. Prevention Instead of Treatment It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it is formed. Design for Separation Separation and purification operations should be designed to minimize energy consumption and materials use. Maximize Efficiency Products, processes, and systems should be designed to maximize mass, energy, space, and time efficiency. Output-Pulled Versus Input-Pushed Products, processes, and systems should be “output pulled” rather than “input pushed” through the use of energy and materials. Conserve Complexity Embedded entropy and complexity must be viewed as an investment when making design choices on recycle, reuse, or beneficial disposition. Durability Rather Than Immortality Targeted durability, not immortality, should be a design goal. Meet Need, Minimize Excess Design for unnecessary capacity or capability (e.g., “one size fits all”) solutions should be considered a design flaw. Minimize Material Diversity Material diversity in multicomponent products should be minimized to promote disassembly and value retention. Integrate Material and Energy Flows Design of products, processes, and systems must include integration and interconnectivity with available energy and materials flows. Design for Commercial “Afterlife” Products, processes, and systems should be designed for performance in a commercial “afterlife.” Renewable Rather Than Depleting Material and energy inputs should be renewable rather than depleting.
*Anastas, P.T., and Zimmerman, J.B., “Design through the Twelve Principles of Green Engineering”, Env. Sci. Tech,2003, 37(5), 94A-101A.
What are the three basic principles of architecture?
The Jorge M. Perez Architecture Centre by Leon Krier — The Roman Architect Vitruvius in his treatise on architecture, De Architectura in the first century BC got it right when he asserted that there were three principles of good architecture: Firmitas (Firmness, Durability) – It should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Any Architect or Architectural Technologist ” worth their salt ” can easily see the value of the first two principles when it comes to architecture. Firmitas and Utilitas: It will last and it will do the job. Some, however, may scoff at the third principle which is beauty.
- Before scoffing, consider that architecture does not stop at say the foundations or the structural framing.
- Architecture is about the whole deal.
- You don’t look at an ugly building that has impressive structural framing and clever plumbing and admire the architecture.
- By the same token, a beautiful building that collapses after five minutes or overheats from too much glazing is not admired either, at least not for very long.
Whilst most Architectural Technologists may easily believe that the first two principles are their responsibility and the third is just optional, it is strongly argued that the third principle, Venustas, is as important culturally as the first two. Venustas is about architectural beauty, which in Vitruvius’ classical universe meant the building’s ability to mime natural cosmic order.
Vitruvius believed that nature is an expression of cosmic order based on universal laws, and he believed, that architectural quality is achieved when architectural design is based on these laws and when architecture thereby ‘mimics’ natural cosmic order. A more contemporary understanding of the concept may be architecture’s spatial and aesthetic conditions – proportion, scale, the play between light and shade, the contrasts between heaviness and lightness, textural qualities, structural patterns, rhythm, etc.
These universal principles of good architecture: Durability, Utility and Beauty, can help us all be better at what we do. The difference between a good architect and a great architect is the ability to craft an elegant solution in a way that truly delights the user.