Law Enforcement Agencies Consider Which Of The Following To Be Aggressive Driving Behavior?
- Marvin Harvey
This article is about driving too close. For other uses, see Tailgate, A typical example of tailgating. The first car is being followed very closely by another. Tailgating is the action of a driver driving behind another vehicle while not leaving sufficient distance to stop without causing a collision if the vehicle in front stops suddenly.
- The safe distance for following another vehicle varies depending on various factors including vehicle speed, weather, visibility and other road conditions.
- Some jurisdictions may require a minimal gap of a specified distance or time interval.
- When following heavy vehicles or in less than ideal conditions (e.g.
low light or rain), a longer distance is recommended.
Which of the following is an example of aggressive driving behavior?
Updated July 2017 The term “aggressive driving” covers a range of unsafe driving behavior. Speeding, tailgating, weaving in and out of traffic, running red lights, or any combination of these activities generally are considered aggressive driving. Although most drivers are familiar with this type of driving, it is difficult for legislatures to completely define aggressive driving.
- As of 2017, 15 states have passed laws aimed at aggressive drivers.
- Typically, these establish an aggressive driving offense and establish fines and penalties for committing such an offense.
- Speed-related crashes cost society an estimated $40 billion per year.
- In 2015, speeding was a contributing factor in 27 percent of all fatal crashes, and 9,557 lives were lost in speeding-related crashes.
Speed is a factor in many crashes because of the physical forces at work. It takes longer to stop a speeding vehicle, and speed hinders the driver’s ability to detect dangerous situations. The IIHS reports that crash severity is directly related to speed.
- If speed increases by 50 percent, the energy released in a crash more than doubles.
- This increased force is what causes severe injuries and fatalities.
- Passenger restraint systems such as seat belts, airbags and child safety seats can be less effective at high rates of speed; this also contributes to injuries and fatalities.
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What is the most common aggressive driving behavior?
Speeding is the most noticeable aggressive driving behavior. It is involved with nearly a third of all motor vehicle fatalities.
Which of the following is a characteristic of aggressive driving?
Aggressive Driving Aggressive driving is defined as a progression of unlawful driving actions such as:
Speeding – exceeding the posted limit or driving too fast for conditions; improper or excessive lane changing: failing to signal intent, failing to see that movement can be made safely, or Improper passing – failing to signal intent, using an emergency lane to pass, or passing on the shoulder.
More on aggressive driving:
The “aggressive driver” fails to consider the human element involved. The anonymity of being behind the wheel gives aggressive drivers a false sense of control and power; therefore, they seldom take into account the consequences of their actions. Aggressive Driving vs. Road Rage. There is a difference. Aggressive driving is a traffic offense; road rage is a criminal offense. Road rage is defined as “an assault with a motor vehicle or other dangerous weapon by the operator or passenger(s) of another motor vehicle or an assault precipitated by an incident that occurred on a roadway.” Road rage requires willful and wanton disregard for the safety of others. A national survey sponsored by NHTSA of 6,000 drivers over the age of sixteen showed that the public supports increased enforcement including photo enforcement, increasing sanctions, increasing intervention by vehicle occupants and increasing public awareness of risks, as ways of reducing these types of unsafe driving practices. The posted speed limit is a law that applies to all traffic lanes. Technically speaking, there is no fast lane or slow lane. In at least 21 states, slower traffic is expected to keep right, except for emergency vehicles, which are permitted to exceed the posted speed limit, but only when their lights and sirens are on. In some states, laws specify “keep right except to pass.” According to NHTSA’s Traffic Safety Facts 1998, approximately 6,335,000 crashes occur in the United States each year. It is unknown exactly how many of those crashes are caused by aggressive driving. Estimates indicate the number to be substantial, based on the violations committed by the drivers of the vehicles involved in the crashes and reported by law enforcement agencies as the contributing factor of the crash.
Things to Avoid
Expressing Frustration – Taking out your frustrations on your fellow motorists can lead to violence or a crash. Fail to Pay Attention when Driving – Reading, eating, drinking or talking on the phone, can be a major cause of roadway crashes. Tailgating – This is a major cause of crashes that can result in serious injury or death. Making Frequent Lane Changes – If you whip in and out of lanes to advance ahead, you can be a danger to other motorists. Running Red Lights – Do not enter an intersection on a yellow light. Remember flashing red lights should be treated as a stop sign. Speeding – Going faster than the posted speed limit, being a “road racer” and going too fast for conditions are some examples of speeding.
Things to Do
Concentrate – Don’t allow yourself to become distracted by talking on your cell phone, eating, drinking or putting on makeup. Relax – Tune the radio to your favorite relaxing music. Music can calm your nerves and help you to enjoy your time in the car. Drive the Posted Speed Limit – Fewer crashes occur when vehicles are traveling at or about the same speed. Identify Alternate Routes – Try mapping out an alternate route. Even if it looks longer on paper, you may find it less congested. Use Public Transportation – Public transportation can give you some much-needed relief from life behind the wheel. Just Be Late – if all else fails, just be late.
What to Do if Confronted by an Aggressive Driver
Get Out of the Way – First and foremost, make every attempt to get out of their way. Put Your Pride Aside – Do not challenge them by speeding up or attempting to hold-your-own in your travel lane. Avoid Eye Contact – Eye contact can sometimes enrage an aggressive driver. Ignore gestures and refuse to return them. Report Serious Aggressive Driving – You or a passenger may call 9-1-1, but if you are using cell phone, pull over to a safe location.
: Aggressive Driving
What are the 3 types of aggressive driving?
Tailgating or following improperly. Blocking other cars trying to pass or change lanes. Driving on the shoulder, sidewalk or median of the road.
What are some examples of aggressive behavior?
Aggression can be direct behaviors such as hitting, kicking, biting, and pushing to name a few. Additionally, aggression can take on an indirect form like teasing, bullying, spreading rumors, name-calling, or ignoring someone.
What is aggressive driving 5 examples?
Fourth Road Safety Week (5 – 11 April 2004) – The following paper is a compilation of some of the recent research on aggressive driving behaviour. A reference list appears at the end of the paper. What is it? Aggressive driving behaviour takes many forms.
Typical aggressive driving behaviours include speeding, driving too close to the car in front, not respecting traffic regulations, improper lane changing or weaving, etc. The list is long. Most people drive aggressively from time to time and many drivers are not even aware when they are doing it. Aggressive driving is difficult to define because of its many different manifestations but having a clear definition is important for police and legal action against it to succeed.
A Global Web Conference on Aggressive Driving Issues organized in Canada in October 2000 offered the following definition “A driving behaviour is aggressive if it is deliberate, likely to increase the risk of collision and is motivated by impatience, annoyance, hostility and/or an attempt to save time.” According to an EOS Gallup Europe survey on aggressive behaviour behind the wheel concluded in January 2003 the problem is widespread.66 per cent of respondents in the United States, 65 per cent in the Russian Federation and 48 per cent in the European Union as a whole reported being the victim of aggressive driving behaviour in the previous year.
The survey also shows a strong relation between showing aggressive behaviour and being a victim of it: 70 per cent of drivers in the European Union who admitted to showing aggressive behaviour on several occasions claimed to have been subject to it from other drivers. The survey shows that although not a new phenomena, aggressive behaviour is increasing.
When asked if aggressiveness of drivers has increased over the last few years 65 per cent of the respondents in Russia, 75 per cent of the respondents in the EU and 80 per cent of the respondents in the United States agreed. Forms of aggressive behaviour may vary across countries and continents.
Drivers who had been subject to aggressive behaviour in the last year were asked which specific type of aggressive behaviour they had been subject to.61 per cent of the respondents in the United States replied that they had been aggressively pursued. In the EU 60 per cent replied they had been subject to aggressive flashing of lights and in Russia verbal abuse was the most common reply with 47 per cent.
When the same drivers were asked where the last aggressive incident occurred a clear majority, 67 per cent, of Russians replied “in town” whereas in the EU there was a balance between “in-town” and “in non-urban traffic”, both receiving 47 per cent. In the United States the results were similar with 48 per cent replying “in town” and 46 per cent “in non-urban traffic”.
- In the EOS Gallup Europe survey an average of 50 per cent of respondents in the EU and 37 per cent in the United States replied that they found it very irritating seeing another driver using a mobile phone.
- However a recent study from the RAC in the United Kingdom shows that while only 1 in 5 drivers in the United Kingdom admit to using a mobile phone while driving 63 per cent of motorists say that they frequently observe others driving carelessly while using a mobile phone.
Aggressive driving is also bad for the environment. Research at the Flemish Institute for Technological Research in Belgium has shown that aggressive driving during heavy traffic conditions can guzzle up to 40 per cent more fuel. Also the exhaust gases from the aggressively driven cars contained considerably more polluting chemicals and in the case of carbon monoxide the increase was as much as eight times greater than normal.
Aggressive driving is not the same as “road rage”. Cases of road rage are relatively few but may result in extreme violence. What are the causes of aggressive driving? There are many different theoretical approaches to aggressive behaviour and none are considered complete explanations. Biological theories consider aggressive behaviour to be innate although specific responses can be modified by experience.
In the psychoanalytic tradition the frustration-aggression hypothesis focuses on the role of external factors. Frustrating situations that impede or prevent some form of ongoing goal-directed behaviour are believed to act as a catalyst for aggressive behaviour.
Social learning approaches on the other hand argue that aggression is a learned response through observation or imitation of socially relevant others. All these approaches differ in their emphasis but it is generally assumed that aggressive behaviour is the combined result of these factors. Many psychological factors are at play in aggressive driving and many may prove difficult to control.
Human beings are naturally prone to territoriality and have the tendency to view their vehicle as an extension of their personal domain. They feel threatened by other vehicles and respond aggressively or out of an instinct of self- protection. Driving may also lead some to feel a sense of power behind the wheel which they do not have in their jobs or families, for example, and in some cases may even manifest itself in a “Jekyll and Hyde” effect, where someone normally courteous and polite becomes aggressive when driving.
- Man’s natural competitive instinct can also be a factor in aggressive driving.
- Some drivers respond to being overtaken by another vehicle as a challenge.
- This, in turn may lead to showing off and racing involving speeds which are well over the speed limit and to drivers making risky overtaking manoeuvres.
Another example of competition on the road is drivers who race to get off faster at traffic lights. More serious still are drivers who try to threaten or punish others for a particular driving behaviour which displeases them. This is also referred to as a “vigilante” attitude and includes such behaviours as driving too close to the vehicle in front, braking suddenly as a warning to the vehicle behind, deliberately blocking the passing lane, using headlights on full beam to punish other drivers, and shouting or making obscene gestures to other drivers.
All these behaviours are exacerbated by the stress and time pressures of modern life. Increasingly crowded and congested roads also lead to feelings of frustration and are responsible for cases of aggressive driving and lack of respect for other drivers such as illegal use of the hard shoulder, changing lanes without indicating, preventing other vehicles from entering a traffic lane.
They also lead to anger at slow drivers, for example, and at traffic lights which seem to take too long to change. Research shows that people who are experiencing aggressive/emotional or angry feelings before getting into their car are more likely to continue this behaviour behind the wheel.
- Moreover, the use of alcohol and drugs may also increase the likelihood of aggressive driving.
- On top of all this, we are bombarded by media portrayals of aggressive driving shown in a fun context such as car chases in films and in children’s video games.
- Aggressive driving is a learned behaviour.
- Children learn about aggressive driving from their parents.
What can be done to stop aggressive driving? There are a number of different means that can be employed to prevent or discourage aggressive driving. Enforcement and education are the most common and results indicate that enforcement efforts should be accompanied by public information campaigns in order to achieve the greatest effect.
- Increased and more consistent enforcement will bring positive results.
- Aggressive driving is more likely in situations where drivers feel anonymous as pointed out by R.
- Novaco in “Roadway aggression” (1998): “Generally, people lose self-restraint when they are not mindful of who they are and of their place in a rule-governed society.
Expectations of punishment are diminished, and aggressive impulses are more readily expressed. The chance ‘to get away with it’ can release aggression that would otherwise have been held in check.” A study conducted in 2000 by Wouter and Bos on vehicle data recorders compared the incidence of accidents for vehicles with and without recorders.
Results indicate that the use of data recorders resulted in an average accident reduction of 20 per cent. Red light cameras have been shown to reduce accidents at junctions. Drivers are more likely not to risk crossing on a red light if they know there is a camera. Likewise, speed cameras are effective in reducing incidences of speeding.
In April 2000 the United Kingdom Government introduced a scheme to pilot self-funding of speed cameras. The scheme allowed for new speed cameras and more use of existing cameras. A recent evaluation of the scheme shows that the number of drivers exceeding the speed limit at pilot camera sites fell from 55 to 16 per cent and this lead to 35 per cent fewer crashes.
- Other devices which may be used include cameras to measure adherence to rules regarding distance between vehicles.
- Variable message speed limit signs can help to control traffic flow and to prevent traffic congestion and the frustration it causes.
- New technologies such as intelligent speed adaptation have been tested on an experimental basis but have not yet been accepted for widescale application.
A recent Swedish study studied the effects of automatic Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) systems in cars which assist drivers in the task of controlling speed and distance to the vehicle ahead. It was shown that lower acceptance of an automatic ACC was associated with a more aggressive driving style in situations where the driver caught up with a slower vehicle.
Another method proposed to combat aggressive driving is the use of telephone numbers to report on the driving of others. This approach has the advantage of making callers feel that they are contributing to solving the problem, and may also help authorities to identify problem spots which can be rectified by infrastructural or other means.
In the United States, many regions have introduced the cell phone number 77 for reporting aggressive driving. However there are often different numbers in different states which causes confusion. The AAA in the United States is currently in the process of developing a sign saying “sorry” for drivers to have in their cars.
In the United States also, programmes in which aggressive driving is filmed from another vehicle or even an aircraft have proved effective. Aggressive drivers are then “named and shamed” and confronted with incontrovertible proof of their aggressive driving in court. The Belgian Road Safety Institute has organised an alternative penalty for this type of traffic offender which does not result in legal action or a police record.
The aggressive driver is obliged to attend a 20-hour course with other offenders run by group workers and psychologists, The aim is to make reoffending more unlikely by helping offenders to understand the consequences of their actions and the stimuli which provoked the aggressive behaviour.
- There would seem to be merit in a psychological approach since psychology plays such a key role in aggressive driving.
- Certainly big businesses have a role to play.
- Transport haulage companies with fleets of vehicles and a large number of drivers on the pay roll should insist on the highest standards from their drivers and encourage this through schemes for reporting bad driving and offering incentives for good driving.
Insurance companies are uniquely placed to offer economic incentives for good driving and more could be done to discourage speeding and other forms of aggressive driving through the leverage of insurance premiums. Clearly education and driver training are important.
Already in schools it is important to make a formal commitment to promote effective road safety education so that appropriate behaviour is fostered from an early age. It is also important to develop links between schools and other agencies such as the police. Courteous, non-aggressive driving should be stressed in initial driving tests.
However, continuing driver training is probably necessary since it may only be after the driver has passed his/her test that aggressive driving starts. A problem with passive education of road users is that many believe they are more skilful and better drivers than everyone else so objective risk estimates are often viewed as somewhat irrelevant.
- Also the media plays an important role.
- The media can enhance community awareness and understanding of the causal factors involved in aggressive driving.
- The media can also support campaigns through responsible, objective reporting and influence societal changes which may lead to a change in aggressive driving behaviour and attitudes.
In Italy, the Government allows the mass media to report road fatalities in a “no holds barred” approach with the aim of shocking and scaring. What can I do as a driver? Because of the extent of the problem of aggressive driving, increased enforcement and other external measures will only ever have a relatively limited effect.
- What is needed is the recognition by ordinary drivers of the problem and their resolve to try to curb their own aggressive driving and to show more respect for other road users.
- This has to be emphasised in road safety campaigns.
- Road safety authorities will find challenging and engaging ways of getting this message to drivers.
However, each of us in our daily lives can help by recognising our own aggressive driving behaviour and correcting it and by setting a good example of respect for other road users. Show courtesy to other drivers and avoid actions likely to provoke. Make sure that your driving does not upset others.
Always indicate before changing lanes, leave sufficient room before moving back into lane, do not take up more than one parking space, dip your headlights for oncoming vehicles at night, do not block the passing lane for faster drivers, etc. Try to avoid driving when you are feeling stressful, emotional or angry.
Relax behind the wheel and be patient. Try to be more tolerant of other drivers. Use your horn very sparingly. Aggressive use of the horn can aggravate others. Do not assume that aggressive driving by others is deliberate or aimed at you. Plan ahead and allow plenty of time for your journey.
Avoid getting into the situation where you are racing to get to an important meeting and taking risks on the road just to gain a few minutes. Do not react to other drivers who are looking for conflict or challenging you. Pull over and let them pass. Do not engage in eye contact. Keep your hands on the steering wheel and do not make hand or other gestures which may show your irritation or frustration with their behaviour.
References “Aggressive behaviour behind the wheel”, EOS Gallup Europe, 2003. “Aggressive driving is emotionally impaired driving”, Leon James and Diane Nahl, University of Hawai, 2000. “An educational programme for aggressive drivers”, Félix et al., Belgian Road Safety Institute (IBSR-BIVV), 2000.
- A review of the literature on aggressive driving research”, Leo Tasca, Ontario Advisory Group on Safe Driving Secretariat: Road User Safety Branch, 2000.
- Cross-Cultural Models of Road Traffic Accident Risk: Personality, Behavioural, Cognitive and Demographic Predictors” by McNally, I.M and Stone, M., University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK, 2001.
“Driver aggression study”, Automobile Association, Group Public Policy Road Safety Unit, United Kingdom, 1996. “Driving with Automation. The association between subjective opinions of automated in-vehicle systems and quantitative measures of driving performance” by Oskarsson, P.A., 2002.
Which of the following is a cause of aggressive driving?
What is Aggressive Driving? – Frequently associated with anger, it’s not difficult to see why aggressive driving causes crashes – California roads are dangerous enough without angry drivers in the mix. Aggressive driving may be caused by increasingly long commutes to work, traffic congestion, and the behavior of other drivers.
- Running red lights
- Failing to obey stop signs
- Passing illegally
- Failing to yield right of way
- Erratic and unsafe lane changes
- Ignore signals from other drivers
Although any of these actions might contribute to an accident, and might help determine fault in the event of a crash, aggressive driving accidents should not be confused with road rage. Honking the horn in the middle of traffic or making insulting gestures may be examples of aggressive driving, but on their own they are not illegal actions.
What is not an aggressive driving behavior?
For example, a driver who runs a stop sign because they aren’t paying attention is negligent but not aggressive. But changing lanes while honking is aggressive, even if traveling at a normal speed.
Which one of the following is not a typical behavior of aggressive driving?
A frequent changes of speed.
What are the 5 categories of aggressive behavior?
Aggression can be verbal or physical. There are four types of aggressive behavior: accidental, expressive, instrumental, and hostile.
What are 4 factors that may be a trigger to aggressive behavior?
Early childhood abuse or neglect. Witnessing violence at home, in the community or in the media. History of being bullied. Easy access to weapons.
What are the two forms of aggressive behavior?
Two major types of aggression, proactive and reactive, are associated with contrasting expression, eliciting factors, neural pathways, development, and function. The distinction is useful for understanding the nature and evolution of human aggression.
What is an aggressive driving style?
Psychology of driving: What is your driving style? Every year, road accidents claim the lives of millions of people all over the world. According to government reports, in 2013 the number of accident casualties in the UK accounted for 2.3% of the population (Mais, 2014). In recent years, scholars carrying out academic and empirical studies of driving have started to distinguish between not only certain driving behaviours and habits, but also styles of driving.
- In hopes that this will help isolate certain dangerous driving styles and address them, researchers have studied drivers and their habits for the last two decades.
- We’ve conceptualised the four styles of driving by scholars Taubman-Ben-Ari and colleagues (2012).
- Angry driving style The so-called ‘angry and hostile style’ of driving is characterised by frequent expressions of road rage, irritation and hostile behaviours towards other drivers on the road.
Such behaviours could include cursing, honking, flashing lights and so on. According to the study by Taubman-Ben-Ari and colleagues, this driving style was adopted more by men than women, especially by younger men. Of course, everyone gets angry on the road, however people who exhibit such driving styles are angry behind the wheel most of the time.
Needless to say, angry driving is dangerous not only to other drivers on the road, but for the psychological and emotional health of whoever displays it. Experts suggest that when the feeling of anger arises, you should breathe very slowly and try to calm yourself down with a nice thought or some relaxing music.
If you find yourself feeling angry most of the time, make sure to talk to a professional as this can save you a lot of problems in future.
Reckless and careless driving style Anxious style Careful style
This driving style is also adopted by more men than women and again, age is a significant predictor – the older the driver, the less likely they are to drive recklessly. Similar to the angry style, the reckless driving style was adopted more by people who scored low on the agreeableness and conscientiousness personality traits scale (Costa & McCrae,1997).
- This style is probably the riskiest of all four and it is the main reason why researchers are devising tests to measure each style and thus isolate risky driving groups, such as young adolescents.
- The reckless driving style is categorised by speeding, extreme thrill seeking and deliberate violations of the driving norms and this is why it requires heightened attention.
People who adopt this style tend to be fearless, enjoying risk and the rush they get from breaking the law, which translates into other aspects of life. Interestingly, some of the people who demonstrate it seem to be relatively calm in other situations, which means that this area needs a lot more research.According to the study, this style is demonstrated by more women than men and is not dependent on age as much as years of exposure to driving; in other words, if you are a woman with little driving experience you are most likely to adopt this style of driving.
It is not clear whether the little exposure causes the adoption of the anxious style or that people who demonstrate this style just choose to drive less in general. In some cases, this style can also be classified as dangerous because the driver is lacking confidence, often misjudges distances and speed of other vehicles and often drives very, very slowly.
People who adopt this style tend to view driving as a tense, stressful experience, which poses a threat to their life, regardless of the driving situation and context. Our advice is that if you view driving in this way too and worry excessively, you should talk to someone you trust or a psychologist, who can help you overcome this anxiety.This style is seen more often in women than in men and more in older people than younger.
The careful style is characterised by consideration for others on the road, less thrill seeking and a high value of carefulness. People who adopt this style tend to be agreeable and warm, conscientious, sensitive and capable of coping with anxiety in a healthy way. In general, this style is adopted by people who don’t seek sensation or thrill excessively, which translates into calm and confident driving.
Do you recognise yourself in one of these driving styles? Let us know! : Psychology of driving: What is your driving style?
What is considered aggressive behavior?
Aggression, according to social psychology, describes any behavior or act aimed at harming a person or animal or damaging physical property. A few examples of aggressive acts: acts of physical violence. shouting, swearing, and harsh language. gossiping or spreading rumors about a classmate.
How many types of aggressive behavior are there?
Types of aggression – There are three main types of aggression: instrumental, hostile, and relational aggression. Hostile, or physical aggression occurs when a person intends to harm another by carrying out a physical behavior — such as hitting, shooting, kicking, or stabbing — or by threatening to do so.
What are six examples of aggressive behaviors communicating?
Aggressive – Aggression is defined as an unplanned act of anger in which the aggressor intends to hurt someone or something. Aggressive communicators typically create avoidable conflict by engaging in personal attacks and put-downs. Aggressive communicators create a win-lose situation and use intimidation to get their own needs met, often at the expense of others.
- Aggressive communicators typically feel a strong sense of inadequacy, have a lack of empathy, and believe the only way to get their needs met is through power and control.
- Aggressive communicators are usually close-minded, are poor listeners, and tend to monopolize others.
- Behaviors often seen during aggressive communication include: putting others down, overpowering others, not showing appreciation, rushing others unnecessarily, ignoring others, not considering other’s feelings, intimidating others, and speaking in a condescending manner.
Nonverbal behaviors exhibited during aggressive communication include: frowning, critical glares, rigid posture, trying to stand over others, using a loud voice and fast speech. While engaging in this type of communications, individuals typically feel anger, superiority, frustration, and impatience.
Aggressive communication often results in counter aggression, alienation, and the creation of resistance or defiance. Additionally, individuals on the receiving end of aggressive communication typically feel: resentful, defensive, humiliated, hurt, and or afraid. There are times when aggressive communication is pertinent, however.
The aggressive communication style is essential during emergencies or when decisions have to be quickly made.
Which of the following is an example of aggressive driving select all that apply?
Speeding, tailgating (following too closely), erratic and sudden lane changes, and failing to obey traffic signs and signals are all examples of aggressive driving.
What are the four types of aggressive behaviour?
Aggression can be verbal or physical. There are four types of aggressive behavior: accidental, expressive, instrumental, and hostile.