What Does Law Enforcement Sensitive Mean?

What Does Law Enforcement Sensitive Mean
Definition. Law Enforcement Sensitive (LES) is considered sensitive, unclassified information that disclosure of could cause harm to law enforcement activities or jeopardize investigations or operations.

What is the meaning of sensitive but unclassified?

12 FAM 540 SENSITIVE BUT UNCLASSIFIED INFORMATION (SBU) (CT:DS-345; 01-14-2021) (Office of Origin: DS/SI/IS) 12 FAM 541 SCOPE (CT:DS-284; 01-02-2018) a. Sensitive but Unclassified (SBU) information is information that is not classified for national security reasons, but that warrants/requires administrative control and protection from public or other unauthorized disclosure for other reasons.

  1. SBU should meet one or more of the criteria for exemption from public disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) (which also exempts information protected under other statutes), 5 U.S.C.552, or should be protected by the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C.552a.b.
  2. Types of unclassified information to which SBU is typically applied include all FOIA exempt categories (ref.5 U.S.C.552(b)), for example: (1) Personnel, payroll, medical, passport, adoption, and other personal information about individuals, including social security numbers, home addresses, and including information about employees as well as members of the public; (2) Confidential business information, trade secrets, contractor bid or proposal information, and source selection information; (3) Department records pertaining to the issuance or refusal of visas, other permits to enter the United States, and requests for asylum; (4) Law enforcement information or information regarding ongoing investigations; (5) Information illustrating or disclosing infrastructure protection vulnerabilities, or threats against persons, systems, operations, or facilities (such as, usernames, passwords, physical, technical or network specifics, and in certain instances, travel itineraries, meeting schedules or attendees), but not meeting the criteria for classification under Executive Order (EO) 13526, dated December 29, 2009; (6) Information not customarily in the public domain and related to the protection of critical infrastructure assets, operations, or resources, whether physical or cyber, as defined in the Homeland Security Act, 6 U.S.C.131(c); (7) Design and construction information; (a) Certain information relating to the design and construction of diplomatic missions abroad, such as graphic depictions of floor plans and specifications for foreign affairs offices and representational housing overseas, as outlined in the Diplomatic Security (DS) Security Classification Guide for the Design and Construction of Overseas Facilities, dated May 2003; and (b) Certain information relating to the design and construction drawings and specifications of General Service Administration (GSA) facilities, as outlined in GSA Order PBS 3490.1A, dated June 1, 2009.

(8) Privileged attorney-client communications (relating to the provision of legal advice) and documents constituting attorney work product (created in reasonable anticipation of litigation); and (9) Inter or intra-agency communications, including emails, that form part of the internal deliberative processes of the U.S.

Government, the disclosure of which could harm such processes.c. Designation of information as SBU is important to indicate that the information requires a degree of protection and administrative control but the SBU label does not by itself exempt information from disclosure under the FOIA (5 U.S.C.552b).

Rather, exemption is determined based on the nature of the information in question.12 FAM 542 IMPLEMENTATION (CT:DS-345; 01-14-2021) This policy is effective November 4, 2005,12 FAM 543 ACCESS, DISSEMINATION, AND RELEASE (CT:DS-284; 01-02-2018) a.U.S.

citizen direct-hire supervisory employees are ultimately responsible for access, dissemination, and release of SBU material. All employees will limit access to protect SBU information from unauthorized or unintended disclosure.b. In general, employees may circulate SBU material within the Executive Branch, including to locally employed staff (LE Staff), where necessary to carry out official U.S.

Government functions. However, additional restrictions may apply to particular types of SBU information by virtue of specific laws, regulations, or international or interagency agreements. Information protected under the Privacy Act, can only be distributed within the Department on a “need-to-know” basis and cannot be distributed outside the Department except as permitted by specific statutory exemptions or “routine uses” established by the Department.c.

  • Before distributing any SBU information, employees must be sure that such distribution is permissible and, when required, specifically authorized.
  • See 5 FAM 470.) d.
  • SBU information must be marked whenever practical to make the recipient aware of specific controls.
  • While some documentation, such as standard forms and medical records, does not lend itself to marking, many documents, such as emails, cables, and memoranda, can, and must be marked in accordance with 5 FAM 751.3, 5 FAH-1 H-200 and 5 FAH-1 H-135,e.

SBU information that is not to be released to non-U.S. citizens, including LE Staff, must be marked SBU/NOFORN (Not for release to foreign nationals (NOFORN)). The specific requirements for SBU/NOFORN are identified in 12 FAM 545,f. Information obtained from or exchanged with a foreign government or international organization to which public release would violate conditions of confidentiality or otherwise harm foreign relations must be classified to be exempt from release under FOIA or other access laws.

  • The SBU label cannot be used instead of classification to protect such information.g.
  • Where an individual has expressly authorized his or her personal information to be sent unencrypted over any unsecured electronic medium, such as the Internet, fax transmission, or wireless phone, such information may be transmitted without regard to the provisions and policies set forth in this subchapter.

See 5 FAH-4 H-200 for guidance on obtaining an individual’s authorization to transmit personal information in this manner.h. These provisions are consistent with those provided in 3 FAM 4172 regarding employee obligations, rights, and liabilities.12 FAM 544 SBU HANDLING PROCEDURES (CT:DS-284; 01-02-2018) a.

  1. Regardless of method, the handling, processing, transmission, and/or storage of SBU information should be effected through means that limit the potential for unauthorized disclosure.b.
  2. Employees while in travel status or on temporary duty (TDY) assignment should ensure that SBU is adequately safeguarded from unauthorized access in light of the threat conditions and nature of the SBU (see 12 FAM 544.1 paragraph d.) (This applies regardless of whether the information is being transported in paper form, CDs, diskettes and other electronic readable media, or on a portable digital device such as a laptop, wireless or wired, or PDA.) 12 FAM 544.1 Fax Transmission, Mailing, Safeguarding/Storage, and Destruction of SBU (CT:DS-345; 01-14-2021) a.

Unintended recipients can intercept SBU information transmitted over unencrypted electronic point-to-point links, such as Voice over Internet Protocol methodology (VoIP), telephones, or faxes.b. Employees transmitting SBU information should consider whether specific information warrants a higher level of protection accorded by a secure fax, phone, or other encrypted means of communication.

Employees transmitting SBU information via non-secure fax must ensure that an authorized recipient is ready to receive it at the other end.c. SBU information may be sent via the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) or a commercial delivery service, e.g., FedEx, DHL. SBU information, except SBU/NOFORN, (see 12 FAM 545 ) mailed to posts abroad should be sent via unclassified registered pouch or to a Military Postal Facility (MPF) via USPS, whenever practicable.

Use of foreign mail services is authorized, if required. Except in those cases where the pouch is utilized, mail must be packaged in a way that does not disclose its contents or the fact that it is SBU.d. During non-duty hours, SBU information and removable electronic media in U.S.

  1. Government facilities must be secured within a locked office or suite, or secured in a locked container.
  2. Employees in possession of SBU outside U.S.
  3. Government facilities must take adequate precautions that afford positive accountability of the information and to protect SBU information from unauthorized access such as storage in a locked briefcase or desk in a home office.

SBU should not be left unsecured (e.g., lock in room safe) in unoccupied hotel rooms or unattended in other public spaces.e. The custodians of medically privileged information must ensure that it is secured when not in use.f. Destroy SBU documents by shredding or burning, or by other methods consistent with law or regulation.12 FAM 544.2 Automated Information System (AIS) Processing and Transmission (CT:DS-345; 01-14-2021) The requirements for processing SBU information on a Department AIS are established in 12 FAM 620 and 5 FAM 700,

Where warranted by the nature of the information, employees who will be transmitting SBU information outside of the Department network on a regular basis to the same official and/or most personal addresses, must contact the Public Key Infrastructure program in the Information Integrity Branch (IRM/FO/ITI/SI/IIB) for guidance in implementing a secure technical solution for those transmissions.12 FAM 544.3 Electronic Transmission Via the Internet (CT:DS-284; 01-02-2018) a.

It is the Department’s general policy that normal day-to-day operations be conducted on an authorized AIS, which has the proper level of security control to provide nonrepudiation, authentication and encryption, to ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the resident information.

  • The Department’s authorized telework solution(s) are designed in a manner that meet these requirements and are not considered end points outside of the Department’s management control.b.
  • The Department is expected to provide, and employees are expected to use, approved secure methods to transmit SBU information when available and practical.c.

Employees should be aware that transmissions from the Department’s OpenNet to and from non-U.S. Government Internet addresses, and other,gov or,mil addresses, unless specifically directed through an approved secure means, traverse the Internet unencrypted.

  1. Therefore, employees must be cognizant of the sensitivity of the information and mandated security controls, and evaluate the possible security risks and then decide whether a more secure means of transmission is warranted (i.e., secure fax, mail or network, etc.).d.
  2. In the absence of a Department-provided secure method, employees with a valid business need may transmit SBU information over the Internet unencrypted, after carefully considering that: (1) SBU information within the category in 12 FAM 541 paragraph b(7)(a) and (b) must never be sent unencrypted via the Internet; (2) Unencrypted information transmitted via the Internet is susceptible to access by unauthorized personnel; (3) Email transmissions via the Internet generally consist of multipoint communications that are routed to their destination through the path of least resistance, which may include multiple foreign and U.S.

controlled Internet service providers (ISP); (4) Once resident on an ISP server, the SBU information remains until it is overwritten; (5) Unencrypted email transmissions are subject to a risk of compromise of information confidentiality or integrity; (6) SBU information resident on personally owned computers connected to the Internet is generally more susceptible to cyber attacks and/or compromise than information on Government-owned computers connected to the Internet; (7) The Internet is globally accessed (i.e., there are no physical or traditional territorial boundaries).

Transmissions through foreign ISPs or servers can magnify these risks; and (8) Current technology can target specific email addresses or suffixes and content of unencrypted messages.e. SBU information must not be posted on any public Internet Web site, discussed in a publicly available chat room or any other public forum on the Internet.f.

To preclude inadvertent transmission of SBU information prohibited on the Internet, AIS users must not use an “auto-forward” function to send emails to an address outside the Department’s network.g. SBU information created on or downloaded to publicly available non- U.S.

Government-owned computers, such as Internet kiosks, should be removed when no longer needed.h. All users who process SBU information on personally owned computers must ensure that these computers will provide adequate and appropriate security for that information. This includes: (1) Disabling unencrypted wireless access; (2) The maintenance of adequate physical security; (3) The use of anti-virus and spyware software; and (4) Ensuring that all operating system and other software security patches, virus definitions, firewall version updates, and spyware definitions are current.12 FAM 544.4 SBU Transmission Between State Department Facilities (CT:DS-284; 01-02-2018) All SBU transmissions between Department facilities must be encrypted to current National Institute of Standards and Technology, DS, and Information Technology Change Control Board standards.12 FAM 545 SBU/NOFORN INFORMATION (CT:DS-345; 01-14-2021) a.

The SBU/NOFORN information is information determined by the originator or a classification guide to be prohibited for dissemination to non-U.S. citizens. It must be labeled SBU/NOFORN.b. As the NOFORN caveat indicates, this type of SBU information warrants a degree of protection greater than that of standard SBU information.

Therefore, employees must: (1) Process and transmit SBU/NOFORN information only on a system authorized by the Department for classified information transmission, storage and processing; (2) Fax or discuss (over telephone lines) SBU/NOFORN information only via encrypted telephone lines; (3) Mail SBU/NOFORN information to posts via classified pouch or to a MPF via USPS registered mail.

Mail sent via USPS registered must be packaged in a way that does not disclose its contents or the fact that it is SBU/NOFORN; (4) Secure SBU/NOFORN information during non-duty hours following the same guidelines for CONFIDENTIAL information; and (5) Destroy SBU/NOFORN documents in a Department-approved manner, such as by shredding, burning, or other methods consistent with law or regulation for the destruction of classified information.12 FAM 546 THROUGH 549 UNASSIGNED

What is the difference between sensitive but unclassified data and unclassified data?

A menu for a party, marked FOUO Sensitive But Unclassified ( SBU ) is a designation of information in the United States federal government that, though unclassified, often requires strict controls over its distribution. SBU is a broad category of information that includes material covered by such designations as For Official Use Only (FOUO), Law Enforcement Sensitive (LES), Sensitive Homeland Security Information, Sensitive Security Information ( SSI ), Critical Infrastructure Information ( CII ), etc. An example of FOUO being mixed in with Top Secret info in the same document. (From the CIA Inspector General report about Torture in the War on Terror) The unclassified “Military Working Dogs” web document, marked Distribution Restricted circa 2011 Sensitive Security Information ( SSI ) is a category of sensitive but unclassified information under the United States government’s information sharing and control rules, often used by TSA and CBP,

  1. SSI is information obtained in the conduct of security activities whose public disclosure would, in the judgment of specified government agencies, harm transportation security, be an unwarranted invasion of privacy, or reveal trade secrets or privileged or confidential information.
  2. UNCLASSIFIED//FOUO is primarily a Department of Defense phrase/acronym, used for documents or products which contain material which may be exempt from release under the Freedom of Information Act,
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It is treated as confidential, which means it cannot be discarded in the open trash, made available to the general public, or posted on an uncontrolled website. It can, however, be shared with individuals with a need to know the content, while still under the control of the individual possessing the document or product.

  1. Information that may be protected with these labels range from personally identifying information such as passport and Social Security numbers to documents protected by the attorney–client privilege,
  2. Though SBU information may be exempt from complete disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act, it should not be universally withheld.

PARD ( Protect as restricted data ) is an unclassified but sensitive marking used in the Department of Energy, It is the marking that was on Dr. Wen Ho Lee ‘s program codes at Los Alamos National Laboratory. He (and many other scientists) backed up such data to tape.

The government would later claim this was ‘ espionage ‘ and charge him under 18 U.S.C. § 793, (the Espionage Act ) which makes it a felony to ‘withhold’ information related to the ‘national defense’. He eventually pleaded guilty to one of the 54 counts against him. He later won a lawsuit against the government and several newspapers over his treatment.

Limited Distribution, Proprietary, Originator Controlled, Law Enforcement Sensitive were designations the Pentagon attempted in 2011 to exempt from President Obama’s Executive Order 13556, The number of designations in use by various branches of the U.S.

What qualifies as sensitive?

What Is Considered Sensitive Information? – Broadly, sensitive information is considered information that can cause harm, embarrassment, inconvenience, or unfairness to an individual or business if it is exposed or gets into the wrong hands. In this guide you will learn:

  1. Introduction
  2. Types of Sensitive Information
    1. PII — Personally Identifiable Information
    2. PI — Personal Information
    3. SPI — Sensitive Personal Information
    4. NPI — Nonpublic Personal Information
    5. MNPI — Material Nonpublic Information
    6. Private Information
    7. PHI / ePHI — (electronically) Protected Health Information
    8. Regulated, Business, Confidential, and High-Risk Crown Jewel Data
  3. Regulatory Exceptions by Vertical and Location
  4. How Is Sensitive Data Protected?
  5. How BigID’s Data Intelligence Platform Protects All Types of Sensitive Data

What does being called sensitive mean?

A(1) : easily hurt or damaged. especially : easily hurt emotionally. (2) : delicately aware of the attitudes and feelings of others.

What are the four types of sensitive data?

Regulated, Business, Confidential, and High-Risk Data – Organizations must especially consider unstructured data that may be regulated, business, confidential, or otherwise high-risk to ensure sensitive data does not end up in the wrong hands. Identifying this important classification and enacting access controls, retention workflows, and data quality standards to match protects the organization and related individuals from harm and helps maintain good standing with both the public and with regulators.

Regulated, business, confidential, and high-risk data in the prior classifications Business IP Classified information Unstructured data with unknown information Any business-specific data critical to the organization’s operations not traditionally considered sensitive data

What is the difference between sensitive and non sensitive information?

Non-Sensitive PII – Non-sensitive or indirect PII is easily accessible from public sources like phonebooks, the Internet, and corporate directories. Examples of non-sensitive or indirect PII include:

Zip codeRaceGenderDate of birthPlace of birthReligion

The above list contains quasi-identifiers and examples of non-sensitive information that can be released to the public. This type of information cannot be used alone to determine an individual’s identity. However, non-sensitive information, although not delicate, is linkable.

  1. This means that non-sensitive data, when used with other personal linkable information, can reveal the identity of an individual.
  2. De-anonymization and re-identification techniques tend to be successful when multiple sets of quasi-identifiers are pieced together and can be used to distinguish one person from another.

Regulating and safeguarding personally identifiable information (PII) will likely be a dominant issue for individuals, corporations, and governments in the years to come.

What abilities does a sensitive have?

Prepare for stimulating situations – Most highly sensitive people don’t fare well when caught off guard in meetings or presentations. When high-stakes interactions send your emotions off the charts you might feel a discomforting loss of control. The best antidote is preparation — the right way,

  1. To the extent possible, try to anticipate questions and think through your best responses ahead of time while keeping in mind that over-preparation can be a crutch as well.
  2. You don’t want to become rigid and unable to respond if something unexpected should arise.
  3. Especially in the case of negotiations or job interviews, consider creating an outline with the “high points” you’ll most want to cover.

Just make sure you don’t wing it — if you’re flustered, your memory will fade quickly. As a highly sensitive person who experiences strong emotions, you might feel like you’re carrying a heavy load at times, especially at work. But the truth is you likely have a huge amount of untapped value to share with your co-workers, clients and in your career as a whole.

Is being sensitive a good quality?

Celebrate Your Sensitivity – Being sensitive is not a bad thing! Your hard-wired nature brings you benefits of joy and happiness. Your awareness of and empathy for other people are sources of strength. You naturally wonder why people and things are the way they are. You’ve likely wondered why so few other people are as enchanted by the mysteries of the universe as you are.

Is being called sensitive offensive?

What Does Law Enforcement Sensitive Mean “You’re being too sensitive” — in the wrong hands — is almost always an insult. While, yes, sometimes an emotional response to a situation may be incommensurate, it’s a sentiment that too often passes as a legitimate argument or, worse, concern. It’s an attempt to at once dismiss your feelings while also turning the tables and making you at blame, guilty for myriad things: for finding fault with another’s actions, for having thin skin, but most importantly, for bothering the offender with your feelings,

Being told that we’re too sensitive is akin to an elbow in the solar plexus. I don’t want to conflate terms — sensitive and emotional are two different things — but often the nuance escapes those quick to use either adjective to dismiss someone as less than, Sensitivity has historically been lauded as one of women’s most most impeding characteristics.

For women, sensitivity and rationality are often wedged against each other as mutually exclusive. Blaming someone for being too sensitive dismisses their reality as irrational and immediately paints them as a victim. It tells them how they should feel, too.

Most importantly, it turns a positive trait into a personality defect. It is, in my opinion, one of the most pointed and destructive insults you can hurl, which of course gives it so much power. Once someone accuses you of being too sensitive and you accept the statement as a personal fault, you’re bound to start reassessing your perception of the event in question.

“Was that genuinely an upsetting thing, or am I really blowing this out of proportion?” Here’s a term we’ve heard often lately: gaslighting, Named after a 1944 film with Ingrid Bergman, it refers to manipulating someone to the extent that she starts to question her reality. What Does Law Enforcement Sensitive Mean Throwing the baby out with the bathwater — silencing all emotional feedback for fear of seeming too emotional — has serious negative consequences. After a while, you’re bound to forget how to effectively communicate your feelings. The thing is, ignoring them won’t magically make them disappear.

They’ll just be funneled into unhealthy channels, like passive aggressiveness, sudden episodes of blinding anger or emotional numbness. You’ll seem irrational. You’ll seem crazy, Through no fault of your own, you’ll fail to calibrate your feelings because for years — perhaps your whole life — you’ve been told that your feelings are wrong or unfounded.

Being sensitive is not a fault, and rationality and sensitivity can coexist. I’ve written before about the benefits of being a highly sensitive person ; studies also consistently find that people with high emotional intelligence make better leaders, friends and coworkers.

They’re more self-aware, more empathetic, more motivated and have better social skills. “You’re too sensitive” is often a benign scapegoat for other, more damaging opinions. It’s “you’re crazy”/ “I don’t respect you”/ “my feelings are more important than yours”/ “I don’t want to deal with you right now”/ “I don’t have the requisite care/love for you to take you into consideration”/ “I don’t care about you” in disguise.

The next time someone accuses you of being too sensitive, read between the lines. Think about the situation and what they’re really saying. Use their accusation to assess the situation; perhaps have an impartial third party weigh in. Don’t immediately internalize their response as an indication that something’s wrong with you and try to avoid censoring yourself.

What is not considered sensitive data?

What is “sensitive data” as defined by GDPR? – Sensitive data is any data that reveals:

Racial or ethnic origin Political opinions Religious or philosophical beliefs Trade union membership Genetic data Biometric data for the purpose of uniquely identifying a natural person Data concerning health or a natural person’s sex life and/or sexual orientation

By nature, the data that Criteo collects and processes for its clients and publisher partners does not qualify as sensitive data as defined by the GDPR. On our side, Criteo only collects pseudonymous technical identifiers linked to browsing events.

What are examples of sensitive security information?

Categories – The SSI regulation lists 16 categories of affected information, and allows the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Administrator of the to designate other information as SSI. The 16 SSI categories as listed in 49 CFR §1520.5(b) are:

  1. Security programs and contingency plans.
  2. Security Directives.
  3. Information Circulars.
  4. Performance specifications.
  5. Vulnerability assessments.
  6. Security inspection or investigative information.
  7. Threat information.
  8. Security measures.
  9. Security screening information.
  10. Security training materials.
  11. Identifying information of certain transportation security personnel.
  12. Critical aviation or maritime infrastructure asset information.
  13. Systems security information.
  14. Confidential business information.
  15. Research and development.
  16. Other information. (Determined in writing by DHS or DOT; rarely used.)

For example, SSI includes airport and aircraft operator security programs; the details of various aviation, maritime or rail transportation security measures including perimeter security and access control; procedures for the screening of passengers and their baggage; the results of vulnerability assessments of any mode of transportation; the technical specifications of certain screening equipment and the objects used to test such equipment; and, training materials that could be used to penetrate or circumvent security.

The SSI regulation restricts the release of SSI to people with a “need to know” (see 49 CFR §1520.11), defined generally as those who need the information to do their jobs in transportation security, for example: DHS and TSA officials, airport operators, airline personnel, railroad carriers, rail hazardous materials shippers and receivers, vessel and maritime port owners and operators, and others as noted in 49 CFR §1520.7.

SSI cannot be given to the public, and is exempt from disclosure under the, An agency Final Order on SSI can only be challenged in the,

How can a person protect sensitive information?

• February 22, 2008 EDITOR’S NOTE: This material was prepared by the Federal Trade Commission, which provides many identity protection resources at www.ftc.gov and www.onguardonline.gov Most companies keep sensitive personal information in their files-names, Social Security numbers, credit card, or other account data-that identifies customers or employees.

  1. This information often is necessary to fill orders, meet payroll, or perform other necessary business functions.
  2. However, if sensitive data falls into the wrong hands, it can lead to fraud, identity theft, or similar harms.
  3. Given the cost of a security breach-losing your customers’ trust and perhaps even defending yourself against a lawsuit-safeguarding personal information is just plain good business.

A sound data security plan is built on 5 key principles: 1. Take stock. Know what personal information you have in your files and on your computers.2. Scale down. Keep only what you need for your business.3. Lock it. Protect the information that you keep.4.

  1. Pitch it. Properly dispose of what you no longer need.5.
  2. Plan ahead.
  3. Create a plan to respond to security incidents.
  4. Use the checklists on the following pages to see how your company’s practices measure up-and where changes are necessary.1.
  5. Take stock.
  6. Now what personal information you have in your files and on your computers.

Effective data security starts with assessing what information you have and identifying who has access to it. Understanding how personal information moves into, through, and out of your business and who has-or could have-access to it is essential to assessing security vulnerabilities.

Inventory all computers, laptops, flash drives, disks, home computers, and other equipment to find out where your company stores sensitive data. Also inventory the information you have by type and location. Your file cabinets and computer systems are a start, but remember: your business receives personal information in a number of ways-through websites, from contractors, from call centers, and the like. What about information saved on laptops, employees’ home computers, flash drives, and cell phones? No inventory is complete until you check everywhere sensitive data might be stored.

Track personal information through your business by talking with your sales department, information technology staff, human resources office, accounting personnel, and outside service providers. Get a complete picture of:

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Who sends sensitive personal information to your business. Do you get it from customers? Credit card companies? Banks or other financial institutions? Credit bureaus? Other businesses? How your business receives personal information. Does it come to your business through a website? By email? Through the mail? Is it transmitted through cash registers in stores? What kind of information you collect at each entry point. Do you get credit card information online? Does your accounting department keep information about customers’ checking accounts? Where you keep the information you collect at each entry point. Is it in a central computer database? On individual laptops? On disks or tapes? In file cabinets? In branch offices? Do employees have files at home? Who has-or could have-access to the information. Which of your employees has permission to access the information? Could anyone else get a hold of it? What about vendors who supply and update software you use to process credit card transactions? Contractors operating your call center?

Different types of information present varying risks. Pay particular attention to how you keep personally identifying information: Social Security numbers, credit card or financial information, and other sensitive data. That’s what thieves use most often to commit fraud or identity theft.2.

Use Social Security numbers only for required and lawful purposes-like reporting employee taxes. Don’t use Social Security numbers unnecessarily-for example, as an employee or customer identification number, or because you’ve always done it. Don’t keep customer credit card information unless you have a business need for it. For example, don’t retain the account number and expiration date unless you have an essential business need to do so. Keeping this information-or keeping it longer than necessary-raises the risk that the information could be used to commit fraud or identity theft. Check the default settings on your software that reads customers’ credit card numbers and processes the transactions. Sometimes it’s preset to keep information permanently. Change the default setting to make sure you’re not inadvertently keeping information you don’t need. If you must keep information for business reasons or to comply with the law, develop a written records retention policy to identify what information must be kept, how to secure it, how long to keep it, and how to dispose of it securely when you no longer need it.

3. Lock it. Protect the information that you keep. What’s the best way to protect the sensitive personally identifying information you need to keep? It depends on the kind of information and how it’s stored. The most effective data security plans deal with four key elements: physical security, electronic security, employee training, and the security practices of contractors and service providers.

Store paper documents or files, as well as CDs, floppy disks, zip drives, tapes, and backups containing personally identifiable information in a locked room or in a locked file cabinet. Limit access to employees with a legitimate business need. Control who has a key, and the number of keys. Require that files containing personally identifiable information be kept in locked file cabinets except when an employee is working on the file. Remind employees not to leave sensitive papers out on their desks when they are away from their workstations. Require employees to put files away, log off their computers, and lock their file cabinets and office doors at the end of the day. Implement appropriate access controls for your building. Tell employees what to do and whom to call if they see an unfamiliar person on the premises. If you maintain offsite storage facilities, limit employee access to those with a legitimate business need. Know if and when someone accesses the storage site. If you ship sensitive information using outside carriers or contractors, encrypt the information and keep an inventory of the information being shipped. Also use an overnight shipping service that will allow you to track the delivery of your information.

Electronic Security Computer security isn’t just the realm of your IT staff. Make it your business to understand the vulnerabilities of your computer system, and follow the advice of experts in the field. General Network Security

Identify the computers or servers where sensitive personal information is stored. Identify all connections to the computers where you store sensitive information. These may include the Internet, electronic cash registers, computers at your branch offices, computers used by service providers to support your network, and wireless devices like inventory scanners or cell phones. Assess the vulnerability of each connection to commonly known or reasonably foreseeable attacks. Depending on your circumstances, appropriate assessments may range from having a knowledgeable employee run off-the-shelf security software to having an independent professional conduct a full-scale security audit. Don’t store sensitive consumer data on any computer with an Internet connection unless it’s essential for conducting your business. Encrypt sensitive information that you send to third parties over public networks (like the Internet), and consider encrypting sensitive information that is stored on your computer network or on disks or portable storage devices used by your employees. Consider also encrypting email transmissions within your business if they contain personally identifying information. Regularly run up-to-date anti-virus and anti-spyware programs on individual computers and on servers on your network. Check expert websites (such as www.sans.org) and your software vendors’ websites regularly for alerts about new vulnerabilities, and implement policies for installing vendor-approved patches to correct problems. Scan computers on your network to identify and profile the operating system and open network services. If you find services that you don’t need, disable them to prevent hacks or other potential security problems. For example, if email service or an Internet connection is not necessary on a certain computer, consider closing the ports to those services on that computer to prevent unauthorized access to that machine. When you receive or transmit credit card information or other sensitive financial data, use Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) or another secure connection that protects the information in transit. Pay particular attention to the security of your web applications-the software used to give information to visitors to your website and to retrieve information from them. Web applications may be particularly vulnerable to a variety of hack attacks. In one variation called an “injection attack,” a hacker inserts malicious commands into what looks like a legitimate request for information. Once in your system, hackers transfer sensitive information from your network to their computers. Relatively simple defenses against these attacks are available from a variety of sources.

Password Management

Control access to sensitive information by requiring that employees use “strong” passwords. Tech security experts say the longer the password, the better. Because simple passwords-like common dictionary words-can be guessed easily, insist that employees choose passwords with a mix of letters, numbers, and characters. Require an employee’s user name and password to be different, and require frequent changes in passwords. Explain to employees why it’s against company policy to share their passwords or post them near their workstations. Use password-activated screen savers to lock employee computers after a period of inactivity. Lock out users who don’t enter the correct password within a designated number of log-on attempts. Warn employees about possible calls from identity thieves attempting to deceive them into giving out their passwords by impersonating members of your IT staff. Let employees know that calls like this are always fraudulent, and that no one should be asking them to reveal their passwords. When installing new software, immediately change vendor-supplied default passwords to a more secure strong password. Caution employees against transmitting sensitive personally identifying data-Social Security numbers, passwords, account information-via email. Unencrypted email is not a secure way to transmit any information.

Laptop Security

Restrict the use of laptops to those employees who need them to perform their jobs. Assess whether sensitive information really needs to be stored on a laptop. If not, delete it with a “wiping” program that overwrites data on the laptop. Deleting files using standard keyboard commands isn’t sufficient because data may remain on the laptop’s hard drive. Wiping programs are available at most office supply stores. Require employees to store laptops in a secure place. Even when laptops are in use, consider using cords and locks to secure laptops to employees’ desks. Consider allowing laptop users only to access sensitive information, but not to store the information on their laptops. Under this approach, the information is stored on a secure central computer and the laptops function as terminals that display information from the central computer, but do not store it. The information could be further protected by requiring the use of a token, “smart card,” thumb print, or other biometric-as well as a password-to access the central computer. If a laptop contains sensitive data, encrypt it and configure it so users can’t download any software or change the security settings without approval from your IT specialists. Consider adding an “auto-destroy” function so that data on a computer that is reported stolen will be destroyed when the thief uses it to try to get on the Internet. Train employees to be mindful of security when they’re on the road. They should never leave a laptop visible in a car, at a hotel luggage stand, or packed in checked luggage unless directed to by airport security. If someone must leave a laptop in a car, it should be locked in a trunk. Everyone who goes through airport security should keep an eye on their laptop as it goes on the belt.


Use a firewall to protect your computer from hacker attacks while it is connected to the Internet. A firewall is software or hardware designed to block hackers from accessing your computer. A properly configured firewall makes it tougher for hackers to locate your computer and get into your programs and files. Determine whether you should install a “border” firewall where your network connects to the Internet. A border firewall separates your network from the Internet and may prevent an attacker from gaining access to a computer on the network where you store sensitive information. Set “access controls”-settings that determine who gets through the firewall and what they will be allowed to see-to allow only trusted employees with a legitimate business need to access the network. Since the protection a firewall provides is only as effective as its access controls, review them periodically. If some computers on your network store sensitive information while others do not, consider using additional firewalls to protect the computers with sensitive information.

Wireless and Remote Access

Determine if you use wireless devices like inventory scanners or cell phones to connect to your computer network or to transmit sensitive information. If you do, consider limiting who can use a wireless connection to access your computer network. You can make it harder for an intruder to access the network by limiting the wireless devices that can connect to your network. Better still, consider encryption to make it more difficult for an intruder to read the content. Encrypting transmissions from wireless devices to your computer network may prevent an intruder from gaining access through a process called “spoofing”-impersonating one of your computers to get access to your network. Consider using encryption if you allow remote to your computer network by employees or by service providers, such as companies that troubleshoot and update software you use to process credit card purchases.

Detecting Breaches

To detect network breaches when they occur, consider using an intrusion detection system. To be effective, it must be updated frequently to address new types of hacking. Maintain central log files of security-related information to monitor activity on your network so that you can spot and respond to attacks. If there is an attack on your network, the log will provide information that can identify the computers that have been compromised. Monitor incoming traffic for signs that someone is trying to hack in. Keep an eye out for activity from new users, multiple log-in attempts from unknown users or computers, and higher-than-average traffic at unusual times of the day. Monitor outgoing traffic for signs of a data breach. Watch for unexpectedly large amounts of data being transmitted from your system to an unknown user. If large amounts of information are Being transmitted from your network, investigate to make sure the transmission is authorized. Have in place and implement a breach response plan. See pages 22-23 for more information.

Employee Training Your data security plan may look great on paper, but it’s only as strong as the employees who implement it. Take time to explain the rules to your staff, and train them to spot security vulnerabilities. Periodic training emphasizes the importance you place on meaningful data security practices.

Check references or do background checks before hiring employees who will have access to sensitive data. Ask every new employee to sign an agreement to follow your company’s confidentiality and security standards for handling sensitive data. Make sure they understand that abiding by your company’s data security plan is an essential part of their duties. Regularly remind employees of your company’s policy-and any legal requirement-to keep customer information secure and confidential. Know which employees have access to consumers’ sensitive personally identifying information. Pay particular attention to data like Social Security numbers and account numbers. Limit access to personal information to employees with a “need to know.” Have a procedure in place for making sure that workers who leave your employ or transfer to another part of the company no longer have access to sensitive information. Terminate their passwords, and collect keys and identification cards as part of the check-out routine. Create a “culture of security” by implementing a regular schedule of employee training. Update employees as you find out about new risks and vulnerabilities. Make sure training includes employees at satellite offices, temporary help, and seasonal workers. If employees don’t attend, consider blocking their access to the network. Train employees to recognize security threats. Tell them how to report suspicious activity and publicly reward employees who alert you to vulnerabilities. Tell employees about your company policies regarding keeping information secure and confidential. Post reminders in areas where sensitive information is used or stored, as well as where employees congregate. Make sure your policies cover employees who telecommute or access sensitive data from home or an offsite location. Warn employees about phone phishing. Train them to be suspicious of unknown callers claiming to need account numbers to process an order or asking for customer or employee contact information. Make it office policy to double-check by contacting the company using a phone number you know is genuine. Require employees to notify you immediately if there is a potential security breach, such as a lost or stolen laptop. Impose disciplinary measures for security policy violations. For computer security tips, tutorials, and quizzes for everyone on your staff, visit www.OnGuardOnline.gov,

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Security Practices of Contractors and Service Providers Your company’s security practices depend on the people who implement them, including contractors and service providers.

Before you outsource any of your business functions-payroll, web hosting, customer call center operations, data processing, or the like-investigate the company’s data security practices and compare their standards to yours. If possible, visit their facilities. Address security issues for the type of data your service providers handle in your contract with them. Insist that your service providers notify you of any security incidents they experience, even if the incidents may not have led to an actual compromise of your data.

4. Pitch it. Properly dispose of what you no longer need. What looks like a sack of trash to you can be a gold mine for an identity thief. Leaving credit card receipts or papers or CDs with personally identifying information in a dumpster facilitates fraud and exposes consumers to the risk of identity theft.

Implement information disposal practices that are reasonable and appropriate to prevent unauthorized access to-or use of-personally identifying information. Reasonable measures for your operation are based on the sensitivity of the information, the costs and benefits of different disposal methods, and changes in technology. Effectively dispose of paper records by shredding, burning, or pulverizing them before discarding. Make shredders available throughout the workplace, including next to the photocopier. When disposing of old computers and portable storage devices, use wipe utility programs. They’re inexpensive and can provide better results by overwriting the entire hard drive so that the files are no longer recoverable. Deleting files using the keyboard or mouse commands usually isn’t sufficient because the files may continue to exist on the computer’s hard drive and could be retrieved easily. Make sure employees who work from home follow the same procedures for disposing of sensitive documents and old computers and portable storage devices. If you use consumer credit reports for a business purpose, you may be subject to the FTC’s Disposal Rule. For more information, see Disposing of Consumer Report Information? New Rule Tells How at www.ftc.gov/privacy (click on Credit Reporting, Business Guidance).

5. Plan ahead. Create a plan for responding to security incidents. Taking steps to protect data in your possession can go a long way toward preventing a security breach. Nevertheless, breaches can happen. Here’s how you can reduce the impact on your business, your employees, and your customers:

Have a plan in place to respond to security incidents. Designate a senior member of your staff to coordinate and implement the response plan. If a computer is compromised, disconnect it immediately from the Internet. Investigate security incidents immediately and take steps to close off existing vulnerabilities or threats to personal information. Consider whom to notify in the event of an incident, both inside and outside your organization. You may need to notify consumers, law enforcement, customers, credit bureaus, and other businesses that may be affected by the breach. In addition, many states and the federal bank regulatory agencies have laws or guidelines addressing data breaches. Consult your attorney.

These websites and publications have more information on securing sensitive data: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)’s Computer Security Resource Center www.csrc.nist.gov NIST’s Risk Management Guide for Information Technology Systems sp800-30pdf Department of Homeland Security’s National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/ National_Cyberspace_Strategy.pdf SANS (SysAdmin, Audit, Network, Security) Institute’s Twenty Most Critical Internet Security Vulnerabilities www.sans.org/top20 United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT) www.us-cert.gov Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute’s CERT Coordination Center www.cert.org/other_sources Center for Internet Security (CIS) www.cisecurity.org The Open Web Application Security Project www.owasp.org Institute for Security Technology Studies www.ists.dartmouth.edu OnGuard Online www.OnGuardOnline.gov

What is considered to be most sensitive data?

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There is a difference between general personal data and sensitive personal data. The General Data Protection Regulation makes a difference between “general” personal data and sensitive personal data. Sensitive data is data that reveals a person’s race or ethnic origin, political opinions, religious or philosophical beliefs, trade union membership and personal data concerning a person’s health and sex life.

What is the meaning unclassified?

Un·​clas·​si·​fied ˌən-ˈkla-sə-ˌfīd. : not subject to a security classification. unclassified information. : not placed or belonging in a class.

What is the meaning of unclassified degree?

A degree that has not been given a grade because it is of a low standard. He got an unclassified degree because he couldn’t be bothered to do one essay. Collins English Dictionary. Copyright © HarperCollins Publishers.

What’s the difference in classified and unclassified?

Basically, an unclassified document has never contained classified information. Declassified documents originally contained classified information that was either removed or redacted, or the information was determined to no longer require protection under E.O.13526, rendering the document unclassified.

What does classification unclassified mean?

Basic Working Definitions – Unclassified is a security classification assigned to official information that does not warrant the assignment of Confidential, Secret, or Top Secret markings but which is not publicly-releasable without authorization. Classified information is defined in PL 96-456, the Classified Information Procedures Act:

Any information or material that has been determined by the United States Government, pursuant to an executive order, statute, or regulation, to require protection against unauthorized disclosure for reasons of national security and any restricted data, as defined in paragraph r or section 11 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954.

This definition is identical with one proposed in the draft National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual (NISPOM), except that the latter does not include the words “or regulation.” By adding those two words, one could argue that PL 96-456 gives us a statutory, as well as an executive, basis for the classification of U.S.

  1. Information.
  2. We could thus resolve the longstanding debate as to whether the classification system has a basis in law.
  3. Prior to 1953 the U.S.
  4. Employed a Restricted classification that applied to information withheld from public dissemination.
  5. It was cancelled with the issuance of Executive Order 10501 on November 5, 1953.

Despite the cancellation, many people inside and outside Government expressed concern about the tremendous effort being made by the Soviet Bloc to collect U.S. industrial and military information. This concern led to the establishment of the Office of Strategic Information (OSI) in the Department of Commerce to provide a central Government office to work with the business community in voluntary efforts to prevent the loss to foreign interests of unclassified strategic data.

  1. It was aimed primarily at protecting defense information of the United States.
  2. The OSI did not stay in operation very long-it was disestablished in 1957.
  3. Note the word “voluntary” in its mission.
  4. This was not a sufficient statutory base to limit dissemination of some technical information.
  5. A few years later, in 1960, the House Committee on Government Operations issued a report citing 842 Federal statutes controlling Goverrunent information.

The study leading to publication of the report is still pertinent because it led to this finding:

The subcommittee uncovered case after case of executive officials withholding information without any legal authority. In other cases, however, executive officials have gone beyond the law to claim ‘executive privilege’ for secrecy when there is no legal privilege.

So, what’s new? Still later, on January 10, 1963, the President’s Science Advisory Committee concluded that:

The panel is aware of the asymmetry that exists between the way the communist and non-communist worlds handle information. We believe, on balance, that our more liberal policy leads to more security, not to less. Nevertheless, we do not believe it in the public interest always to push automatically for more dissemination. Each case must be decided on its own merits.

In 1966 there was an important event, one that still stimulates debate as to its impact on the national security. That was the passage of the Freedom of Information Act (5 USC, 552 (b)). I will discuss it further later in the context of limitations on public release.

Does information that has been declassified automatically become public information?

Many people took the position in 1966 that declassification equals public release. The debate on that point is historic and endless, continuing today even in the face of numerous statutes which limit or control the dissemination of unclassified data and information.

  1. A recent example is the article entitled “The Perils of Government Secrecy” published in the Summer 1992 edition of Issues in Science and Technology magazine.
  2. I have always believed that this debate is healthy.
  3. It resembles and extends another closely-related debate about whether there is too much classified information.

I firmly believe that any original classification authority or releasing official must have a solid justification for classifying, limiting dissemination, or withholding information. Furthermore, any decision to restrict the dissemination of or to withhold information from public release must be made by an official with authority and be time limited.

  1. In the late 1960s Congress charged that the Department of Defense (DoD) was releasing too much unclassified but critical or sensitive information to the Department of Commerce’s National Technical Information Service (NTIS) via the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC).
  2. In 1970 the DoD Director of Research and Engineering established a DoD committee to approve or disapprove the transfer of reports from DTIC to NTIS.

I was the chairman of the committee as well as the DoD and Navy representative. The committee had the authority to prevent document transfers and to question the military commander or civilian director why his organization had authorized the release of a particular item to NTIS, that is, to the public.

  1. Our procedure was to call the official and ask him why he had released “Report X.” Obviously, he often could not justify the action, but he usually went on the offensive, asking who we were to question his judgement.
  2. Our response was to ask him whether he was prepared to defend his decision to his agency as well as to the Secretary of Defense.

This approach did get the official’s attention. Over time there was a considerable reduction of critical information being released via NTIS. I recommended that our committee be disestablished in 1975. During this time one vaguely-defined question continued to nag us:

How can the Government control dissemination of unclassified technical data?

The question caused us to focus on the distinction between technical information and technology. There has long been confusion as to what unclassified technical information or technology should be controlled. Resolving this conundrum hinges upon explaining the difference between research and development, test and evaluation, and other efforts that are the precursors to production.

Fred Bucy, then president of Texas Instruments, took the lead in advocating that technology, and not the broader research and development information, must be controlled. His advocacy led to codification of that distinction in law and regulation in what is now called the Militarily Critical Technologies List,

Next, Congress passed a law to control unclassified controlled nuclear information (UCNI) originated by the Department of Energy. Later, another law exempted DoD UCNI from release under the FOIA. Technological information is identified as a separate category of unclassified information.

It is generated during exploratory development, advanced development, and test and evaluation. Note that the term research does not appear in this definition. Research produces knowledge, which, in turn, creates the need for development and technological information. Development also produces knowledge that can be applied to a specific defense problem or other defined need.

Other statutes added to our understanding and confusion about unclassified official information:

The Classified Information Procedures Act of 1980 (PL 96-456, 94 STAT.2025 referred to above), among other things provided an interesting definition of classified information. DoD Instruction 5210.74, Subject: Secretary of Defense Contractor Telecommunications, provided a new definition of that term plus examples of other unclassified information to be controlled. The COMSEC Supplement to the Industrial Security Manual for Safeguarding Classified Information, DoD 5220.22-S-1, gave us still another definition of sensitive but unclassified information. At the same time, the Export Administration Act of 1979, with the most recent regulation being issued in February of 1992, also defined unclassified information. The International Traffic in Arms Regulation, 22 USC 2778 (a), subparagraph 204.404-70, provided a new definition under the additional contract clause subparagraph: “Disclosure of information in solicitations and contracts when the contractor will have access to or generate information that may be sensitive or inappropriate for release to the public.”

As you can see, we are awash in definitions. If you are not already confused, you should be.