What Does Et Seq Mean In Law?
- Marvin Harvey
et seq. Et seq. is the abbreviation of a range of Latin phrases, all deriving from the Latin verb sequor, which means to follow. These include the singular form “et sequitur” (the one thing following) and the plural form “et sequentes” or “et sequentia” (for the several things following).
: et seq.
How is ET SEQ used?
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What does et stand for law?
et al. Et al. is short for the Latin expression “et alia,” “et alius,” or “et alii.” Et al. means “and others” or “and the other people” and usually follows the name of a person or a list of names and represents the remainder of the group.
: et al.
What rule prohibits the use of the term et seq?
“Et Seq.” – Adams on Contract Drafting Can’t we do better than et seq. ? Here’s the Black’s Law Dictionary definition: et seq. (et sek ) abbr (18c) And those (pages or sections) that follow, And here’s an example from EDGAR: including but not limited to any claims under (1) the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, 29 U.S.C.
§621 et seq., Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. § 2000e et seq., the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. § 12101 et seq., the Family and Medical Leave Act, 29 U.S.C. § 2601 et seq., the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (“WARN”), 29 U.S.C. § 2101 et seq.
, the Massachusetts Fair Employment Practices Act, M.G.L.c.151B, § 1 et seq. (or any equivalent in the State of New York), the Massachusetts Civil Rights Act, M.G.L.c.12, §§ 11H and 11I, the Massachusetts Equal Rights Act, M.G.L.c.93, § 102 and M.G.L.c.214, § 1C, the Massachusetts Labor and Industries Act, M.G.L.c.149, § 1 et seq.
- And the Massachusetts Privacy Act, M.G.L.c.214, § 1B (or any equivalents in the State of New York), the Fair Credit Reporting Act, 15 U.S.C.
- § 1681 et seq.
- And the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (“ERISA”), 29 U.S.C.
- § 1001 et seq.
- All as amended (“Claims”).
- Although if you want to be really classy, you’d put it in italics, like some contracts on EDGAR do.
(I’m joking.) I have three problems with et seq, First, it has that fusty Latin thing going. Second, saying “and the stuff that follows” seems unhelpfully vague. And third, it clogs up the works. So I issued a cry for help on Twitter, and received the following reply from :, I use the specific sections, subtitle, or title.E.g., Title IV of ERISA.
- Paolo Pasicolan (@PaoloPasicolan) Sounds good to me.
- But if you’re not referring to part of a statute, how about just saying, for example, “the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act,” without saying where it’s codified? It’s not as if there are two WARN Acts.
- Whether you’re referring to the statute as in effect at signing or at any given time is a different issue.) I’d be pleased to hear from someone knowledgeable about legislation.
Updated 9:45 a.m. EDT 18 March 2017: For what it’s worth, Bluebook rule 3.3(b) says, “When citing multiple sections, use two section symbols (§§). Give inclusive numbers; do not use ‘et seq.'” Updated 9:30 a.m. EDT 30 March 2017: I wanted to hear from someone who, unlike me, actually knows something about statutes, so I contacted Tobias A.
- Dorsey, author of,
- Here’s what he had to say: I am not at all a fan of cumbersome information and Bluebook-type bureaucratic rules dreamed up by law students.
- I like your idea of just using the name of the Act, unless of course a more precise citation is really useful under the circumstances.
- It all comes down to being reader-friendly, at least from a legislative drafting perspective.
My thanks to Toby for chiming in. As far as I’m concerned, that settles it: no only does et seq, belong on the scrapheap, you shouldn’t cite statute section numbers unless you have a good reason for doing so. : “Et Seq.” – Adams on Contract Drafting
Is et seq italicized in legal writing?
Symbols and abbreviations in law citations – The United States Code and most other compilations of laws are divided into parts called “titles,” and within those titles, sections. No symbol is used for the title in your reference, but the section number is preceded by the symbol §.
To insert the section symbol in Word, click on “Insert,” “Symbol,” “More symbols,” “Special characters,” and then find it in the list under “section.” When a law is spread across multiple consecutive sections, the term ” et seq,” (Latin for “and following”) is added after the initial section number.
It is always italicized and followed by a period. Reference entry with ” et seq,” Fess–Kenyon Act, 29 U.S.C. § 31 et seq, (1920).
What can I use instead of ET SEQ?
Use §§ Instead of “et seq.” for Multi-Section Statutes – February 16th, 2021 by [email protected] Occasionally when reading law review articles or other legal materials, you will see the Latin abbreviation et seq, used to indicate multiple consecutive sections of a source that is being cited. The 21 st edition of the Bluebook gives guidance on this, saying that et seq.
What is SEQ?
Search and filter – Seq is a centralized log file with superpowers. Intuitive expression-based filtering, combined with free-text and regular expression searches, mean you can drill down into events quickly, using techniques you already know.
What does ET mean in reference?
The abbreviation ‘et al.’ (meaning ‘ and others ‘) is used to shorten APA in-text citations with three or more authors. Here’s how it works: Only include the first author’s last name, followed by ‘et al.’, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).
What is ET contract?
ET Business Contracts means the written Contracts to which EchoStar or any member of the EchoStar Group is a party or by which it or any of the ET Transferred Assets is bound which constitute Contracts that are: (i) used, contemplated for use or held for use, in each case, primarily in the ownership, operation or
Is et seq capitalized?
Italicize case names and short-hand references to case names.E.g., Roe v. Wade; the Roe decision. Italicize e.g., i.e., id., et seq., and et al.
Which rule is known as modification of literal rule?
The Golden rule – The golden rule is a deviation from the literal rule. It is used to modify the meaning of the absurd term to give it a useful and apt meaning to suit the context. It is discussed in depth below. The golden rule of interpretation was propounded in the case of Grey v. Pearson by Lord Wensleydale in the year 1957. This is why it is also known as Wensleydale’s Golden Rule. This rule is the modification of the literal rule. The golden rule modifies the language of the words in a statute to successfully interpret the actual meaning of the legislation.
- It takes into account the context in which the words are used so that justice can be done to the intention of the legislation.
- It is to be noted that the rule can be used only when the language of the statute is ambiguous or grammatically incorrect.
- Thus the judges need to be extremely careful with their interpretation and only exercise this power when it is absolutely necessary.
The golden rule can be applied in a narrow or a broad sense:
Narrow approach – This approach is taken when the words in the statute are capable of multiple interpretations. Through this approach, the judge is able to apply the meaning which is clear and properly portrays the true intention of the statute. This approach was used in the R v. Allen, (1872) case. Broad approach – This approach is taken when there exists only one possible interpretation of a word. In some cases, the meaning might cause absurdity. In order to avoid this problem, the judges can use this approach to modify the meaning of the word but this modification should be limited and shouldn’t deviate from the actual intention of the legislation. In Re. Sigsworth: Bedford v. Bedford (1954), this approach was used.
The golden rule of interpretation is the second step after the literal rule. As we’ve discussed, the literal rule would apply only when the plain meaning of the word gives justice to the intention of the legislation. When the literal rule fails due to the existence of multiple meanings of a word in the statute, the golden rule is to be applied.
An apparent advantage of the rule is that it allows the judge to modify the meaning of words to remove absurdity and apply the modified term effectively in the case at hand.When the literal rule of interpretation fails to achieve clarity, the golden rule steps in to help the court.It guides the judges in applying appropriate principles while interpreting the meaning of the statute. It takes away the requirement of amending the legislation to make minute changes as the judges can do that for the Parliament. For example, in the R v. Allen case discussed above, the Court stepped in and closed the loopholes by applying the golden rule. The interpretation was in line with the original intention of the Parliament. Thus, no amendments were required.
The golden rule is restricted in its use as it can be used only when the literal rule leads to ambiguities in interpretation. Its use thus becomes limited and rare.It is unpredictable and lacks guidelines.One of the main disadvantages of the rule is that judges can twist the meaning of the words and change the law. This would cause a disbalance in the separation of powers.
Some scholars have tried to lay down ways by which the meaning of the statute is to be ascertained. Earl T. Crawford, in his book ” The Construction of Statutes “, has written that the first source of interpretation should be sought from the words of the statute.
After that, the meaning ascertained should be examined in the context and subject matter of the enactment. If the legislative intent is still unclear, the various external sources of assistance can be consulted. In this case, the external source of assistance shall be the rules of interpretation. Austin has also contributed to the vast literature on rules of interpretation.
He has divided the interpretative process into three sub-processes:
Finding the rule.Finding the intention of the legislature.Extending or restricting the statute to cover cases.
Similarly, De Sloovere recommended the following steps:
Finding the right statutory provisions.Interpreting the statute in its technical sense.Applying the meaning to the case at hand.
In both the recommendations, the first step is to find the appropriate rule/provision and apply it to the case at hand. If the literal meaning of the statute is appropriate, it shall be applied. It is only when the meaning is absurd, that the golden rule of interpretation shall come into play.
- The court shall extend or restrict the statute using this rule to cover the case at hand and apply the modified meaning to come to a better judgement.
- Through the years, eminent jurists have shared their thoughts about the golden rule of interpretation either through judgements or books.
- Justice Holmes had stated that a word is not a crystal, transparent or unchanged.
It is the product of thought and has the ability to vary greatly in colour and content based on the surrounding circumstances and the time in which it is used. Wherever the meaning of the words is uncertain, there may be a requirement for the application of the golden rule.
The court’s main purpose is to supply justice and to do that, proper interpretation has to be made. The literal rule should be used first but if it results in absurdity, the ordinary meaning of the word then may be modified to avoid that absurdity, but no further. Lord Moulton in the case of Vacher & Sons v.
London Society of Compositor, (1912) emphasised the need for caution before applying the golden rule of interpretation. He stated that there exists a danger that the rule may lead to mere judicial criticism of the correctness of the Acts of legislature.
- We have to interpret the statutes based on the language used in them.
- Although the result of two conflicting interpretations may guide us in making a choice between them, we can be sure that the words used cannot be attributed to the conflicting interpretation by taking the Act as a whole and viewing it in the context of the existing State law at that time.
The Supreme Court in the case of State Bank of India v. Shri N. Sundara Money, (1976 ) stated that the rights of the public are paramount and are to be considered superior in comparison to individual rights. If the words of the statute are absurd in the context of the case, they should be considered repugnant in order to apply the golden rule of interpretation.
Should et seq be underlined?
A reader recently asked if the abbreviation “id.” should be italicized and should the “I” be capitalized or not? According to The Bluebook, id. is always italicized (including the period). Whether it is capitalized or not will depend on where it falls.
If it is part of a sentence or a citation and doesn’t start the sentence or citation, it is a small “i” as in ” See id. ” Where it starts a sentence or citation, it is a capital “i” as in ” Id. at 635.” There is more helpful information about id. in a blog post entitled Latin, Italics, And Punctuation,
Thank you for your question! A lot of specific legal phrases are Latin phrases or at least started out Latin. Latin, italics, and punctuation are more than a little confusing so we will take a little time today to try to make those things a little bit clearer.
According to the Bluebook, non-English words and phrases are typically italicized. However, non-English words that have been used so much that they have been incorporated into the English language are not italicized. Latin words that have been consistently used in legal writing are considered incorporated into the English language. This being said, very long Latin phrases and obsolete and uncommon Latin phrases are still italicized. This list comes directly from the Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation:
These words meet the very long and obsolete and uncommon Latin phrases and should always be italicized:
ignorantia legis neminem excusat (ignorance of the law does not excuse) sero sed serio (late but in earnest) ex dolo malo non oritur actio (no right of action can have its origin in fraud)
However, these words are so commonly used in legal writing that they are considered incorporated into the English language and should NOT be italicized:
e.g. (EXCEPT when used as part of an introductory signal for a citation— See, e.g.,) res judicata amicus curiae corpus juris obiter dictum modus operandi non obstante verdict mens rea i.e. quid pro quo certiorari (EXCEPT when used in an explanatory phrase in a citation— cert. denied ) ab initio de jure habeas corpus prima facie en banc
Other Latin phrases that continue to be italicized include:
Supra In re ex rel.
The Latin word id. is always italicized ( including the period following the “d”). Note that id. is used to refer to the immediately preceding citation in a document but ONLY when the immediately preceding citation contains only one authority. Also, if you are using id.
in a footnote, it must be used only when the immediately preceding citation is within the same footnote or in the immediately previous footnote and that footnote contains only one authority. If you are responsible for cite checking documents, keep this in mind. And if you are responsible for typing documents, keep this in mind as well—in addition to italicizing the period after id.
These are important (and overlooked) details. Spero autem quod expediens erat ! (I hope this was helpful!) In a continuation of last week’s article Should We Use Italics or Underline?, we will talk about titles of literary or artistic works.
Do underline or italicize complete works (books, newsletters, magazines, newspapers, movie titles, etc.).
The latest issue of @Law magazine just arrived in my mailbox. OR The latest issue of @Law magazine just arrived in my mailbox.
As an alternative, complete works may be in all caps; however, if the complete works are being prepared for publication, they must be underlined or italicized to show the publisher that it must appear in italics in the final version. Do not underline or italicize the word “magazine” unless it is part of the title of the magazine.
Fortune included a list of the Fortune 100 this month.
Do not italicize or underline the name of a publication when it is an organizational name.
The Arizona Attorney Editorial Board is responsible for the content of the Arizona Attorney magazine.
Do italicize or underline titles of books, newspapers, and magazines that are published in electronic form. Do not italicize or underline titles of video games or other games. Do not italicize or underline titles of computer software. General guidelines:
With a unit of two or more words that you want to emphasize, underline or italicize that unit:
She definitely thought the grass was always greener when she left her job last month.
Traditionally, the punctuation after an italicized word was also italicized. Now, however, the new guideline is to treat the punctuation the same as the main part of the text, not the same as the italicized word right in front of it.
Her favorite magazine was Motor Trend ; however, she could be spotted from time to time reading Cosmopolitan,
However, if the punctuation is part of the italicized element, it will remain italicized.
Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? plays at the amphitheater next Saturday.
When underlining, do not underline the punctuation unless it is part of the underlined element. When using run-in headings, do not italicize or underline the punctuation that follows the heading. When you have an italicized or underlined element or word being emphasized with a possessive or plural ending added, do not italicize or underline the ending.
the Encyclopedia Brittanica ‘s index there were too many whereas es in the brief
The new guidelines are that parentheses either before or after an italicized or underlined element are not italicized or underlined, they are treated in the same way as the main text.
This reminds me of underlining or italics with case citations. When using et seq. or et al., since the period is part of the word, it is italicized or underlined. Any punctuation following that period (as in the second example) is not italicized or underlined. In legal documents, it seems that italic type is used more frequently than underlining—likely because The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citations has changed the treatment of cases cited from underlining to italics as long as it meets court rule requirements.
Use italics for special emphasis:
When you are referring to a word by using “the term” or “the word,” that word should be in italics.
The word secretary originally meant the keeper of secrets.
Referring to letters as letters should be italicized or underlined if they are not capitalized. In this case, underlining may be preferable since the letter is so short that italics may not be readily apparent. Do not underline or italicize the pluralization of the letters, however.
He was looking for the value of x when y = 100. He was looking for the value of x when y = 100. (This is also correct.) She was reviewing the document to make sure she had dotted her i ‘s and crossed her t ‘s. She was reviewing the document to make sure she had dotted her i ‘s and crossed her t ‘s.
Use all capital letters sparingly for emphasis. As you know, in email, all caps is considered screaming so it is not appropriate in business writing.
Use italics in formal definitions:
When you are defining a word in your writing, the word being defined is generally italicized.
A pilcrow is an alteration of a Middle English word and is a noun describing “a paragraph mark.”
An informal definition does not require special punctuation (but titles of TV series do).
I spent the weekend watching one episode after another, or binge-watching, Downton Abbey,
Use italics with foreign expressions:
Italicize foreign expressions that are not part of the English language.
We learned to say Buongiorno (or “good morning”) to the shopkeepers in Italy.
Once a foreign expression has become established as part of the English language, it is not italicized.
She ordered her pie à la mode.
We will continue this discussion next week with literary titles and artistic works and some basic guidelines.
How do you use et al in a court case?
Et Al.’s Uses in Legal Terms being used is in an academic citation. However, it can also be used on legal documents too where multiple individuals in a single party must be noted. The legal meaning of et al. is broadly the same in both situations, in that it also is used to reference a large group of people.
How do you cite a settlement agreement?
U5 2020. A treaty citation should include the following components: 1) the name of the agreement, 2) the abbreviated names of the parties (only for bilateral treaties), 3) the subdivision cited (if applicable), 4) the date of signing, and 5) the source(s) for the text of the treaty.
How to cite Public law document?
About Public and Private Laws – What are Public and Private Laws? Public and private laws are also known as slip laws. A slip law is an official publication of the law and is “competent evidence,” admissible in all state and Federal courts and tribunals of the United States (1 U.S.C.113).
Most laws passed by Congress are public laws, Public laws affect society as a whole. Public laws citations include the abbreviation, Pub.L., the Congress number (e.g.107), and the number of the law. For example: Pub.L.107-006. Private Laws affect an individual, family, or small group, and are enacted to assist citizens that have been injured by government programs or who are appealing an executive agency ruling such as deportation.
Private laws citations include the abbreviation, Pvt.L., the Congress number (e.g.107), and the number of the law. For example: Pvt.L.107-006. After the President signs a bill into law, it is delivered to the Office of the Federal Register (OFR), National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) where it is assigned a law number, legal statutory citation (public laws only), and prepared for publication as a slip law.
- Private laws receive their legal statutory citations when they are published in the United States Statutes at Large.
- Prior to publication as a slip law, OFR also prepares marginal notes and citations for each law, and a legislative history for public laws only.
- Until the slip law is published, through the U.S.
Government Publishing Office (GPO), the text of the law can be found by accessing the enrolled version of the bill. What’s Available?
Public and Private Laws are available on govinfo back to the 104 th Congress. At the end of each session of Congress, the slip laws are compiled into bound volumes called the Statutes at Large, and they are known as “session laws.” The Statutes at Large present a chronological arrangement of the laws in the exact order that they have been enacted. Every six years, public laws are incorporated into the United States Code, which is a codification of all general and permanent laws of the United States. A supplement to the United States Code is published during each interim year until the next comprehensive volume is published. The U.S. Code is arranged by subject matter, and it shows the present status of laws with amendments already incorporated in the text that have been amended on one or more occasions. It is maintained as a separate collection.
Public and Private Laws Side Notes The Office of the Federal Register (OFR) prepares each law for publication as a slip law (an individual pamphlet print) and then compiles, indexes, and publishes them in the United States Statutes at Large (a permanent bound volume of the laws for each session of Congress).
Public law number Date of enactment Bill number Popular name of the law Statutes at Large citation U.S. Code citation Legislative history (Public laws only)
Text: Side notes appear in double angle brackets within the body of the text. For example: In the printed version and ASCII text file of Public Law 106-1, “To restore the management and personnel authority of the Mayor of the District of Columbia,” the short title appears as ” >” immediately following the clause that begins with “Be it enacted.” Example PDF: Side notes appear exactly the same way that those changes appear in the printed version. For example: In the printed version and PDF file of Public Law 106-1, “To restore the management and personnel authority of the Mayor of the District of Columbia,” the short title (“District of Columbia Management Restoration Act of 1999”) appears as a side note in the right margin, adjacent to the clause that begins with “Be it enacted.” Example
Can you use et al for plaintiff?
Do not include ‘et. al.’ to show multiple parties; no first names or initials; no ‘d/b/a’ or ‘a/k/a’; do not include legal status such as Administrator, Executor, Plaintiff, Defendant, Appellant, Appellee, Guardian, etc. If a business uses more than one business term in its name, drop all but the first.
What is et ux in law?
Primary tabs. Et uxor is commonly abbreviated as et ux and is Latin for ‘and wife.’ Et ux. was formerly a common abbreviation used to denote a pleading made by a husband and a wife, listing the husband by name and adding the ‘et ux.’ wife designation.
How do you use et al in law?
(et-ahl Abbreviation for the Latin phrase ‘et alia,’ meaning ‘and others.’ This is commonly used in shortening the name of a court case, so that instead of listing all the plaintiffs or defendants, one of them will be listed followed by the term ‘et al.’
How do you use et al in a legal document?
Abbreviation for the Latin phrase et alii meaning ‘and others.’ This is commonly used in shortening the name of a case, as in ‘Pat Murgatroyd v. Sally Sherman, et al.’
What does ECT stand for in law?
Energy Charter Treaty fundamentally incompatible with EU law, study finds
- Press release: 27 April 2022
- Withdrawal from the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) is the only realistic way for the European Union to fix the outdated treaty’s incompatibility with the EU’s own laws, a new in-depth legal study has found.
- In the to fully assess the ECT’s lawfulness in the bloc, conducted by Professor Christina Eckes and Dr Laurens Ankersmit at the University of Amsterdam and commissioned by ClientEarth, the research concluded that the international investment agreement as it currently stands is fundamentally at odds with the EU’s Treaties.
- Legal experts found that the European Commission’s and fix its legal flaws, a that started in 2017, would not fully address the incompatibilities.
- They concluded that the EU’s withdrawal from the treaty was therefore the best viable solution, given that certain proposals fall outside of the scope of the ECT negotiations and therefore are not politically feasible.
- Amandine Van Den Berghe, ClientEarth lawyer, said: “It’s clear from the study that no amount of ‘modernisation’ will make this climate-wrecking investment treaty compatible with EU law.
- “The only way forward is to abandon the ECT and finally break free from the shackles it places on climate action.”
- At the core of the legal tensions is the controversial “investor-state dispute settlement” mechanism, which gives companies the power to sue states for billions in compensation when environmental or climate action harms their financial interests.
- Last year, the EU Court of Justice that arbitration proceedings by EU investors against European states is illegal and has no place in the Union.
- However, the question of the compatibility of the ECT with EU law as regards “extra-EU arbitration”, involving non-EU investors or non-EU countries, has so far not been explicitly addressed by the court.
- The study found that the line between these two types of arbitration is blurring as companies move their seat outside of the Union in order to sidestep the effect of the decision, meaning both avenues could adversely affect the judicial and institutional framework of the EU.
Dr. Laurens Ankersmit said: “The ECT has long been out of date, both in terms of legality and in terms of climate policy. Withdrawal of the EU from the ECT is the only realistic option at this stage to remedy these problems and member states will have to follow suit.”
- Given the contradiction with the EU Treaties, the study also found that the validity of the European Council’s decision to join the ECT could be challenged before EU courts.
- “Even in the unlikely event that an ambitious modernised deal is secured, the door will still be open to challenge the EU’s membership of the investment treaty in court,” Van Den Berghe said.
- “This would mean both EU institutions and member states may be forced to quit this dangerous treaty after all.”