### How Apple Ultra Keeps Moore Law?

- Marvin Harvey
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How Apple’s Monster M1 Ultra Chip Keeps Moore’s Law Alive By combining two processors into one, the company has squeezed a surprising amount of performance out of silicon. Courtesy of Apple For

## Why Moore’s law may not hold in the future and what is the solution?

What Lies In The Future – The future holds many possibilities for the development of more robust computer systems. While Moore’s Law – and the squeezing of more transistors into computer chips each year – was a trend that allowed for the rapid evolution of computer systems, it was only one way to optimally increase the power of computers.

More effective computer software systems, along with a number of other innovations, can act as untapped methods for the future – evolution of even more powerful computer systems. The imagination of engineers has hardly been exhausted, and inventors are by no means limited to a five decades old estimate that has reached its end.

While no one knows the future, it is logical to claim that, hypothetically, computers and computer systems, five decades from now, will be very different, and much more powerful, than the ones that are used today. Anything from configuration changes, to optimizing system threadings, to new chips made from new materials can change the landscape of computer engineering into the future, resulting in new, more robust computers that are unprecedented in power and capabilities.

## Is Moore’s law still true to this day?

Moore’s Law is dead — wrong, or right? – This slowing down has led many to ask, “Is Moore’s Law dead?” The simple answer to this is no, Moore’s Law is not dead. While it’s true that chip densities are no longer doubling every two years (thus, Moore’s Law isn’t happening anymore by its strictest definition), Moore’s Law is still delivering exponential improvements, albeit at a slower pace.

The trend is very much still here. Intel’s CEO Pat Gelsinger believes that Moore’s Law is far from obsolete. As a goal for the next 10 years, he announced in 2021 not only to uphold Moore’s Law, but to outpace it. There are many industry veterans who agree with this. Mario Morales, a program vice president at IDC, said he believes Moore’s Law is still relevant in theory in an interview with TechRepublic.

“If you look at what Moore’s Law has enabled, we’re seeing an explosion of more computing across the entire landscape,'” he said. “It used to be computing was centered around mainframes and then it became clients and now edge and endpoints, but they’re getting more intelligent, and now they’re doing AI inferencing, and you need computing to do that.

#### Why Moores law is ending?

Due to physical limitations and exponentially rising costs, Moore’s Law, which describes the historical increases in computing power, is likely to end this decade, if it hasn’t already. New chip architectures and materials will be used to develop new types of computing that will promote future technological gains.

## Do quantum computers follow Moore’s law?

Moore’s prediction has proven to be correct up to the present day. It is now commonly referred to as a ‘Law.’ – Of fact, if something doubles every time it doubles, its growth is exponential. Typically, instances of exponential development are displayed on a Logarithmic-Scale, as illustrated in the scatter plot above. The exponential growth is depicted as a straight line on a logarithmic scale.

- Several other aspects of computer technology also adhere to Moore’s Law/Exponential growth, including memory, network connection rates, megapixels, RAM.
- This tendency is expected to continue for at least a few more years as of date.
- Beyond that, integrated circuits are constrained by atomic size and electron tunnelling difficulties.

Moore’s Law, according to Robert Sutor, IBM’s chief quantum exponent, has three components that deal with two years:

We can do twice as much with traditional CPUs. It’s all about miniaturization.Over the course of two years, the chips themselves shrank by half.Every two years, the chips would need half as much energy.

“The fact is, when it comes to manufacturing physical entities like semiconductors and transistors, there are only so many dimensions you can go. Atoms have a specific size, and you’re getting close to atomic molecular distances at this stage. That constrains you.” Sutor further stated that these constraints forced the business to become more inventive.

When a single processor exceeds its speed limit, for example, we use more of them, multiplying the processing power in various ways. Does a quantum version exist? According to Sutor, quantum bits contain more information than classical computing bits and are subject to odd quantum physics laws. There are three crucial factors to consider here as well.

Because of this non-classical behaviour, Moore’s Law, which applies to conventional processors, cannot be applied to quantum processors. Entanglement is a strange characteristic of qubits. By adding one extra qubit to a system, you effectively double the quantity of information that your quantum system can compute.

It works like this: Each qubit contains two bits of information. Two qubits have four; three qubits have eight, four qubits have sixteen, and so on. There are 1,024 bits of information at ten qubits, and at 20 qubits, you can manipulate around one million bits of information. With qubits, you have this exponential expansion or the doubling effect.

This is exponential growth, similar to Moore’s Law. A significant difference is that when we add extra RAM to a laptop, those bits have physical locations. There is no corresponding physical space in a quantum system where these qubits working together represent the information. “The reason you have these issues is that with quantum computers, we are attempting to mimic what nature does.” Every electron is a quantum particle. Every photon is a quantum particle. Because they are all quantum things, they all want to interact with your qubit.

They want to become entangled with each other because the environment we live in is quantum – that’s the definition. Sutor noted, “The quality represents how we can limit the noise so that the calculations can run correctly and we can keep utilizing the qubits long enough until they become chaotic.” When asked about Moore’s Law and quantum computing, Seeqc Inc.

president John Levy was eager to point out a minimal correlation. “So, what you’re trying to get at isn’t Moore’s Law, but whether or whether there are measures in quantum computing that can help you anticipate capacity for performance, cost, or whatever,” Levy explained.

One of the challenges with quantum computing, according to Levy, is that the concept of benchmarking is still in its infancy and that “all of the competitors tend to design benchmarks that benefit their particular technology.” As a result, caution is essential when considering a similar benchmark as Moore’s Law for qubits because people will continue to propose what makes them look good.” Comparing and contrasting Qubits are Bits with exponentially greater power.

When comparing the power of classical and quantum computers, a fair rule of thumb is Bits = 2^Qubits A qubit can perform any computation that a conventional bit can, but it can perform every variation of the inputs in only one algorithm cycle. Because N bits can represent 2^N combinations, N qubits can search 2^N algorithms in a single cycle.

### What are the limitations of Moore’s law?

Limitations of Moore’s Law –

- There is a limit to Moore’s Law, however.
- As transistors approach the size of a single atom, their functionality begins to get compromised due to the particular behavior of electrons at that scale.
- In a 2005 interview, Moore himself stated that his law “can’t continue forever.”
- Most experts agree, stating that the physical limits of transistor technology should be reached sometime in the 2020s.