New Surrogacy Law Why Women Become?

New Surrogacy Law Why Women Become
Seven months after their only daughter died during the coronavirus pandemic, Indian couple Sabu Thomas and Jean George were hoping to fill a void through surrogacy. But their dreams of having a child have hit a dead end under India ‘s new surrogacy laws, aimed at regulating the country’s once booming rent-a-womb industry that earned it the sobriquet of “world’s baby factory”.

  1. Mr Thomas, 52, and Ms George, 47, from Pathanamthitta in southern Kerala state, lost their 20-year-old daughter Nova Sabu in August to brain hemorrhage, caused by what they claim was an adverse reaction to the Covid-19 vaccine.
  2. What is life without a child? We have lost our precious daughter.
  3. We need a baby who will give us hope to continue living and ease this pain,” Mr Thomas told The National,

The couple began the search for a surrogate mother soon after the death of their daughter, as Ms George had reached menopause and has been diagnosed with breast cancer. But their efforts to find a volunteer surrogate who could bear the couple a child in a largely conservative society have failed as the new rules prohibit women from renting their wombs for money. New Surrogacy Law Why Women Become A newborn baby born through surrogacy at a neo-natal ICU ward in Gujarat, India. Subhash Sharma/The National India legalised surrogacy in 2002. Within a decade, the medical procedure became a multi-million-dollar industry – a mixed bag for childless couples amid allegations of exploitation of surrogates – before Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s government passed the new law last year.

The Surrogacy (Regulation) Act 2021 was passed in December and made “altruistic surrogacy” mandatory to curb exploitation of women for commercial gains. The law limits the medical procedure to couples who are infertile and have been married for at least five years, with no surviving offspring. It also mandates the eligible ages to between 26 and 55 for the husband and 23 to 50 for the wife.

A couple can only sponsor the medical expenses of the surrogate, who should be married and between 25 and 35 years of age. Towards the end of the 2010, thousands of low-cost fertility clinics sprouted across the country, mainly in western Gujarat where infertile couples, including foreigners with dreams of having children, flocked looking for a cheap route to parenthood.

Why do women become surrogates?

Meet the Women Who Become Surrogates (Published 2021) New Surrogacy Law Why Women Become Aretha Cagno, 33, of Bristol, Conn., promised her sister she’d carry a child for her but never got the chance. She later acted as a surrogate twice for a single father. Credit. Ike Abakah for The New York Times Aretha Cagno, 33, of Bristol, Conn., promised her sister she’d carry a child for her but never got the chance.

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In 1995, Lisa Wippler, having recently retired from the Marines, moved with her husband and two young sons to Oceanside, Calif., and was contemplating her next chapter in life. The answer came while lying in bed one night, reading an article about infertility.

“I had no idea how many couples out there needed help,” she said. Inspired, she sought out a local support group for women who had served as surrogates to help those who can’t have children on their own start families. “It was this amazing circle of women,” said Ms. Wippler, who is now 49. “All talking about their journeys and their stories.” Last year, Ms.

Wippler — by this point a three-time surrogate herself — was part of a delegation of surrogacy advocates who traveled to Albany, where she had the opportunity to share her story with lawmakers considering whether to legalize the practice in New York State.

  • She was joined by the first woman she carried a child for, in 1996, who spoke with state legislators as well.
  • I had never heard her talk so openly about her struggles and the impact this all had on her,” Ms.
  • Wippler said.
  • I was so proud — it really had an impact on me.” In her advocacy work, Ms.
  • Wippler said, she has been befuddled to hear the arguments put forward by opponents — some of whom contend the surrogacy industry preys on poor and vulnerable women.

“I’m a retired Marine,” she said. “I can guarantee you no one coerced me.” Starting Monday, after a protracted battle in the state that garnered, New York joins most other states in the nation in permitting some form of compensated gestational surrogacy — when a woman carries a child, to whom she is not biologically related, for an individual or couple in exchange for a fee.

Only Michigan and Louisiana will continue to criminalize gestational surrogacy, as New York did, but other states still,) While the United States remains one of the few countries where gestational surrogacy is legal, and widely practiced, it continues to be, Often missing from the conversation, however, are perspectives of women like Ms.

Wippler — and the varied, sometimes deeply personal, reasons that compel them to become surrogates. Image New Surrogacy Law Why Women Become Lisa Wippler was inspired by an article on infertility to help others grow their families. She’s been a surrogate three times, and now works in the surrogacy industry. Credit. The Wipplers Photo Co. When Ranetta Meade was 8 years old, she was diagnosed with lupus, a chronic autoimmune disorder that eventually left her unable to conceive or carry children.

She nonetheless hoped to start a family one day, and asked her younger sister, Aretha Cagno, to consider carrying a child for her. “It was her dream to become a mom,” said Ms. Cagno, 33, of Bristol, Conn. “I said, ‘Of course, I’ll carry as many as you want.'” Unfortunately, she never got the opportunity.

In 2007, her sister died due to complications from her illness. Ms. Cagno later married and started a family of her own, but never forgot the promise she made to her sister, and looked into surrogacy as a way to celebrate Ms. Meade’s memory. “What better way to honor her than to help someone else start their family?” she said.

  • Ms. Cagno has since carried and delivered two children for a single gay man living in New York.
  • Compensated traditional surrogacy — when a carrier uses her own eggs and is genetically tied to the resulting child — will remain prohibited in New York.
  • Though not as commonly practiced, this form of surrogacy is often better known among those familiar with from 1986, when a traditional surrogate claimed parentage of the child she carried.

A messy legal battle ensued, and state lawmakers across the country, including those in New York, were prompted to pass laws prohibiting all forms of compensated surrogacy, including gestational. Ashley Montez, 32 — a first-time gestational surrogate who is currently 28 weeks pregnant with a baby intended for a gay couple based in Switzerland — said acquaintances often ask if she, too, will have difficulty parting with the baby she is carrying, from an embryo created with a donor egg.

“I’m a fairly emotional person, but from the beginning, I was prepared for this,” she said, noting the industry is more developed and regulated since the “Baby M” days. “I knew going into this that this is not my child — I’m just helping him grow.” Aretha Cagno is due to give birth to her own child next month.

She said her children know and “love” the children she has birthed for another family. Credit. Ike Abakah for The New York Times There is a long-standing stereotype that surrogates are attracted to the work because they are financially vulnerable, inspired in part by the experience of,

A surrogate’s compensation varies by a number of factors, including geographic location and whether she is a first time or experienced carrier. At the Los Angeles-based agency where Ms. Wippler now works as the director of surrogate admission, the range falls between $30,000 and $60,000, which is typical across the industry in the United States, she said.

It would be disingenuous, Ms. Montez said, to claim compensation played no role in her decision to become a surrogate. “But it’s really just there to make sure I’m financially stable during this time,” said the mother of two, who lives with her family in the Bay Area.

  1. Her real inspiration, she said, came as a child, after witnessing a surrogate carry twins for her aunt, who struggled with infertility.
  2. Those are my cousins — they wouldn’t be here without that lady who opened up her heart,” Ms.
  3. Montez said.
  4. It’s hard to put into words the feeling you get helping another family come to life.” That gestational carriers tend to be so altruistic by nature is not, as it turns out, by accident — they are carefully vetted that way, said Ms.

Wippler. Though the surrogacy industry remains loosely regulated by the federal government, it has come a long way since “Baby M.” Reputable agencies adhere to guidelines put forth by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, or A.S.R.M. Applying these standards, along with those imposed by her own agency, means few applicants make it through the screening process.

  1. Out of the 300 to 400 candidates her agency receives each month, Ms.
  2. Wippler said, only 1 to 1.5 percent are accepted.
  3. Candidates are disqualified for any number of reasons, the most common resulting from a health screening.A.S.R.M.
  4. Guidelines say surrogates should be between 21 and 45 years old, have carried at least one child to term without major complications and maintain a healthy body-mass index.

But the guidelines also require surrogates to undergo psychological screening — a process that closely examines a candidate’s motivations to pursue work as a gestational carrier. Applicants who are deemed overly dependent on the compensation provided, including those who receive government assistance, are screened out as surrogates.

We always go back to a ‘do no harm’ mentality,” Ms. Wippler said, noting that if a candidate receives food stamps or Medicaid, the payment provided for surrogacy would in many cases cause them to lose eligibility for those benefits. An applicant’s family members are also screened to ensure they are supportive.

Aretha Cagno said her husband and children — who are 12, 9 and twin 6-year-olds, plus a baby due next month — have from the beginning been “100 percent supportive” of her work as a surrogate. As is fairly common in surrogacy arrangements, her family has grown close to the man she carried for and the two resulting children, a 2-year-old and 11-month-old.

She noted that the families would get together in person frequently before the pandemic. A surrogate pregnancy presents some unique challenges for the women who make it through this rigorous screening. Having been selected, in part, for the relative ease of their pregnancies, most have not experienced getting pregnant with the aid of reproductive technologies.

The daily hormone injections that carriers must self-administer in the weeks leading up to an embryo transfer often result in side effects, like body aches, nausea and fatigue. This aspect, alone, should dissuade anyone from pursuing a surrogate pregnancy “just for the money,” Ms.

  1. Cagno said.
  2. It’s painful at times.” Then there are the risks associated with any pregnancy, some of which surrogates may not have previously experienced while carrying their biological children.
  3. Niki Renslow, 35, who lives with her husband and three children in Buckeye, Ariz., first began to consider surrogacy after conversations with some of her gay male friends.
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“A lot of them would be like, ‘I want to have a family with my own blood, but I don’t know what to do,'” Ms. Renslow said. “And I’m thinking, yeah, wait, what are you going to do?” Carrying and delivering her own children had been “flawless” experiences, she said, so she broached the idea of becoming a gestational carrier with her husband.

“If we can help other people who this doesn’t come as easy to, why not?” they agreed. Her experience with surrogate pregnancy, for a gay couple living in France, proved far more difficult — it included two miscarriages; a subchorionic hematoma, which is a pregnancy complication that caused daily bleeding throughout her first trimester; and an emergency cesarean section to deliver premature twins at 32 weeks.

Today, Ms. Renslow works for a Maryland-based surrogacy agency screening potential gestational carriers and uses her story as something of a cautionary tale to ensure applicants are aware of the risks involved. Even with these complications, however, she tells candidates the experience can be a “magical” one.

Do surrogates have a genetic relationship to the child they carry?

Surrogate – This is the preferred term for women who are willing to help IP(s) to create families by carrying children for them. A surrogate may or may not have a genetic relationship to the child that she carries for a couple. Surrogates generally do not prefer to be referred to as the mother or parent of the child.

  1. There are many reasons why women decide to become surrogates.
  2. Some have experienced trouble conceiving themselves, some have seen friends or family struggle to have a family and some wish to support families.
  3. Money should not be a motivation for surrogacy.
  4. Surrogates in the UK are expected to be paid no more than reasonable expenses.

The family court will consider all payments to the surrogate as part of the IP(s) ‘ parental order application.

Can surrogacy be done if the father has fertility issues?

Host surrogacy – Host (also known as gestational) surrogacy is when the surrogate doesn’t provide her own egg to achieve the pregnancy. In such pregnancies, embryos are created in vitro and transferred into the uterus of the surrogate using:

  • eggs of the intended mother fertilised with sperm of the intended father or donor
  • eggs of a donor fertilised with sperm of the intended father, where the intended mother cannot use her own eggs or the IPs are a same-sex male couple

Are the new surrogacy laws confusing?

Are 2022 New Surrogacy Laws Patient Friendly? Fertility Dost is a 50,000 strong community of women & couples suffering from infertility. And we exactly know how it feels to be childless. To fulfil their parenthood dreams the couples hardly have few options like IVF treatment, adoption & surrogacy.

Why become a surrogate?

Reasons Women Become Surrogates –

Helping parents start/grow their family – Giving life and helping others is often at the top of every surrogate’s list. The ability to create life and aid a family in need fosters an indescribable feeling to those who choose surrogacy. It is a perspective and experience unique to women, and difficult to put into words or share with those who have not experienced it first hand. High Financial Compensation – It’s no secret that surrogates get paid a decent sum for their role. Surrogates at ConceiveAbilities are compensated anywhere between $44,00 to $62,000, depending on the type of pregnancy and the surrogate’s experience. Some may see compensation for pregnancy a questionable practice, but it is less about financial motivation and more about protection and fairness. The surrogate must undergo a rigorous screening phase and adhere to restrictions in diet and physical activity. The compensation is a means of fairly paying the surrogate for her time and effort. Empathy for those Struggling with Infertility – Infertility is more common than you think. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), roughly 10% of women in the United States (6.1 million) aged 15-44 have trouble getting or staying pregnant. There are a number of reasons for why a woman might be infertile, and surrogacy remains one of the safest alternatives to a genetically-related pregnancy. Our surrogates offer to carry a baby simply because they want to help others affected by infertility. The Experience of Being Pregnant – Pregnancy can be overwhelming, but for some, pregnancy is an enjoyable and unique experience. When some surrogates reach the end of their journey, they exhibit a nostalgia for their pregnancy, from the first kick, to the delivery. This is why we often get repeat surrogates- they usually want to relive that feeling of being a protector and carrier for an infant life. Be Part of the Discussion – Even in 2017, surrogacy has a mixed reputation. People continue to stigmatize it with misconceptions and outdated facts. Choosing to become a surrogate is a proactive way of getting your voice heard, becoming a part of the conversation, and breaking stereotypes behind what a surrogate is or what surrogacy is about. Many of our own surrogates have become advocates for surrogacy and women’s rights, whether it’s through the topics of fair compensation and coverage, or overall public acceptance. A Different Kind of Extended Family – A surrogate’s relationship with her intended parents and surrobaby is remarkably different from that of her own biological parents. Some surrogates prefer not to be bothered and go at it alone, while others want to get to know the parents on a more intimate level. We consider both types in the screening and matching phases. SurroSisterhood Community – Becoming a surrogate means joining a strong and tightknit community of former gestational carriers. Once you join, you’re always part of it. So what are the benefits of joining the community? You’ll be invited to surrogate parties, picnics, and gatherings. You’ll have a group of women who can help you out as you go through your journey, to ask questions about, to lean on in times of distress, and to celebrate with when that time comes. Here are a few examples of previous surrogacy events,

Is surrogacy still stigmatized?

Reasons Women Become Surrogates –

Helping parents start/grow their family – Giving life and helping others is often at the top of every surrogate’s list. The ability to create life and aid a family in need fosters an indescribable feeling to those who choose surrogacy. It is a perspective and experience unique to women, and difficult to put into words or share with those who have not experienced it first hand. High Financial Compensation – It’s no secret that surrogates get paid a decent sum for their role. Surrogates at ConceiveAbilities are compensated anywhere between $44,00 to $62,000, depending on the type of pregnancy and the surrogate’s experience. Some may see compensation for pregnancy a questionable practice, but it is less about financial motivation and more about protection and fairness. The surrogate must undergo a rigorous screening phase and adhere to restrictions in diet and physical activity. The compensation is a means of fairly paying the surrogate for her time and effort. Empathy for those Struggling with Infertility – Infertility is more common than you think. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), roughly 10% of women in the United States (6.1 million) aged 15-44 have trouble getting or staying pregnant. There are a number of reasons for why a woman might be infertile, and surrogacy remains one of the safest alternatives to a genetically-related pregnancy. Our surrogates offer to carry a baby simply because they want to help others affected by infertility. The Experience of Being Pregnant – Pregnancy can be overwhelming, but for some, pregnancy is an enjoyable and unique experience. When some surrogates reach the end of their journey, they exhibit a nostalgia for their pregnancy, from the first kick, to the delivery. This is why we often get repeat surrogates- they usually want to relive that feeling of being a protector and carrier for an infant life. Be Part of the Discussion – Even in 2017, surrogacy has a mixed reputation. People continue to stigmatize it with misconceptions and outdated facts. Choosing to become a surrogate is a proactive way of getting your voice heard, becoming a part of the conversation, and breaking stereotypes behind what a surrogate is or what surrogacy is about. Many of our own surrogates have become advocates for surrogacy and women’s rights, whether it’s through the topics of fair compensation and coverage, or overall public acceptance. A Different Kind of Extended Family – A surrogate’s relationship with her intended parents and surrobaby is remarkably different from that of her own biological parents. Some surrogates prefer not to be bothered and go at it alone, while others want to get to know the parents on a more intimate level. We consider both types in the screening and matching phases. SurroSisterhood Community – Becoming a surrogate means joining a strong and tightknit community of former gestational carriers. Once you join, you’re always part of it. So what are the benefits of joining the community? You’ll be invited to surrogate parties, picnics, and gatherings. You’ll have a group of women who can help you out as you go through your journey, to ask questions about, to lean on in times of distress, and to celebrate with when that time comes. Here are a few examples of previous surrogacy events,

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What are the challenges of a surrogate pregnancy?

Meet the Women Who Become Surrogates (Published 2021) New Surrogacy Law Why Women Become Aretha Cagno, 33, of Bristol, Conn., promised her sister she’d carry a child for her but never got the chance. She later acted as a surrogate twice for a single father. Credit. Ike Abakah for The New York Times Aretha Cagno, 33, of Bristol, Conn., promised her sister she’d carry a child for her but never got the chance.

Send any friend a story As a subscriber, you have 10 gift articles to give each month. Anyone can read what you share. Give this article Give this article Give this article

In 1995, Lisa Wippler, having recently retired from the Marines, moved with her husband and two young sons to Oceanside, Calif., and was contemplating her next chapter in life. The answer came while lying in bed one night, reading an article about infertility.

I had no idea how many couples out there needed help,” she said. Inspired, she sought out a local support group for women who had served as surrogates to help those who can’t have children on their own start families. “It was this amazing circle of women,” said Ms. Wippler, who is now 49. “All talking about their journeys and their stories.” Last year, Ms.

Wippler — by this point a three-time surrogate herself — was part of a delegation of surrogacy advocates who traveled to Albany, where she had the opportunity to share her story with lawmakers considering whether to legalize the practice in New York State.

She was joined by the first woman she carried a child for, in 1996, who spoke with state legislators as well. “I had never heard her talk so openly about her struggles and the impact this all had on her,” Ms. Wippler said. “I was so proud — it really had an impact on me.” In her advocacy work, Ms. Wippler said, she has been befuddled to hear the arguments put forward by opponents — some of whom contend the surrogacy industry preys on poor and vulnerable women.

“I’m a retired Marine,” she said. “I can guarantee you no one coerced me.” Starting Monday, after a protracted battle in the state that garnered, New York joins most other states in the nation in permitting some form of compensated gestational surrogacy — when a woman carries a child, to whom she is not biologically related, for an individual or couple in exchange for a fee.

  • Only Michigan and Louisiana will continue to criminalize gestational surrogacy, as New York did, but other states still,) While the United States remains one of the few countries where gestational surrogacy is legal, and widely practiced, it continues to be,
  • Often missing from the conversation, however, are perspectives of women like Ms.

Wippler — and the varied, sometimes deeply personal, reasons that compel them to become surrogates. Image New Surrogacy Law Why Women Become Lisa Wippler was inspired by an article on infertility to help others grow their families. She’s been a surrogate three times, and now works in the surrogacy industry. Credit. The Wipplers Photo Co. When Ranetta Meade was 8 years old, she was diagnosed with lupus, a chronic autoimmune disorder that eventually left her unable to conceive or carry children.

  1. She nonetheless hoped to start a family one day, and asked her younger sister, Aretha Cagno, to consider carrying a child for her.
  2. It was her dream to become a mom,” said Ms.
  3. Cagno, 33, of Bristol, Conn.
  4. I said, ‘Of course, I’ll carry as many as you want.'” Unfortunately, she never got the opportunity.

In 2007, her sister died due to complications from her illness. Ms. Cagno later married and started a family of her own, but never forgot the promise she made to her sister, and looked into surrogacy as a way to celebrate Ms. Meade’s memory. “What better way to honor her than to help someone else start their family?” she said.

  • Ms. Cagno has since carried and delivered two children for a single gay man living in New York.
  • Compensated traditional surrogacy — when a carrier uses her own eggs and is genetically tied to the resulting child — will remain prohibited in New York.
  • Though not as commonly practiced, this form of surrogacy is often better known among those familiar with from 1986, when a traditional surrogate claimed parentage of the child she carried.

A messy legal battle ensued, and state lawmakers across the country, including those in New York, were prompted to pass laws prohibiting all forms of compensated surrogacy, including gestational. Ashley Montez, 32 — a first-time gestational surrogate who is currently 28 weeks pregnant with a baby intended for a gay couple based in Switzerland — said acquaintances often ask if she, too, will have difficulty parting with the baby she is carrying, from an embryo created with a donor egg.

I’m a fairly emotional person, but from the beginning, I was prepared for this,” she said, noting the industry is more developed and regulated since the “Baby M” days. “I knew going into this that this is not my child — I’m just helping him grow.” Aretha Cagno is due to give birth to her own child next month.

She said her children know and “love” the children she has birthed for another family. Credit. Ike Abakah for The New York Times There is a long-standing stereotype that surrogates are attracted to the work because they are financially vulnerable, inspired in part by the experience of,

  • A surrogate’s compensation varies by a number of factors, including geographic location and whether she is a first time or experienced carrier.
  • At the Los Angeles-based agency where Ms.
  • Wippler now works as the director of surrogate admission, the range falls between $30,000 and $60,000, which is typical across the industry in the United States, she said.

It would be disingenuous, Ms. Montez said, to claim compensation played no role in her decision to become a surrogate. “But it’s really just there to make sure I’m financially stable during this time,” said the mother of two, who lives with her family in the Bay Area.

Her real inspiration, she said, came as a child, after witnessing a surrogate carry twins for her aunt, who struggled with infertility. “Those are my cousins — they wouldn’t be here without that lady who opened up her heart,” Ms. Montez said. “It’s hard to put into words the feeling you get helping another family come to life.” That gestational carriers tend to be so altruistic by nature is not, as it turns out, by accident — they are carefully vetted that way, said Ms.

Wippler. Though the surrogacy industry remains loosely regulated by the federal government, it has come a long way since “Baby M.” Reputable agencies adhere to guidelines put forth by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, or A.S.R.M. Applying these standards, along with those imposed by her own agency, means few applicants make it through the screening process.

Out of the 300 to 400 candidates her agency receives each month, Ms. Wippler said, only 1 to 1.5 percent are accepted. Candidates are disqualified for any number of reasons, the most common resulting from a health screening.A.S.R.M. guidelines say surrogates should be between 21 and 45 years old, have carried at least one child to term without major complications and maintain a healthy body-mass index.

But the guidelines also require surrogates to undergo psychological screening — a process that closely examines a candidate’s motivations to pursue work as a gestational carrier. Applicants who are deemed overly dependent on the compensation provided, including those who receive government assistance, are screened out as surrogates.

  • We always go back to a ‘do no harm’ mentality,” Ms.
  • Wippler said, noting that if a candidate receives food stamps or Medicaid, the payment provided for surrogacy would in many cases cause them to lose eligibility for those benefits.
  • An applicant’s family members are also screened to ensure they are supportive.

Aretha Cagno said her husband and children — who are 12, 9 and twin 6-year-olds, plus a baby due next month — have from the beginning been “100 percent supportive” of her work as a surrogate. As is fairly common in surrogacy arrangements, her family has grown close to the man she carried for and the two resulting children, a 2-year-old and 11-month-old.

She noted that the families would get together in person frequently before the pandemic. A surrogate pregnancy presents some unique challenges for the women who make it through this rigorous screening. Having been selected, in part, for the relative ease of their pregnancies, most have not experienced getting pregnant with the aid of reproductive technologies.

The daily hormone injections that carriers must self-administer in the weeks leading up to an embryo transfer often result in side effects, like body aches, nausea and fatigue. This aspect, alone, should dissuade anyone from pursuing a surrogate pregnancy “just for the money,” Ms.

  • Cagno said.
  • It’s painful at times.” Then there are the risks associated with any pregnancy, some of which surrogates may not have previously experienced while carrying their biological children.
  • Niki Renslow, 35, who lives with her husband and three children in Buckeye, Ariz., first began to consider surrogacy after conversations with some of her gay male friends.

“A lot of them would be like, ‘I want to have a family with my own blood, but I don’t know what to do,'” Ms. Renslow said. “And I’m thinking, yeah, wait, what are you going to do?” Carrying and delivering her own children had been “flawless” experiences, she said, so she broached the idea of becoming a gestational carrier with her husband.

  • If we can help other people who this doesn’t come as easy to, why not?” they agreed.
  • Her experience with surrogate pregnancy, for a gay couple living in France, proved far more difficult — it included two miscarriages; a subchorionic hematoma, which is a pregnancy complication that caused daily bleeding throughout her first trimester; and an emergency cesarean section to deliver premature twins at 32 weeks.

Today, Ms. Renslow works for a Maryland-based surrogacy agency screening potential gestational carriers and uses her story as something of a cautionary tale to ensure applicants are aware of the risks involved. Even with these complications, however, she tells candidates the experience can be a “magical” one.

See also:  What Not To Say To Your Son-In-Law?

How old do you have to be to become a surrogate?

Meet the Women Who Become Surrogates (Published 2021) New Surrogacy Law Why Women Become Aretha Cagno, 33, of Bristol, Conn., promised her sister she’d carry a child for her but never got the chance. She later acted as a surrogate twice for a single father. Credit. Ike Abakah for The New York Times Aretha Cagno, 33, of Bristol, Conn., promised her sister she’d carry a child for her but never got the chance.

Send any friend a story As a subscriber, you have 10 gift articles to give each month. Anyone can read what you share. Give this article Give this article Give this article

In 1995, Lisa Wippler, having recently retired from the Marines, moved with her husband and two young sons to Oceanside, Calif., and was contemplating her next chapter in life. The answer came while lying in bed one night, reading an article about infertility.

I had no idea how many couples out there needed help,” she said. Inspired, she sought out a local support group for women who had served as surrogates to help those who can’t have children on their own start families. “It was this amazing circle of women,” said Ms. Wippler, who is now 49. “All talking about their journeys and their stories.” Last year, Ms.

Wippler — by this point a three-time surrogate herself — was part of a delegation of surrogacy advocates who traveled to Albany, where she had the opportunity to share her story with lawmakers considering whether to legalize the practice in New York State.

She was joined by the first woman she carried a child for, in 1996, who spoke with state legislators as well. “I had never heard her talk so openly about her struggles and the impact this all had on her,” Ms. Wippler said. “I was so proud — it really had an impact on me.” In her advocacy work, Ms. Wippler said, she has been befuddled to hear the arguments put forward by opponents — some of whom contend the surrogacy industry preys on poor and vulnerable women.

“I’m a retired Marine,” she said. “I can guarantee you no one coerced me.” Starting Monday, after a protracted battle in the state that garnered, New York joins most other states in the nation in permitting some form of compensated gestational surrogacy — when a woman carries a child, to whom she is not biologically related, for an individual or couple in exchange for a fee.

(Only Michigan and Louisiana will continue to criminalize gestational surrogacy, as New York did, but other states still,) While the United States remains one of the few countries where gestational surrogacy is legal, and widely practiced, it continues to be, Often missing from the conversation, however, are perspectives of women like Ms.

Wippler — and the varied, sometimes deeply personal, reasons that compel them to become surrogates. Image New Surrogacy Law Why Women Become Lisa Wippler was inspired by an article on infertility to help others grow their families. She’s been a surrogate three times, and now works in the surrogacy industry. Credit. The Wipplers Photo Co. When Ranetta Meade was 8 years old, she was diagnosed with lupus, a chronic autoimmune disorder that eventually left her unable to conceive or carry children.

  1. She nonetheless hoped to start a family one day, and asked her younger sister, Aretha Cagno, to consider carrying a child for her.
  2. It was her dream to become a mom,” said Ms.
  3. Cagno, 33, of Bristol, Conn.
  4. I said, ‘Of course, I’ll carry as many as you want.'” Unfortunately, she never got the opportunity.

In 2007, her sister died due to complications from her illness. Ms. Cagno later married and started a family of her own, but never forgot the promise she made to her sister, and looked into surrogacy as a way to celebrate Ms. Meade’s memory. “What better way to honor her than to help someone else start their family?” she said.

Ms. Cagno has since carried and delivered two children for a single gay man living in New York. Compensated traditional surrogacy — when a carrier uses her own eggs and is genetically tied to the resulting child — will remain prohibited in New York. Though not as commonly practiced, this form of surrogacy is often better known among those familiar with from 1986, when a traditional surrogate claimed parentage of the child she carried.

A messy legal battle ensued, and state lawmakers across the country, including those in New York, were prompted to pass laws prohibiting all forms of compensated surrogacy, including gestational. Ashley Montez, 32 — a first-time gestational surrogate who is currently 28 weeks pregnant with a baby intended for a gay couple based in Switzerland — said acquaintances often ask if she, too, will have difficulty parting with the baby she is carrying, from an embryo created with a donor egg.

  • I’m a fairly emotional person, but from the beginning, I was prepared for this,” she said, noting the industry is more developed and regulated since the “Baby M” days.
  • I knew going into this that this is not my child — I’m just helping him grow.” Aretha Cagno is due to give birth to her own child next month.

She said her children know and “love” the children she has birthed for another family. Credit. Ike Abakah for The New York Times There is a long-standing stereotype that surrogates are attracted to the work because they are financially vulnerable, inspired in part by the experience of,

A surrogate’s compensation varies by a number of factors, including geographic location and whether she is a first time or experienced carrier. At the Los Angeles-based agency where Ms. Wippler now works as the director of surrogate admission, the range falls between $30,000 and $60,000, which is typical across the industry in the United States, she said.

It would be disingenuous, Ms. Montez said, to claim compensation played no role in her decision to become a surrogate. “But it’s really just there to make sure I’m financially stable during this time,” said the mother of two, who lives with her family in the Bay Area.

  1. Her real inspiration, she said, came as a child, after witnessing a surrogate carry twins for her aunt, who struggled with infertility.
  2. Those are my cousins — they wouldn’t be here without that lady who opened up her heart,” Ms.
  3. Montez said.
  4. It’s hard to put into words the feeling you get helping another family come to life.” That gestational carriers tend to be so altruistic by nature is not, as it turns out, by accident — they are carefully vetted that way, said Ms.

Wippler. Though the surrogacy industry remains loosely regulated by the federal government, it has come a long way since “Baby M.” Reputable agencies adhere to guidelines put forth by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, or A.S.R.M. Applying these standards, along with those imposed by her own agency, means few applicants make it through the screening process.

  • Out of the 300 to 400 candidates her agency receives each month, Ms.
  • Wippler said, only 1 to 1.5 percent are accepted.
  • Candidates are disqualified for any number of reasons, the most common resulting from a health screening.A.S.R.M.
  • Guidelines say surrogates should be between 21 and 45 years old, have carried at least one child to term without major complications and maintain a healthy body-mass index.

But the guidelines also require surrogates to undergo psychological screening — a process that closely examines a candidate’s motivations to pursue work as a gestational carrier. Applicants who are deemed overly dependent on the compensation provided, including those who receive government assistance, are screened out as surrogates.

“We always go back to a ‘do no harm’ mentality,” Ms. Wippler said, noting that if a candidate receives food stamps or Medicaid, the payment provided for surrogacy would in many cases cause them to lose eligibility for those benefits. An applicant’s family members are also screened to ensure they are supportive.

Aretha Cagno said her husband and children — who are 12, 9 and twin 6-year-olds, plus a baby due next month — have from the beginning been “100 percent supportive” of her work as a surrogate. As is fairly common in surrogacy arrangements, her family has grown close to the man she carried for and the two resulting children, a 2-year-old and 11-month-old.

  • She noted that the families would get together in person frequently before the pandemic.
  • A surrogate pregnancy presents some unique challenges for the women who make it through this rigorous screening.
  • Having been selected, in part, for the relative ease of their pregnancies, most have not experienced getting pregnant with the aid of reproductive technologies.

The daily hormone injections that carriers must self-administer in the weeks leading up to an embryo transfer often result in side effects, like body aches, nausea and fatigue. This aspect, alone, should dissuade anyone from pursuing a surrogate pregnancy “just for the money,” Ms.

Cagno said. “It’s painful at times.” Then there are the risks associated with any pregnancy, some of which surrogates may not have previously experienced while carrying their biological children. Niki Renslow, 35, who lives with her husband and three children in Buckeye, Ariz., first began to consider surrogacy after conversations with some of her gay male friends.

“A lot of them would be like, ‘I want to have a family with my own blood, but I don’t know what to do,'” Ms. Renslow said. “And I’m thinking, yeah, wait, what are you going to do?” Carrying and delivering her own children had been “flawless” experiences, she said, so she broached the idea of becoming a gestational carrier with her husband.

“If we can help other people who this doesn’t come as easy to, why not?” they agreed. Her experience with surrogate pregnancy, for a gay couple living in France, proved far more difficult — it included two miscarriages; a subchorionic hematoma, which is a pregnancy complication that caused daily bleeding throughout her first trimester; and an emergency cesarean section to deliver premature twins at 32 weeks.

Today, Ms. Renslow works for a Maryland-based surrogacy agency screening potential gestational carriers and uses her story as something of a cautionary tale to ensure applicants are aware of the risks involved. Even with these complications, however, she tells candidates the experience can be a “magical” one.