How To Be Prepared For Martial Law?
- Marvin Harvey
Step #1: Become a Prepper – Stock up on food, water, medicine, tools, guns, and gear. Learn survival skills and practice them before it happens. I wrote a comprehensive article on what a beginner prepper should do right here, You should also review this emergency list to make sure you’re not missing any vital items. cans of peanut butter on pantry shelves Here are the main aspects to get handled if you’re going to survive martial law:
- Shelter, You need a safe place to stay. A reinforced home, a bug out location, and even a tent or a tarp to be able to build shelter out in the wilderness.
- Food, For yourself, for your family, for your pets. The more the better.
- Medicine, Keep in mind any medical conditions you or your family members may have.
- Guns and ammo,
- Your fitness levels, You need to be strong and in shape.
- Skill, Starting a fire.
- Drills, You need to practice evacuating your home, bugging out, etc.
Do you work during martial law?
Specifics of Establishment and Recording of Working Time and Time Off –
During martial law the normal maximum working time per week is increased to 60 hours (instead of 40 hours); for employees who had a right to a decreased working time the maximum working time per week is increased to 50 hours.The duration of weekly uninterrupted time off may be reduced to 24 hours.The start and end of a working day is established by the employer, whereas the duration of the working week (five or six days) is determined by the employer based on the decision of the relevant military management and military administrations (in the case of their establishment).The shortened working time on any day preceding a holiday, days-off and weekends is not applicable; overtime limitations, regulations prohibiting working on holidays, days-off and weekends, provisions providing a form of compensation for the work on a day-off, etc. should not apply.
What happens to civilians in martial law?
Understanding Martial Law – The declaration of martial law is a rare and momentous decision for a civilian government to make and for good reason. When martial law is declared, civilian control of some or all aspects of government operations is ceded to the military.
This means that, in the case of elected governments, the representatives chosen by the voting population are no longer in power. Civilians have ceded control of the country in exchange for the potential restoration of order, with the possibility that control may not be reclaimed in the future. When martial law is declared, civil liberties—such as the right to free movement, free speech, or protection from unreasonable searches—can be suspended.
#282 SURVIVING MARTIAL LAW [365 Survival]
The justice system that typically handles issues of criminal and civil law is replaced with a military justice system, such as a military tribunal. Civilians may be arrested for violating curfews or for offenses that, in normal times, would not be considered serious enough to warrant detention.
What is the purpose of martial law in the Philippines?
This article is about several periods of martial law in the Philippines. For Ferdinand Marcos’ declaration of martial law, see Proclamation No.1081, For Rodrigo Duterte’s declaration of martial law in Mindanao, see Proclamation No.216, Martial law in the Philippines ( Filipino : Batas Militar sa Pilipinas ) refers to the various historical instances in which the Philippine head of state placed all or part of the country under military control – most prominently : 111 during the administration of Ferdinand Marcos, but also during the Philippines’ colonial period, during the second world war, and more recently on the island of Mindanao during the administrations of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo and Rodrigo Duterte,
- The alternative term ” Martial Law Era ” as applied to the Philippines is typically used to describe the Marcos martial law period specifically.
- Martial law has historically been implemented through the Armed Forces of the Philippines and its predecessor bodies, serving as the head of state’s primary tool for implementing political power in a reversal of the normal practice of civilian control of the military,
Under the current Constitution of the Philippines, the President, as head of state and commander in chief of the armed forces, may declare Martial Law “in case of invasion or rebellion, when the public safety requires it.” Most countries use a different legal construct like ” state of emergency “.
What is a sentence for martial law?
martial law in a sentence | Sentence examples by Cambridge Dictionary These examples are from corpora and from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors.
- The year 1986 was the year before the thirtyeight-year period of martial law was lifted.
- From the Instead of political reform, the regime opted for martial law and political suppression.
- From the Sheriffs had not been appointed and martial law continued as the preferred method of governance.
- From the Many had worked with the party and had suffered jail sentences to end martial law and to bring about democratic rule in the country.
From the Once political power was completely lost in the martial law years, the family was stripped of its business corporations overnight. From the He then enlisted it in repression, using the army against labour, declaring martial law and steadily militarising provincial administration and education.
From the He signed orders for numerous death sentences, author ised executions and instituted martial law, From the This break was further made apparent by his assuming dictatorial powers under martial law, From the The martial law made open dialogue on these issues difficult, and prevented early warning studies of the inevitable problems from influencing the policy debate.
From the A country periodically beset with rioting soldiers and sailors might well have appreciated the exemplary, and speedy, punishments which only martial law could mete out. From the Other issues were tackled by the petition, namely forced loans, billeting and martial law, but discretionary imprisonment was the one which dominated parliamentary proceedings prior to the petition.
From the The point of time at which martial law shall be withdrawn is under consideration. From the Hansard archive We have no martial law in this country. From the Hansard archive Martial law in the popular meaning of the expression is not. From the Hansard archive I have here one of the greatest authorities on martial law, and what does he say about it? From the Hansard archive I do not mean that there should be martial law,
From the Hansard archive The trials are all under martial law, but it is considered better that ordinary criminals should be dealt with by ordinary methods. From the Hansard archive They would not be able to obtain so much drink, but if they got drunk they would be punished under martial law,
From the Hansard archive Those demonstrations led to the backlash and the imposition of martial law, From the Hansard archive Is it right to impose martial law on the whole country, on innocent and guilty alike? From the Hansard archive Because martial law is very onerous indeed, and gives tremendous powers to the authorities, and imposes heavy restrictions on the whole population.
From the Hansard archive This may need the introduction of martial law, From the Hansard archive There is virtually a state of martial law there. From the Hansard archive Could we get any information as to the grounds for the continuation of martial law ? From the Hansard archive I hear some talk of establishing martial law in that country.
From the Hansard archive We have martial law in its naked and unabashed form. From the Hansard archive The whole country was under martial law at the time. From the Hansard archive But the general impression is that civil administration has been very largely suspended and curtailed, and that martial law has taken its place.
From the Hansard archive This figure does not include persons convicted by military courts or summary courts in the martial law area. From the Hansard archive The question does arise, however, what are the powers that should be exercised under martial law ? From the Hansard archive Statutory martial law was discontinued as soon as the immediate object of the operation had been achieved.
- From the Hansard archive There are ample facilities for the declaration of martial law in the sense of cordoning off regions where outrages occur.
- From the Hansard archive Is there any reason why martial law should not be instituted at once? From the Hansard archive Yes, he has, and that is why up to now the military authorities have not decided to impose martial law,
From the Hansard archive It substitutes martial law for the ordinary courts, and deprives even the meanest of the accused of legal trial. From the Hansard archive It has ensured that the military would be able to retain most of its powers even if martial law were to be lifted.
From the Hansard archive A month later martial law was declared in 11 strategic provinces. From the Hansard archive Martial law has been declared and a state of emergency has been imposed. From the Hansard archive I am glad to hear that the martial law courts have been suspended. From the Hansard archive I did not say that there would be an immediate ending of martial law,
From the Hansard archive It almost appears as though we were under martial law for the time being. From the Hansard archive That is one of the modes of machinery which have actually been used in the application of martial law, From the Hansard archive The trials of alleged collaborators by the martial law court, and more recently the state security court, have also caused international concern.
- From the Hansard archive The disturbances which followed his release had been made a subsidiary reason for imposing martial law,
- From the Hansard archive Martial law is not just an item on the statute book.
- From the Hansard archive How many expatriate soldiers are under martial law of our country? From the Hansard archive They protested at the imposition of martial law,
From the Hansard archive Martial law, under which these executions have taken place, was raised yesterday. From the Hansard archive Under present martial law, there are effectively no legal means for accused persons to defend themselves. From the Hansard archive But they say it is not serious enough for martial law,
- From the Hansard archive That, of course, was a time of war, and of martial law, and the position, as he himself states later, was entirely different.
- From the Hansard archive We have the spectacle of tens of thousands of nationally organised paramilitary police keeping large areas of the country under the equivalent of martial law,
From the Hansard archive Martial law could clearly not be lifted until the security situation allowed, and violations of the cease-fire had ceased or sufficiently diminished. From the Hansard archive The number of persons detained under martial law is now less than 2,000.
From the Hansard archive Well, martial law is proclaimed in certain circumstances, for instance rebellion. From the Hansard archive This is very important, because under martial law kangaroo courts have been operating and sentencing people to death. From the Hansard archive No one who has suggested martial law has also suggested a fortified border.
From the Hansard archive In those days, villages were destroyed, flocks and crops were confiscated, crushing collective fines were imposed and there was almost continuous martial law, From the Hansard archive They have power, even without martial law, to try men by court-martial.
From the Hansard archive I have never spoken with levity about this matter of martial law, From the Hansard archive If that is true, why not have martial law over the whole country? From the Hansard archive Martial law was proclaimed for the suppression of an armed rebellion, and since that object was effected its powers have not been in use.
From the Hansard archive Under martial law there were 412 trials by court-martial. From the Hansard archive Martial law is merely the supersection of the ordinary law of the land by mere arbitrary government—that is to say, martial law is no law. From the Hansard archive The proclamation of martial law is much more unprecedented.
From the Hansard archive Of course, if he is a belligerent he is subject to martial law, From the Hansard archive Martial law is proclaimed sometimes in a particular area—one particular spot—where there is riot and commotion. From the Hansard archive That is not in a martial law area. From the Hansard archive The existence of a state of rebellion is sufficient justification for the enforcement of martial law,
From the Hansard archive This pledge will be duly carried out when the appropriate moment arrives, if martial law has not by that time been already abolished. From the Hansard archive I said that he ought to take off martial law and so forth. From the Hansard archive I am not here speaking about martial law,
- From the Hansard archive If soldiers are operating as if martial law had been imposed, why has martial law not been declared? From the Hansard archive The province cannot indefinitely be ruled by martial law,
- From the Hansard archive What we are criticising is the declaration of martial law within the city for which, on all our information, there is no justification.
From the Hansard archive That argument appeared to be designed to be in favour of martial law, From the Hansard archive They are the state of emergency and martial law, From the Hansard archive Can he clarify whether the ending of martial law means the immediate lifting of censorship on newspapers, radio and television? From the Hansard archive It would be impracticable to free all the martial law detainees.
- From the Hansard archive There are fewer than 2,000 martial law detainees still detained.
- From the Hansard archive Martial law courts have been suspended and martial law itself will be lifted when the ceasefire is fully effective.
- From the Hansard archive There has been to-day some confusion in regard to three phrases—”military law,”courts-martial”and” martial law,
From the Hansard archive If the cease-fire had become effective so that the election date could be fixed, why was not martial law lifted? From the Hansard archive What is this régime of detention by martial law ? From the Hansard archive I said that the thing would pass, and, indeed, martial law was cancelled in a few hours.
- From the Hansard archive The fact is that civil rights are badly affected in that country, martial law has been imposed and there is a singular lack of freedom.
- From the Hansard archive Does he agree that the security personnel, unhindered by the media and others, could do that if there were martial law ? From the Hansard archive I want to say a few words on the question of martial law,
From the Hansard archive What acton is a man to take in view of the fact that he is under martial law ? From the Hansard archive I am quite prepared to consider the question, with the military authorities, of placing a portion of this city definitely under martial law,
- From the Hansard archive Are we to pay the people whose property was destroyed by the authority of the commanding officer in the martial law area? From the Hansard archive For instance 7 of the 14 companies existing now are in the martial law area.
- From the Hansard archive I have again and again said that there was no policy of reprisals except for military purposes in the martial law area.
From the Hansard archive These examples are from corpora and from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors. : martial law in a sentence | Sentence examples by Cambridge Dictionary
How do you explain martial law to a child?
Ask your child to imagine a situation where every channel on TV only showed programs that the man in power-the dictator-chose for the audience. Any show that would give people ideas on how to challenge him, even if it was something as unrelated to politics like a movie of a robot fighting an alien, is banned.
Is the Philippines still under martial law?
The Sunday edition of the Philippines Daily Express on September 24, 1972, the only newspaper published after the announcement of martial law on September 21, the evening prior. At 7:17 pm on September 23, 1972, President Ferdinand Marcos announced on television that he had placed the entirety of the Philippines under martial law,
- This marked the beginning of a 14-year period of one-man rule that would effectively last until Marcos was exiled from the country on February 25, 1986.
- Even though the formal document proclaiming martial law – Proclamation No.1081, which was dated September 21, 1972 – was formally lifted on January 17, 1981, Marcos retained essentially all of his powers as dictator until he was ousted.
While the period of Philippine history in which Marcos was in power actually began seven years earlier, when he was first inaugurated president of the Philippines in late 1965, this article deals specifically with the period where he exercised dictatorial powers under martial law, and the period in which he continued to wield those powers despite technically lifting the proclamation of martial law in 1981.
- When he declared martial law in 1972, Marcos claimed that he had done so in response to the “communist threat” posed by the newly founded Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), and the sectarian “rebellion” of the Mindanao Independence Movement (MIM).
- Opposition figures of the time, such as Lorenzo Tañada, Jose W.
Diokno, and Jovito Salonga, accused Marcos of exaggerating these threats, using them as a convenient excuse to consolidate power and extend his tenure beyond the two presidential terms allowed by the 1935 constitution. After Marcos was ousted, government investigators discovered that the declaration of martial law had also allowed the Marcoses to hide secret stashes of unexplained wealth that various courts later determined to be “of criminal origin”.
- This 14-year period in Philippine history is remembered for the administration’s record of human rights abuses, particularly targeting political opponents, student activists, journalists, religious workers, farmers, and others who fought against the Marcos dictatorship,
- Based on the documentation of Amnesty International, Task Force Detainees of the Philippines, and similar human rights monitoring entities, historians believe that the Marcos dictatorship was marked by 3,257 known extrajudicial killings, 35,000 documented tortures, 77 ‘disappeared’, and 70,000 incarcerations.
Was the whole Philippines affected by martial law?
The anniversary of the declaration of martial law is on September 23 (not September 21) “FM Declares Martial Law”—the headline of the September 24, 1972 issue of the Sunday Express, which was the Sunday edition of Philippines Daily Express. The Daily Express was the only newspaper allowed to circulate upon the declaration of Martial Law President Ferdinand E.
Marcos signed Proclamation No.1081 on September 21, 1972, placing the Philippines under Martial Law. Some sources say that Marcos signed the proclamation on September 17 or on September 22—but, in either case, the document itself was dated September 21. Throughout the Martial Law period, Marcos built up the cult of September 21, proclaiming it as National Thanksgiving Day by virtue of Proclamation No.1180 s.1973 to memorialize the date as the foundation day of his New Society.
The propaganda effort was so successful that up to the present, many Filipinos—particularly those who did not live through the events of September 23, 1972—labor under the misapprehension that martial law was proclaimed on September 21, 1972. It was not.
- The culmination of a long period of preparation The facts are clear.
- A week before the actual declaration of Martial Law, a number of people had already received information that Marcos had drawn up a plan to completely take over the government and gain absolute rule.
- Senator Benigno S.
- Aquino Jr., during a September 13, 1972 privilege speech, exposed what was known as “Oplan Sagittarius.” The Senator said he had received a top-secret military plan given by Marcos himself to place Metro Manila and outlying areas under the control of the Philippine Constabulary as a prelude to Martial Law.
Marcos was going to use a series of bombings in Metro Manila, including the 1971 Plaza Miranda bombing, as a justification for his takeover and subsequent authoritarian rule. In his own diary, Marcos wrote on September 14, 1972 that he informed the military that he would proceed with proclaiming Martial Law.
- Even the U.S.
- Embassy in Manila knew as early as September 17, 1972 about Marcos’ plan.
- This was indeed the culmination of a long period of preparation: As early as May 17, 1969, Marcos hinted the declaration of Martial Law, when he addressed the Philippine Military Academy Alumni Association : One of my favorite mental exercises, which others may find useful, is to foresee possible problems one may have to face in the future and to determine what solutions can possibly be made to meet these problems.
For instance, if I were suddenly asked, to pose a given situation, to decide in five minutes when and where to suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, I have decided that there should be at least five questions that I would ask, and depending on the answers to these five questions, I would know when and where to suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus.
The same thing is true with the declaration of martial law It is a useful mental exercise to meet a problem before it happens. In his memoir, then Justice Secretary Juan Ponce Enrile recalled that on a late afternoon in December 1969, Marcos instructed him to study the powers of the President as Commander-in-Chief under the provisions of the 1935 Constitution,
Marcos made this instruction as he ” an escalation of violence and disorder in the country and to know the extent of his powers as commander-in-chief.” The President also stressed that “the study must be done discreetly and confidentially.” At about the same time, Marcos also instructed Executive Secretary Alejandro Melchor and Jose Almonte to study how Martial Law was implemented in different parts of the world.
- Marcos also wanted to know the consequences of declaring Martial Law.
- The result of their study stated that, “while Martial Law may accelerate development, in the end the Philippines would become a political archipelago, with debilitating, factionalized politics.” Almonte recalled that their findings led to the conclusion that “the nation would be destroyed because, apart from the divisiveness it would cause, Martial Law would offer Marcos absolute power which would corrupt absolutely.” By the end of January 1970, Enrile, with the help of Efren Plana and Minerva Gonzaga Reyes, submitted the only copy of the confidential report on the legal nature and extent of Martial Law to Marcos.
A week later, Marcos summoned Enrile and instructed him to prepare the documents to implement Martial Law in the Philippines. In his January 1971 diary entries, Marcos discussed how he met with business leaders, intellectuals from the University of the Philippines, and the military to lay the groundwork that extreme measures would be needed in the future.
- On May 8, 1972, Marcos confided in his diary that he had instructed the military to update its plans, including the list of personalities to be arrested, and had met with Enrile to finalize the legal paperwork required.
- On August 1, 1972, Marcos met with Enrile and a few of his most trusted military commanders to discuss tentative dates for the declaration of Martial Law—to fall within the next two months.
All of the dates they considered either ended in seven or were divisible by seven, as Marcos considered seven his lucky number. The last days of democracy Senator Benigno S. Aquino Jr. delivers a privilege speech on the Senate floor on September 21, 1972—two days before Martial Law was declared and implemented. (From A Garrison State in the Make, p.353) On September 21, 1972, democracy was still functioning in the Philippines.
- Senator Benigno S.
- Aquino Jr.
- Was still able to deliver a privilege speech—what would be his final one—in the Senate.
- Primitivo Mijares, among others, recounted the functioning of the House of Representatives and the Senate, with committee meetings scheduled for that night.
- Senate and House leaders agreed not to adjourn on this day, as earlier scheduled.
They decided to extend their special session to a sine die adjournment on September 23. That afternoon, a protest march in Plaza Miranda was sponsored by the Concerned Christians for Civil Liberties. The rally was attended by more than 30 “civic, religious, labor, student, and activist groups a crowd of 30,000,” and received coverage from newspapers, radio, and television. A mass rally organized by the Movement of Concerned Citizens for Civil Liberties (MCCCL) was held at Plaza Miranda in Quiapo. (Photo courtesy of Philippines Free Press Magazine) In his diary, Marcos wrote that he, together with members of his Cabinet and staff, finished the preparation of Proclamation 1081 at 8 PM, September 21.
On September 22, 1972, a day after the final speech of Ninoy Aquino, newspapers still came out: they featured the rally held the previous day in Plaza Miranda. Mijares recounted that Marcos was agitated by a statement reported in the Daily Express that if Martial Law were declared, Aquino said he would have to be arrested soon after or he would escape to join the resistance.
The Enrile ambush as pretext for Martial Law The pretext for Martial Law was provided later in the evening of Friday, September 22, 1972, the convoy of Secretary of Defense Juan Ponce Enrile was ambushed in Wack-Wack as he was on his way home to Dasmariñas Village in Makati before 9 p.m.
- Enrile recalled his convoy was driving out of Camp Aguinaldo when a car opened fire at his convoy and sped away.
- A contrasting account came from Oscar Lopez, who lived along Notre Dame Street, Wack Wack Village, stated that he heard a lot of shooting and that when he went out to see what was happening, he saw an empty car riddled with bullets.
Lopez’s driver, who happened to see the incident, narrated that “there was a car that came and stopped beside a Meralco post. Some people got out of the car, and then there was another car that came by beside it and started riddling it with bullets to make it look like it was ambushed.” This ambush, as Enrile later revealed in 1986, was staged by Marcos to justify Martial Law. Excerpt from the diary of Ferdinand E. Marcos on September 22, 1972. From the Philippine Diary Project, Marcos, in his diary entry for September 22, 1972 (time-stamped 9:55 p.m.) wrote, “Sec. Juan Ponce Enrile was ambushed near Wack-Wack at about 8:00 pm tonight.
- It was a good thing he was riding in his security car as a protective measure This makes the martial law proclamation a necessity.” His diary entry for September 25, 1972 mentions conditions after two days of Martial Law, also indicating martial law in reality is dated to September 23, 1972.
- Primitivo Mijares—a former journalist for Marcos who would later write against Marcos and disappear without a trace in 1973—claimed that the Enrile ambush was fake as it was made as the final excuse for Marcos to declare Martial Law.
Mijares also claimed that the ammunition planted by the Presidential Guard Battalion in Digoyo Point, Isabela—which was later confiscated by the Philippine Constabulary on July 5, 1972—was used to connect the ambush with alleged Communist terror attacks.
In the biography of Chino Roces, Vergel Santos questioned the elements of the Enrile ambush: “Why inside a village and not on a public street, and why in that particular village? Possibly for easier stage-managing: the family of Enrile’s sister Irma and her husband, Dr. Victor Potenciano, lived there, in Fordham, the next street in the Potenciano home and got the story straight from him, as officially scripted.” September 21 or September 23? When Marcos appeared on television at 7:15 p.m.
on September 23, 1972 to announce that he had placed the “entire Philippines under Martial Law” by virtue of Proclamation No.1081, he framed his announcement in legalistic terms that were untrue. This helped camouflage the true nature of his act to this day: it was nothing less than a self-coup.
Marcos announced that he had placed the entire country under Martial Law as of 9 p.m. on September 22, 1972 via a proclamation which, he claimed, he’d signed on September 21, 1972. Yet accounts differ. David Rosenberg, writing in the Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars (“The End of the Freest Press in the World,” Vol.5, 1973) chronicled that about six hours after the ambush, Marcos signed Proclamation No.1081, placing the entire country under Martial Law, placing the signing at around 3 a.m.
on September 23. Raymond Bonner, in his book Waltzing with the Dictator, narrated his interview with Enrile, during which the former Defense Secretary recalled that he and Acting Executive Secretary Roberto Reyes witnessed Marcos sign Proclamation No.1081 in the morning of September 23, 1972.
The Bangkok Post asserted in a series of articles called “The Aquino Papers,” published from February 20 to 22 of 1973, that Proclamation No.1081 had been signed even earlier, on September 17, 1972, postdated to September 21. Mijares also mentioned in his book that Marcos said as much in an address to a conference of historians, in January 1973.
Two things emerge: first, whether they conflict or not, all accounts indicate that Marcos’ obsession with numerology (particularly the number seven) necessitated that Proclamation No.1081 be officially signed on a date that was divisible by seven. Thus, September 21, 1972 became the official date that Martial Law was established and the day that the Marcos dictatorship began.
- This also allowed Marcos to control history on his own terms.
- Day one of the Marcos dictatorship The second is that the arbitrary date emphasizes that the actual date for Martial Law was not the numerologically-auspicious (for Marcos) 21st, but rather, the moment that Martial Law was put into full effect, which was after the nationwide address of Ferdinand Marcos as far as the nation was concerned: September 23, 1972.
By then, personalities considered threats to Marcos (Senators Benigno S. Aquino Jr., Jose Diokno, Francisco Rodrigo and Ramon Mitra Jr., and members of the media such as Joaquin Roces, Teodoro Locsin Sr., Maximo Soliven and Amando Doronila) had already been rounded up, starting with the arrest of Senator Aquino at midnight on September 22, and going into the early morning hours of September 23, when 100 of the 400 personalities targeted for arrest were already detained in Camp Crame by 4 a.m.
- In the meantime, the military had shut down mass media, flights were canceled, and incoming overseas calls were prohibited.
- Press Secretary Francisco Tatad went on air at 3 p.m.
- Of September 23 to read the text of Proclamation No.1081.
- The reading of the proclamation was followed by Marcos going on air at 7:15 p.m.
to justify the massive clampdown of democratic institutions in the country. Marcos would subsequently issue General Order No.1, s.1972, transferring all powers to the President who was to rule by decree. The New York Times reported about these events in an article titled “Mass Arrests and Curfew Announced in Philippines; Mass Arrests Ordered in Philippines” in their September 24, 1972 issue.
- The Daily Express itself announced in its September 24 issue that Marcos had proclaimed martial law the day before, September 23, 1972.
- Never again” After the declaration and imposition of Martial Law, citizens would still go on to challenge the constitutionality of Proclamation No.1081.
- Those arrested filed petitions for habeas corpus with the Supreme Court.
But Marcos, who had originally announced that Martial Law would not supersede the 1935 Constitution, engineered the replacement of the constitution with a new one. On March 31, 1973, the Supreme Court issued its final decision in Javellana v. Executive Secretary, which essentially validated the 1973 Constitution.
This would be the final legitimizing decision with on the constitutionality of Martial Law: in G.R. No. L-35546 September 17, 1974, the Supreme Court dismissed petitions for habeas corpus by ruling that Martial Law was a political question beyond the jurisdiction of the court; and that, furthermore, the court had already deemed the 1973 Constitution in full force and effect, replacing the 1935 Constitution.
Martial Law would officially end on January 17, 1981 with Proclamation No.2045, Marcos, however, would reserve decree-making powers for himself. Today, the 1987 Constitution safeguards our institutions from a repeat of Marcos’ Martial Law regime. The Supreme Court is empowered to review all official acts to determine if there has been grave abuse of discretion.
- Congress cannot be padlocked.
- Martial Law is limited in duration and effects, even if contemplated by a president.
- Section 18 of Article VII of the current Constitution provides: Within forty-eight hours from the proclamation of martial law or the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, the President shall submit a report in person or in writing to the Congress.
The Congress, voting jointly, by a vote of at least a majority of all its Members in regular or special session, may revoke such proclamation or suspension, which revocation shall not be set aside by the President. Upon the initiative of the President, the Congress may, in the same manner, extend such proclamation or suspension for a period to be determined by the Congress, if the invasion or rebellion shall persist and public safety requires it.
The Congress, if not in session, shall, within twenty-four hours following such proclamation or suspension, convene in accordance with its rules without any need of a call. The Supreme Court may review, in an appropriate proceeding filed by any citizen, the sufficiency of the factual basis of the proclamation of martial law or the suspension of the privilege of the writ or the extension thereof, and must promulgate its decision thereon within thirty days from its filing.
A state of martial law does not suspend the operation of the Constitution, nor supplant the functioning of the civil courts or legislative assemblies, nor authorize the conferment of jurisdiction on military courts and agencies over civilians where civil courts are able to function, nor automatically suspend the privilege of the writ.
Bibliography Almonte, Jose T. and Marites Dañguilan Vitug, Endless Journey: A Memoir. Quezon City: Cleverheads Publishing, 2015. Bonner, Raymond, Waltzing with a Dictator: The Marcoses and the Making of American Policy, New York: Times Books, 1987. Enrile, Juan Ponce, Juan Ponce Enrile: A Memoir, Quezon City, ABS-CBN Publishing Inc., 2012.
Hedman, Eva-Lotta E. and John Thayer Sidel, Philippine Politics and Society in the Twentieth Century: Colonial Legacies, Post- Colonial Trajectories, London: Routledge, 2005. Mijares, Primitivo, The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos I,
- New York: Union Square Publications, 1986.
- Rodrigo, Raul, Phoenix: The Saga of the Lopez Family Volume 1: 1800 – 1972.
- Manila: Eugenio Lopez Foundation, Inc., 2007.
- Santos, Vergel O., Chino and His Time.
- Pasig: Anvil, 2010.
- Endnotes Raymond Bonner, Waltzing with a Dictator: The Marcoses and the Making of American Policy (New York: Times Books, 1987), p.3.
Juan Ponce Enrile, Juan Ponce Enrile: A Memoir (Quezon City, ABS-CBN Publishing Inc., 2012), p.275. Juan Ponce Enrile, Juan Ponce Enrile: A Memoir (Quezon City, ABS-CBN Publishing Inc., 2012), p.275. Jose T. Almonte and Marites Dañguilan Vitug, Endless Journey: A Memoir (Quezon City: Cleverheads Publishing, 2015), p.77.
Juan Ponce Enrile, Juan Ponce Enrile: A Memoir, (Quezon City, ABS-CBN Publishing Inc., 2012), p.276. Raymond Bonner, Waltzing with a Dictator: The Marcoses and the Making of American Policy (New York: Times Books, 1987), p.95. Primitivo Mijares, The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos I,
(New York: Union Square Publications, 1986), p.54. Eva-Lotta E. Hedman and John Thayer Sidel, Philippine Politics and Society in the Twentieth Century: Colonial Legacies, Post- Colonial Trajectories (London: Routledge, 2005), p.129. Raul Rodrigo, Phoenix: The Saga of the Lopez Family Volume 1: 1800 – 1972, Manila: Eugenio Lopez Foundation, Inc., 2007), p.377 Primitivo Mijares, The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos I,
What happens if you are found guilty in a court martial?
Summary Court-Martial – If convicted of a Summary Court-martial, depending on your rank, the maximum sentence is 30 days of confinement, reduction to E-1, 45 days of unconfined hard labor and a reduced monthly wage to one third. Summary Courts- martial cannot result in discharge from the military.