### What Implication S Does The Second Law Of Thermodynamics Have For Biological Systems?

The second law of thermodynamics posits that the transfer of energy involves some released as heat. This inefficient energy transfer plays a role in many biological systems. In food chains, energy escapes as heat between trophic levels, with consumers gaining only a small percentage of the energy stored in their food.

## What are the 2 laws of thermodynamics useful in a discussion of biology?

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Page ID 16100 Two fundamental concepts govern energy as it relates to living organisms: the First Law of Thermodynamics states that total energy in a closed system is neither lost nor gained — it is only transformed. The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that entropy constantly increases in a closed system. More specifically, the First Law states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed: it can only change form. Therefore, through any and all processes, the total energy of the universe or any other closed system is constant. In a simple thermodynamic system, this means that the energy is transformed either by the transfer of heat energy (i.e. heating and cooling of a substance) or by the production of mechanical work (i.e. movement). In biological and chemical terms, this idea can be extended to other forms of energy such as the chemical energy stored in the bonds between atoms of a molecule, or the light energy that can be absorbed by plant leaves. Work, in this case, need not imply a complicated mechanism. In fact, there is work accomplished by each molecule in the simple expansion of a heated mass of gaseous molecules (as visualized by expansion of a heated balloon, for example). This is expressed mathematically as the Fundamental Thermodynamic Relation: in which \(E\) is internal energy of the system, \(T\) is temperature, \(S\) is entropy, \(p\) is pressure, and \(V\) is volume. Unlike the First Law which applies even to particles within a system, the Second Law is a statistical law — it applies generally to macroscopic systems. However, it does not preclude smallscale variations in the direction of entropy over time. In fact, the Fluctuation theorem (proposed in 1993 by Evans et al, and demonstrated by Wang et al in 2002) states that as the length of time or the system size increases, the probability of a negative change in entropy (i.e. going against the Second Law) decreases exponentially. So on very small time scales, there is a real probability that fluctuations of entropy against the Second Law can exist. The Second Law dictates that entropy always seeks to increase over time. Entropy is simply a fancy word for chaos or disorder. The theoretical final or equilibrium state is one in which entropy is maximized, and there is no order to anything in the universe or closed system. Spontaneous processes, those that occur without external influence, are always processes that convert order to disorder. However, this does not preclude the imposition of order upon a system. Examining the standard mathematical form of the Second Law: ΔS system + ΔS surroundings = ΔS universe, where ΔS universe > 0 shows that entropy can decrease within a system as long as there is an increase of equal or greater magnitude in the entropy of the surroundings of the system. The phrase “in a closed system” is a key component of these laws, and it is with the idea encapsulated in that phrase that life can be possible. Let’s think about a typical cell: in its lifetime, it builds countless complex molecules – huge proteins and nucleic acids formed from a mixture of small amino acids or nucleotides, respectively. On its surface, this example might seem to be a counterexample to the second law – clearly going from a mixture of various small molecules to a larger molecule with bonded and ordered components would seem to be a decrease in entropy (or an increase in order). How is this possible with respect to the second law? It is, because the second law applies only to closed systems. That is, a system that neither gains nor loses matter or energy. The “universe” is a closed system by definition because there is nothing outside of it. A living cell is not a closed system: it has inputs and outputs. However, the second law is still useful if we recognize that the only way that it can be bypassed is through the input of energy. If a cell cannot take in food (input of matter and energy into the system) it dies, because the second law requires that everything eventually breaks down into more random/chaotic collections of smaller components. The order required to sustain life (think about all the different complex molecules that were mentioned in the previous chapter) is phenomenal. The same thing applies on the organismal level (Figure \(\PageIndex \)) – without an input of energy (in the form of food molecules for animals or in the form of light for plants), the organism will die and subsequently decompose. Figure \(\PageIndex \). In the top panel, depicting an open system in which there are inputs for matter and energy (in the form of food), the box is open and air can be exchanged, food dropped in, etc, thus allowing the mouse to grow. However, in the bottom panel, depicting a closed system, the mouse does not have ready access any more oxygen than is in the box, nor does it have access to food. Without these inputs, the second law takes effect, and the mouse dies and decomposes into many smaller molecules. Creating molecules from atoms costs energy because it takes a disordered collection of atoms and forces them, through chemical bonds, into ordered, non-random positions. There is likewise an energy cost to formation of macromolecules from smaller molecules. By imposing order in the system, there must be an associated input of energy. This happens at every level of the system: atoms to molecules, small molecules to macromolecules, groups of molecules to organelles, etc. As the polymerizing reaction reduces entropy, it requires energy generated (usually) by the breakdown of ATP into AMP and PPi, which is a reaction that increases entropy. Where does that energy go? It ends up in the bonds that are holding the molecules or macromolecules in their ordered state. When such a bond is broken, and a molecule is turned back into a collection of atoms, energy is released. The energy in a chemical bond is thus potential energy – it is stored energy that, when released, has the ability to do work. This term, if you recall your high school physics, is usually learned along with kinetic energy, which is energy that is being used in the process of actually doing work (i.e. moving an object from one place to another). The classic example is the rock on the top of a hill: it has potential energy because it is elevated and could potentially come down. As it tumbles down, it has kinetic energy as it moves. Similarly in a cell, the potential energy in a chemical bond can be released and then used for processes such as putting smaller molecules together into larger molecules, or causing a molecular motor to spin or bend – actions that could lead to pumping of protons or the contraction of muscle cells, respectively. Coming back to the second law, it essentially mandates that breaking down molecules releases energy and that making new molecules (going against the natural tendency towards disorder) requires energy. Every molecule has an intrinsic energy, and therefore whenever a molecule is involved in a chemical reaction, there will be a change in the energy of the resulting molecule(s). Some of this change in the energy of the system will be usable to do work, and that energy is referred to as the free energy of the reaction. The remainder is given off as heat. The Gibbs equation describes this relationship as \ where ΔG is the change in free energy, ΔH is the change in enthalpy (roughly equivalent to heat), T is the temperature at which the reaction takes place, and ΔS is the change in entropy. As a matter of convention, release of free energy is a negative number, while a requirement for input of energy is denoted with a positive number. Generally, a chemical reaction in which ΔG 0 is not spontaneous (or endergonic). When ΔG = 0, the system is in equilibrium. ΔG can also be expressed with respect to the concentration of products and reactants: \ Terms in square brackets denote concentrations, ΔG° is the standard free energy for the reaction (as carried out with 1M concentration of each reactant, at 298K and at 1 atm pressure), R is the gas constant (1.985 cal K -1 mol -1 ), and T is the temperature in Kelvin. In a simpler system in which there are just two reactants and two products: \ the equation for free energy change becomes ΔG = ΔG° + RTln( c d / a b ) This is important to us as cell biologists because although cells are not very well suited to regulating chemical reactions by varying the temperature or the pressure of the reaction conditions, they can relatively easily alter the concentrations of substrates and products. In fact, by doing so, it is even possible to drive a non-spontaneous reaction (ΔG > 0) forward spontaneously (ΔG < 0) either by increasing substrate concentration (possibly by transporting them into the cell) or by decreasing product concentration (either secreting them from the cell or by using them up as substrates for a different chemical reaction). Changes in substrate or product concentration to drive a non-spontaneous reaction are an example of the more general idea of coupling reactions to drive an energetically unfavorable reactions forward. Endergonic reactions can be coupled to exergonic reactions as a series of reactions that ultimately is able to proceed forward. The only requirement is that the overall free energy change must be negative (ΔG < 0). So, assuming standard conditions (ΔG = ΔG°'), if we have a reaction with a free energy change of +5 kcal/mol, it is non-spontaneous. However, if we couple this reaction, to ATP hydrolysis for example, then both reactions will proceed because the standard free energy change of ATP hydrolysis to ADP and phosphate is an exergonic -7.3 kcal/mol. The sum of the two ΔG values is -2.3 kcal/mol, which means the coupled series of reactions is spontaneous. In fact, ATP is the most common energy "currency" in cells precisely because the -7.3 kcal/mol free energy change from its hydrolysis is enough to be useful to drive many otherwise endergonic reactions by coupling, but it is less costly (energetically) to make than other compounds that could potentially release even more energy (e.g. phosphoenolpyruvate, PEP). Also, much of the -14.8 kcal/mol (ΔG°') from PEP hydrolysis would be wasted because relatively few endergonic reactions are so unfavorable as to need that much free energy. Why is ATP different from other small phosphorylated compounds? How is it that the γ-phosphoanhydride bond (the most distal) of ATP can yield so much energy when hydrolysis of glycerol-3-phosphate produces under a third of the free energy? The most obvious is electrostatic repulsion. Though they are held together by the covalent bonds, there are many negative charges in a small space (each phosphate carries approximately 4 negative charges). Removing one of the phosphates significantly reduces the electrostatic repulsion. Keeping in mind that DG is calculated from the equilibrium of both reactants and products, we also see that the products of ATP hydrolysis, ATP and phosphate, are very stable due to resonance (both ADP and Pi have greater resonance stabilization) and stabilization by hydration. The greater stability of the products means a greater free energy change. Even when a reaction is energetically favorable (ΔG activation energy, and it overcomes thermodynamic stability. Consider glucose, for instance. This simple sugar is the primary source of energy for all cells and the energy inherent within its bonds is released as it breaks down into carbon dioxide and water. Since this is large molecule being broken down into smaller ones, entropy is increased, thus energy is released from reaction, and it is technically a spontaneous reaction. However, if we consider a some glucose in a dish on the lab bench, it clearly is not going to spontaneously break down unless we add heat. Once we add sufficient heat energy, we can remove the energy source, but the sugar will continue to break down by oxidation (burn) to CO 2 and H 2 O. Figure \(\PageIndex \). Catalysts lower the activation energy barrier to chemical reactions without altering the free energy change for that reaction. Put another way, the reactant(s) must be brought to an unstable energy state, known as the transition state (as shown at the peak of the graphs in Figure \(\PageIndex \)).

1. This energy requirement barrier to the occurrence of a spontaneous thermodynamically favored reaction is called the activation energy.
2. In cells, the activation energy requirement means that most chemical reactions would occur too slowly/infrequently to allow for all the processes that keep cells alive because the required energy would probably come from the chance that two reactants slam into one another with sufficient energy, usually meaning they must be heated up.

Again, cells are not generally able to turn on some microscopic Bunsen burner to generate the activation energy needed, there must be another way. In fact, cells overcome the activation energy problem by using catalysts for their chemical reactions. Broadly defined, a catalyst is a chemical substance that increases the rate of a reaction, may transiently interact with the reactants, but is not permanently altered by them.

#### How do the laws of thermodynamics apply to biological systems?

Thermodynamic Theory of Evolution – The biological evolution may be explained through a thermodynamic theory. The four laws of thermodynamics are used to frame the biological theory behind evolution, The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can not be created or destroyed.

• No life can create energy but must obtain it through its environment.
• The second law of thermodynamics states that energy can be transformed and that occurs everyday in lifeforms.
• As organisms take energy from their environment they can transform it into useful energy.
• This is the foundation of tropic dynamics.

The general example is that the open system can be defined as any ecosystem that moves toward maximizing the dispersal of energy. All things strive towards maximum entropy production, which in terms of evolution, occurs in changes in DNA to increase biodiversity,

## What are the implications of the 2nd Law of thermodynamics?

The second law of thermodynamics has three consequences. These include the ‘heat death’ of the universe, the nature of time, and the central biological concept of trophic levels. How do these consequences affect human lives? – The second law of thermodynamics states that the heat in the universe must eventually spread out. (Image: BrainCityArts/Shutterstock)

#### Why the law of thermodynamics is important in biology?

The laws of thermodynamics are important unifying principles of biology, These principles govern the chemical processes (metabolism) in all biological organisms. The First Law of Thermodynamics, also known ​as the law of conservation of energy, states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.

1. It may change from one form to another, but the energy in a closed system remains constant.
2. The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that when energy is transferred, there will be less energy available at the end of the transfer process than at the beginning.
3. Due to entropy, which is the measure of disorder in a closed system, all of the available energy will not be useful to the organism.

Entropy increases as energy is transferred. In addition to the laws of thermodynamics, the cell theory, gene theory, evolution, and homeostasis form the basic principles that are the foundation for the study of life.

## How does the second law of thermodynamics apply to humans?

98 Heat Death The Second Law of Thermodynamics introduced in the previous chapters states that thermal energy will always spontaneously transfer from higher temperature to lower temperature, In order to aid in our study of other thermodynamic processes, such as phase changes, a more general version of the Second Law can be stated in terms of energy concentration and dispersion: a ny must move an isolated system toward a state of more uniform dispersion of energy throughout the system, By we mean one for which energy does not leave or enter. For example, we know that higher means a greater average per molecule, so we can think of temperature as a measure of the of thermal energy in an object. If we consider a hot object in a cold room as our complete system, then the thermal energy in our system is not very well dispersed because it’s more concentrated in the hot object. The Second Law of thermodynamics predicts that energy should move from the hot object to the cold environment to better disperse the energy, and that is what we observe. However, the heat transfer will only occur until the thermal energy is maximally dispersed, which corresponds to, and is indicated by the object and environment having the same temperature. When we sweat to exhaust by we aren’t actively grabbing the hottest water molecules, pulling then away from their neighbors, and throwing them into the gas phase. The evaporation happens s pontaneously because stored in water molecules that are stuck together is relatively concentrated compared to thermal energy stored in water molecules zipping around in the air and free to disperse. The transfer of thermal energy to sweat (by ), followed by evaporation is a because it increases the dispersion of energy throughout the system made up of you, the sweat, and the surrounding air. Therefore, evaporation of sweat is a, When the reaches 100% then has maximally dispersed the available, Any additional evaporation would begin to over-concentrate energy in the air and decrease the overall level of energy dispersion. Therefore, we don’t see evaporation occurring once 100% humidity is reached. In fact if the humidity gets pushed above 100% (by a drop in air without a loss of water vapor) then energy is over-concentrated in the air and thus increasing dispersion of energy requires that water molecules come out of the vapor phase and occurs spontaneously. When the liquid condenses on surfaces we call it, when the liquid condenses on particles in the air and falls to the ground we call it rain. ( S ) is a measure of energy within a system. An increase in the entropy corresponds to an increase in dispersion of energy. A decrease in entropy would correspond to energy being less dispersed, or increasing energy, Therefore the Second Law of Thermodynamics can also be stated as: a process will happen spontaneously if it increases the total entropy of an isolated system, The change in entropy for a constant-temperature process can be calculated from the heat transferred ( Q ) and the at which the transfer occurs ( T ) as: (1) Notice that we definitely need to use the absolute temperature scale when working with the change in equation, or else we might find ourselves attempting to divide by zero. Let’s apply this equation and the entropy version of the Second Law of Thermodynamics to the second part of the previous Reinforcement Exercise. If you place ice in a warm room and leave it alone, it will melt. The ice would be a because it will happen all on it’s own, so we should find that melting increases the total entropy (ΔS > 0). Let’s check that out. We’ll keep it simple and calculate change in entropy of one kilogram of ice, which melts at 0 °C, or 273 K, Next we calculate the change in for the room. The same that went into melting the ice came out of the room, so the Q for the room is the same as for the ice, only negative. Let’s pick a typical room temperature of 20 °C for our example, which is 293 K :

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Now we just add up the two changes to get the total: Our entropy change is greater than zero, so the states that ice melting in warm room is a, which we observe it to be.

are inherently, For example, we could not reverse the spontaneous process of transfer from your body to sweat and then to the environment by, Imagine trying to run around and grab all the water vapor molecules and shove them back into the liquid on our skin and then make those water molecules collide with skin molecules in just the right way to conduct thermal energy back into your body! Good luck.

If the process could be reversed, the net change would be zero, but that is not a real possibility. Any real process increases the entropy because irreversible at some level, meaning energy is further dispersed throughout the system without a realistic opportunity to put it back where it was. We have arrived at yet another version of the Second Law of Thermodynamics : a ny real process increases the total entropy of the universe.

For example, even if you could reverse the process we described above, the you released during that running around would decrease the of energy in your body and disperse it throughout the room.The system, which includes you, would not cause have returned to the original conditions at all.

• In fact, the total entropy would have increased by even more than before you tried to reverse the process.
• For example, as you ran around, more sweat would have evaporated and you would have to chase those molecules down as well, and so on–you could never win! We can’t keep the of the universe from increasing.

Muscle contraction relies on the release of chemical potential energy stored in ATP molecules. Before contraction, that energy is concentrated into certain molecules in certain areas of a muscle cell. When that energy is released, the of the molecules decreases, so the entropy of their environment must increase by more, and this is achieved because most of the energy released from the ATP molecules is degraded to and distributed to the environment.

1. After contraction, a muscle cell must be reorganized, which decreases, but we know overall entropy must increase for any real process, so some additional must be to the environment during reorganization in order to provide the necessary entropy increase.
2. All of this thermal energy is “wasted” because it is came from stored chemical potential energy, but is not available for use by the body to do,

Therefore, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics limit the of the human body. Let’s imagine molten rock from the Earth’s pushes partway through the Earth’s, and keeps a region of at a constant of 300 °C, If the rock was not too deep, we could install pipes in the rock, and then boil water by running it through the pipes.

• We would basically have a giant pressure cooker! Rather than cook food, we could release the pressurized steam to push on a piston or spin a turbine.
• After releasing the pressure and getting some work out, we would be left with lower pressure steam.
• We could condense the steam back to water by running it through pipes exposed to the 20 °C air above ground.

would transfer from the steam to the air as, the steam would condense into liquid water, and we could start again. The from by, Machines like the one described that convert into are called a, Your car is powered by an internal combustion heat engine. Let’s see how and the Second Law of Thermodynamics determine the of our geothermal heat engine. First we calculate the entropy change when 1000 J of thermal energy transfers out of the rock to the water to run the engine, remembering to convert the 300 °C rock temperature to by adding 273 K : If our engine is real, then so are its processes, which means that running the engine must increase the total of the universe, according to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, We need to find out how much must be transferred from the low pressure steam into the air at 30 °C (293 K ) in order for the entropy of the air to increase by at least as much as the rock entropy decreased (1.75 J/K ). Transferring the 511 J of into the air leaves only 489 J of the original 1000 J input energy available for doing, Therefore the maximum possible of our engine is limited, no matter how well designed, even if all mechanical inefficiencies like could some how be eliminated. The maximum theoretical is: Multiplying by 100 % would give us the efficiency as a percentage: 49 %, This is a maximum possible efficiency. Any engine we actually built would be less efficient. The First Law of Thermodynamics told us that you cannot build an engine that is more than 100 % efficient because energy cannot be created.

1. Even worse, the tells us that even if we managed to eliminate all mechanical inefficiencies, such as, we still can’t get up to 100 % because all engines must exhaust some energy in order to increase entropy overall.
2. The theoretical maximum efficiency, which is always less than 100 %, is known as the ( e c ) and depends only on the high and low operating temperatures (T H and T L ), as we saw in the previous example.

Most of the work we did in the previous example can be short-cut by the equation for Carnot Efficiency ( e c ): (2) The theoretical engine which could actually produce that theoretically maximum efficiency is known as the Carnot Engine. The operating principles of the Carnot Engine are well known, having been developed by in 1824, but the engine cannot be realistically designed or built.

Check that the previous short-cut equation gives the correct maximum for our geothermal, What is the of our geothermal heat engine if the hot rock was actually at 550 C° instead of 300 C° ? You will find that this engine is more just because the hot operating temperature higher, even though it still works in the same way and nothing else has changed.

The efficiency increased because the input energy started out more concentrated and less dispersed (indicated by higher temperature), so less of that energy had to become dispersed in the environment, or wasted, in order to ensure that entropy increased by a sufficient amount to satisfy the Second Law of Thermodynamics,

1. Thermal energy that starts out concentrated (at high temperature) is known as high quality energy.
2. In addition to limiting our in doing mechanical work, the drives our bodies toward higher, which means with the environment.
3. Unless the environmental temperature happens to be near body temperature, reaching thermal equilibrium means death.

Life also requires of chemical potential energy, but due to the the Second Law we tend toward chemical equilibrium, which is not survivable. Concentrations of electrical energy drive your nervous system, but due to the Second Law we are constantly at risk of reaching an internal electrical equilibrium with no electrical activity.

Life is a constant battle against various types of equilibrium that would correspond to maximum, but also to death. The necessary to fight off our own entropy increase is what we consider basic metabolism. Doing that work, and even taking in the energy required to do that work, involves real processes that provide even more opportunity for entropy increases in a seemingly viscous cycle.

You can’t beat the Second Law of Thermodynamics ! Even as we manage to prevent our own entropy increase we cause the entropy of the environment to increase by a greater amount than what we prevented in ourselves. In fact, a complete dispersion of energy, so that all matter is at equilibrium, and no processes remain which would increase the entropy, and nothing really happens all, is one possible fate of the universe which has been dubbed heat death,

At least we don’t expect heat death of the universe to occur for at least 10 100 years. the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time, meaning objects left to themselves will always trend toward thermal equilibrium, meaning that thermal energy will always spontaneously transfer from hot system to cold system a process which occurs naturally on its own, without the need for work to be done in forcing it to happen.

a system for which neither thermal energy or particles are allowed to leave or enter. a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles (e.g., atoms and molecules) in an object, which determines how relatively hot or cold an object feels energy stored in the microscopic motion of atoms and molecules (microscopic kinetic energy) relative amount of one substance or quantity contained or stored within another substance or quantity, such as thermal energy per molecule a two systems are in thermal equilibrium when they do not exchange heat, which means they must be at the same temperature vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gas phase the process by which heat or directly transmitted through a substance when there is a difference of temperature between adjoining regions, without movement of the material a measure of how many water molecules are in the vapor phase relative to the maximum number that could possibly be in the vapor phase at at a given temperature.

1. A relative humidity of 100% means that no more water molecules can be added to the vapor phase.
2. Process of vapor changing phase into a liquid.
3. Water that condenses on cool surfaces at night, when decreasing temperature forces humidity to 100% or higher A measure of energy dispersion in a system.
4. The action or process of distributing a quantity over a wide space changing phase from solid to liquid.

An amount of thermal energy transferred due to a difference in temperature. a process that is not a reversible process in which the system and environment can be restored to exactly the same initial states that they were in before the process heat transferred to the environment rather than being used to do useful work energy stored in the chemical bonds of a substance A quantity representing the effect of applying a force to an object or system while it moves some distance.

### What is the second law of thermodynamics in biology quizlet?

The second law of thermodynamics- states that energy can’t be changed from one form to another without a loss of usable energy.

#### Do biological systems contradict the second law of thermodynamics?

Living organisms can gain or loose energy from the external environment. Therefore, living organisms are open system. Since living organisms are not closed system, it has no effect on the second law of thermodynamics.

### What is the importance of entropy in a biological system?

1. Introduction – Entropy principles have been used to describe biological patterns and processes at a range of scales, Perhaps the most well-known use of entropy in biology stems from the use of Shannon’s entropy ( H ) to describe the diversity of an ecological community.

• Entropy has also been used in ecology to describe spatial patterning and interconnectedness of organisms in systems,
• In evolutionary biology, entropy principles have been used to describe the irreversible change of systems through time and to quantify the organization and complexity of populations and communities,

Other uses include quantifying the thermal efficiency of organismal metabolism and creating orientors for in silico models, Herein, I review the general uses and misuses of entropy methods in biology and discuss other, more process-focused methods such as caliber and path information.

### How do the first and second law of thermodynamics apply to metabolism?

The metabolism process relates to the first and the second law of thermodynamics. The first law of thermodynamics describes energy as a component that cannot be created or destroyed. Like in metabolism, energy can only be converted from one form to another.

## How does the second law of thermodynamics apply to organisms quizlet?

Answers: Living organisms are able to transform energy into entropy. Living organisms do not follow the laws of thermodynamics. Life obeys the second law of thermodynamics because the decrease in entropy as the organism grows is balanced by an increase in the entropy of the universe.

## What is a real life example of the second law of thermodynamics?

The real-life example of the second law of thermodynamics is When we put ice in a glass at room temperature, the heat is released by water to melt the ice due to which the entropy of water decreases, the entropy released by water absorbs by the ice cubes, as a result, the entropy increases.

#### Why are the first and second laws of thermodynamics important for living organisms?

All living species need the energy to sustain their life. In a closed system, the energy of a particular system is not absorbed or consumed but changes from one distinct form to the other. The cells undergo several processes, which demand energy, and thus the law is very useful for the existence of the living organism.

#### How many laws of thermodynamics are there in biology?

Demonstrate familiarity with the first and second laws of thermodynamics – There are four laws of thermodynamics; however, for this course only the first two are relevant:

1. Energy may be transferred from place to place or transformed into different forms, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
2. In any given system, the entropy (the amount of energy) will either increase or stay the same.

In this outcome, we will learn exactly how these laws are important to understanding biology.

## How does the second law of thermodynamics apply to cooking?

Transfer of Energy and the Resulting Entropy – Set up a simple experiment to understand how energy is transferred and how a change in entropy results.

1. Take a block of ice. This is water in solid form, so it has a high structural order. This means that the molecules cannot move very much and are in a fixed position. The temperature of the ice is 0°C. As a result, the entropy of the system is low.
2. Allow the ice to melt at room temperature. What is the state of molecules in the liquid water now? How did the energy transfer take place? Is the entropy of the system higher or lower? Why?
3. Heat the water to its boiling point. What happens to the entropy of the system when the water is heated?

All physical systems can be thought of in this way: Living things are highly ordered, requiring constant energy input to be maintained in a state of low entropy. As living systems take in energy-storing molecules and transform them through chemical reactions, they lose some amount of usable energy in the process, because no reaction is completely efficient.

They also produce waste and by-products that aren’t useful energy sources. This process increases the entropy of the system’s surroundings. Since all energy transfers result in the loss of some usable energy, the second law of thermodynamics states that every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe.

Even though living things are highly ordered and maintain a state of low entropy, the entropy of the universe in total is constantly increasing due to the loss of usable energy with each energy transfer that occurs. Essentially, living things are in a continuous uphill battle against this constant increase in universal entropy. In studying energy, scientists use the term “system” to refer to the matter and its environment involved in energy transfers. Everything outside of the system is called the surroundings. Single cells are biological systems. Systems can be thought of as having a certain amount of order.

1. It takes energy to make a system more ordered.
2. The more ordered a system is, the lower its entropy.
3. Entropy is a measure of the disorder of a system.
4. As a system becomes more disordered, the lower its energy and the higher its entropy become.
5. A series of laws, called the laws of thermodynamics, describe the properties and processes of energy transfer.

The first law states that the total amount of energy in the universe is constant. This means that energy can’t be created or destroyed, only transferred or transformed. The second law of thermodynamics states that every energy transfer involves some loss of energy in an unusable form, such as heat energy, resulting in a more disordered system.

1. Turning on a light switch
2. Solar panels at work
3. Formation of static electricity
4. None of the above

A Label each of the following systems as high or low entropy: i. the instant that a perfume bottle is sprayed compared with 30 seconds later, ii. an old 1950s car compared with a brand new car, and iii. a living cell compared with a dead cell.

1. i. low, ii. high, iii. low
2. i. low, ii. high, iii. high
3. i. high, ii. low, iii. high
4. i. high, ii. low, iii. Low

A Imagine an elaborate ant farm with tunnels and passageways through the sand where ants live in a large community. Now imagine that an earthquake shook the ground and demolished the ant farm. In which of these two scenarios, before or after the earthquake, was the ant farm system in a state of higher or lower entropy? The ant farm had lower entropy before the earthquake because it was a highly ordered system.

After the earthquake, the system became much more disordered and had higher entropy. Energy transfers take place constantly in everyday activities. Think of two scenarios: cooking on a stove and driving. Explain how the second law of thermodynamics applies to these two scenarios. While cooking, food is heating up on the stove, but not all of the heat goes to cooking the food, some of it is lost as heat energy to the surrounding air, increasing entropy.

While driving, cars burn gasoline to run the engine and move the car. This reaction is not completely efficient, as some energy during this process is lost as heat energy, which is why the hood and the components underneath it heat up while the engine is turned on.

#### Do living organisms follow the laws of thermodynamics?

Three Laws of Biology “Social rules can be broken, but the laws of nature can’t.” Immense scientific progress has been made in recent centuries, and the time period required to double our knowledge continues to shrink. In recent decades, the sequencing of genomes from diverse species has been a primary driving force behind the expansion of biological knowledge.

It has become central to the study of molecular and organismal evolution. The technologies that, for example, enable genomics, molecular medicine, and computing to forge forward at such rapid interdependent paces, are recognized as central to our understanding of Earth’s biosphere and sustaining it for future generations.

In recent years, biology has been at the forefront of science as we satisfy our desires to understand the nature of living organisms and their evolutionary histories. The statements that follow are based on reams of evidence. Only when each statement is integrated with the others does a reasonably complete picture of life become possible.

1. We enlist the assistance of the international scientific community to inform us of any modifications and exceptions to existing scientific dogma so that our concepts can continuously be refined.
2. Only via this approach has it been possible to establish some basic laws of biology.
3. The First Law of Biology: all living organisms obey the laws of thermodynamics.

The Second Law of Biology: all living organisms consist of membrane-encased cells. The Third Law of Biology: all living organisms arose in an evolutionary process. The First Law of Biology: all living organisms obey the laws of thermodynamics. This law is fundamental because the laws of the inanimate world determine the course of the universe.

1. All organisms on all planets, including humans, must obey these laws.
2. The laws of thermodynamics govern energy transformations and mass distributions.
3. Cells that comprise living organisms (see The Second Law) are open systems that allow both mass and energy to cross their membranes.
4. Cells exist in open systems so as to allow acquisition of minerals, nutrients, and novel genetic traits while extruding end products of metabolism and toxic substances.

Genetic variation, which results in part from gene transfer in prokaryotes and sexual reproduction in higher organisms, allows tremendously increased phenotypic variability in a population as well as an accelerated rate of evolutionary divergence. A corollary of the First Law is that life requires the temporary creation of order in apparent contradiction to the second law of thermodynamics.

• However, considering a completely closed system, including the materials and energy sources provided by the environment for the maintenance of life, living organisms affect the system strictly according to this law, by increasing randomness or chaos (entropy).
• Resource utilization by living organisms thus increases the entropy of the world.

A second corollary of the First Law is that an organism at biochemical equilibrium is dead. When living organisms reach equilibrium with their surrounding environment, they no longer exhibit the quality of life. Life depends on interconnected biochemical pathways to allow for growth, macromolecular synthesis, and reproduction.

Thus, all life forms are far from equilibrium with their environments. The Second Law of Biology: all living organisms consist of membrane-encased cells. Enveloping membranes allow physical separation between the living and the non-living worlds. Viruses, plasmids, transposons, prions, and other selfish, biological entities are not alive.

They cannot “self” reproduce. They are dependent on a living cell for this purpose. By definition, they therefore, are not alive. A corollary of the Second Law is that the cell is the only structure that can grow and divide independently of another life form.

A second corollary of the Second Law is that all life is programmed by genetic instructions. Genetic instructions are required for cell division, morphogenesis, and differentiation. From single-celled prokaryotic organisms to normal or cancerous tissues in multicellular animals and plants, genetic instructions are required for the maintenance of life.

The Third Law of Biology: all living organisms arose in an evolutionary process. This law correctly predicts the relatedness of all living organisms on Earth. It explains all of their programmed similarities and differences. Natural selection occurs at organismal (phenotypic) and molecular (genotypic) levels.

• Organisms can live, reproduce, and die.
• If they die without reproducing, their genes are usually removed from the gene pool, although exceptions exist.
• At the molecular level, genes and their encoding proteins can evolve “selfishly,” and these can combine with other selfish genes to form selfish operons, genetic units and functional parasitic elements such as viruses.

Two corollaries of the Third Law are that (1) all living organisms contain homologous macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) that derived from a common ancestor, and (2) the genetic code is universal. These two observations provide compelling evidence for the Third Law of Biology.

Because of his accurate enunciation of the Third Law, Charles Darwin is considered by many to be the greatest biologist of all time. Although science is continually pushing back the frontiers of our knowledge, we will never know everything. In fact, we do not even know what we do not know. For example, we may never know how life arose.

Although life may be sprinkled throughout the universe, life is not required for the continuity of inanimate matter; that is, living organisms are not essential for the universe to function. The laws of physics continue to apply regardless of the presence of life.

1. To the best of our knowledge, life can only arise from pre-existing life.
2. This of course begs the question how the first living cell(s) might have arisen.
3. Did life spontaneously arise from inanimate nature just once, or more than once? Can life be transferred between receptive planets through space travel? We simply do not know.

The mechanisms that may have led to the origin of a cell capable of autonomous growth and division are a mystery. This is an area of biology that will require a tremendous amount of scientific research if evidence is ever to become available, and there are no guarantees.

1. The rules of biology and science cannot be broken.
2. They are not artificial human-made laws.
3. They are natural laws that govern all life while living organisms are evolving on our planet.
4. In recent decades, humans have altered our common, shared biosphere with resource depletion and pollution.
5. We know that these activities have upset the balance of Nature, causing extensive species extinction.

The most significant forms of pollution can be attributed to too many humans consuming too many non-renewable resources at an ever-increasing rate. Much of this harm is driven by pleasure, greed, conflict, and the desire for power. To varying degrees, we are all to blame.

Why do so many people assault the biosphere in such a primitive manner? Some are ignorant of the outcome. They are oblivious to the consequences of their actions. They do not recognize that incorrect action can have disastrous outcomes for our biosphere and us all. They do not understand that natural selection is cruel and can cause immense suffering and death.

They think only of the moment and refuse to accept that it is their offspring who will have to face calamity. Still others are fully aware of the ultimate consequences. And those of us who are aware must take action to pass on our knowledge so as to attempt to avoid or delay our self-imposed fate.

• Research does tell us that we are assaulting our biosphere, and that the planet cannot accommodate our huge human population.
• We depend on natural resources for the continuance of our existence, but we are not living-sustainable.
• This planet does not need more consumption and pollution.
• It is groaning under the weight of our ever-increasing human population.

Entropy will have its way. It might help if everyone understood science and our natural world so that they would recognize what is required for survival of the human species with some reasonable quality of life; and the first step in this direction is to understand the basic laws of physics, chemistry, and biology and how they govern our biosphere, which is currently under assault and in need of being rescued.

### How does the thermodynamic principle work in the human body?

Abstract – Nature, as we know it, obeys the Laws of thermodynamics. The investigation into the energetics of the human body is an application of these laws to the human biological system. The First Law of thermodynamics, which has been verified many times in experiments on the human body, expresses the constraints of the conservation of energy and the equivalence between work and heat.

It considers any energy change as equally possible, not in the least taking into account the irreversibility of a given process. The implications of the Second Law of thermodynamics, on the other hand, have never been examined in detail on the human body. This Law defines the direction in which an energy transformation can occur, as well as the equilibrium conditions of the systems.

In this paper, we present the main results of a body of research, aimed at calculating the non-reversible processes of the human body system by means of using the entropy concept as the main operator in applying the Second Law on physical and sometimes even non-physical systems.

Determination of body composition was based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In addition, we used direct as well as indirect calorimetric techniques to measure the heat transfers between the human body and its environment, as well as oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. These measurements allowed us to compute various energy balances of a human body at rest.

Furthermore, we studied also several aspects of energy exchange of the human body during muscular work.

### Do humans follow the second law of thermodynamics?

No. No known phenomena violates the second law of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics postulates that the entropy of a closed system will always increase with time (and never be a negative value). The only known closed system that exists is the entire universe and thus the law applies to the universe as a whole.

#### Do the laws of thermodynamics apply to humans?

Laws of thermodynamics are equally applicable for both living and non-living things. In present work laws of thermodynamics is applied for the humans and estimating the performance of the human body in terms of entropy production and life cycle analysis.

## What is a summary of the second law of thermodynamics?

Second Law of Thermodynamics – Have you ever played the card game 52 pickup? If so, you have been on the receiving end of a practical joke and, in the process, learned a valuable lesson about the nature of the universe as described by the second law of thermodynamics.

• In the game of 52 pickup, the prankster tosses an entire deck of playing cards onto the floor, and you get to pick them up.
• In the process of picking up the cards, you may have noticed that the amount of work required to restore the cards to an orderly state in the deck is much greater than the amount of work required to toss the cards and create the disorder.
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The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of a system either increases or remains constant in any spontaneous process; it never decreases. An important implication of this law is that heat transfers energy spontaneously from higher- to lower-temperature objects, but never spontaneously in the reverse direction. Figure 12.9 The ice in this drink is slowly melting. Eventually, the components of the liquid will reach thermal equilibrium, as predicted by the second law of thermodynamics—that is, after heat transfers energy from the warmer liquid to the colder ice.

(Jon Sullivan, PDPhoto.org) Another way of thinking about this is that it is impossible for any process to have, as its sole result, heat transferring energy from a cooler to a hotter object. Heat cannot transfer energy spontaneously from colder to hotter, because the entropy of the overall system would decrease.

Suppose we mix equal masses of water that are originally at two different temperatures, say 20,0 °C 20,0 °C and 40,0 °C 40,0 °C, The result will be water at an intermediate temperature of 30,0 °C 30,0 °C, Three outcomes have resulted: entropy has increased, some energy has become unavailable to do work, and the system has become less orderly.

Let us think about each of these results. First, why has entropy increased? Mixing the two bodies of water has the same effect as the heat transfer of energy from the higher-temperature substance to the lower-temperature substance. The mixing decreases the entropy of the hotter water but increases the entropy of the colder water by a greater amount, producing an overall increase in entropy.

Second, once the two masses of water are mixed, there is no more temperature difference left to drive energy transfer by heat and therefore to do work. The energy is still in the water, but it is now unavailable to do work. Third, the mixture is less orderly, or to use another term, less structured.

Rather than having two masses at different temperatures and with different distributions of molecular speeds, we now have a single mass with a broad distribution of molecular speeds, the average of which yields an intermediate temperature. These three results—entropy, unavailability of energy, and disorder—not only are related but are, in fact, essentially equivalent.

Heat transfer of energy from hot to cold is related to the tendency in nature for systems to become disordered and for less energy to be available for use as work. Based on this law, what cannot happen? A cold object in contact with a hot one never spontaneously transfers energy by heat to the hot object, getting colder while the hot object gets hotter. Figure 12.10 Examples of one-way processes in nature. (a) Heat transfer occurs spontaneously from hot to cold, but not from cold to hot. (b) The brakes of this car convert its kinetic energy to increase their internal energy (temperature), and heat transfers this energy to the environment. The reverse process is impossible. (c) The burst of gas released into this vacuum chamber quickly expands to uniformly fill every part of the chamber. The random motions of the gas molecules will prevent them from returning altogether to the corner. We’ve explained that heat never transfers energy spontaneously from a colder to a hotter object. The key word here is spontaneously, If we do work on a system, it is possible to transfer energy by heat from a colder to hotter object. We’ll learn more about this in the next section, covering refrigerators as one of the applications of the laws of thermodynamics. Sometimes people misunderstand the second law of thermodynamics, thinking that based on this law, it is impossible for entropy to decrease at any particular location. But, it actually is possible for the entropy of one part of the universe to decrease, as long as the total change in entropy of the universe increases. In equation form, we can write this as Δ S tot = Δ S syst + Δ S envir > 0, Δ S tot = Δ S syst + Δ S envir > 0, Based on this equation, we see that Δ S syst Δ S syst can be negative as long as Δ S envir Δ S envir is positive and greater in magnitude. How is it possible for the entropy of a system to decrease? Energy transfer is necessary. If you pick up marbles that are scattered about the room and put them into a cup, your work has decreased the entropy of that system. If you gather iron ore from the ground and convert it into steel and build a bridge, your work has decreased the entropy of that system. Energy coming from the sun can decrease the entropy of local systems on Earth—that is, Δ S syst Δ S syst is negative. But the overall entropy of the rest of the universe increases by a greater amount—that is, Δ S envir Δ S envir is positive and greater in magnitude. In the case of the iron ore, although you made the system of the bridge and steel more structured, you did so at the expense of the universe. Altogether, the entropy of the universe is increased by the disorder created by digging up the ore and converting it to steel. Therefore, Δ S tot = Δ S syst + Δ S envir > 0, Δ S tot = Δ S syst + Δ S envir > 0, 12.14 and the second law of thermodynamics is not violated. Every time a plant stores some solar energy in the form of chemical potential energy, or an updraft of warm air lifts a soaring bird, Earth experiences local decreases in entropy as it uses part of the energy transfer from the sun into deep space to do work. There is a large total increase in entropy resulting from this massive energy transfer. A small part of this energy transfer by heat is stored in structured systems on Earth, resulting in much smaller, local decreases in entropy.

### Which of these best describes the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics?

Answer: c) When an isolated system undergoes a spontaneous change, the entropy of the system will increase.

#### What is the 2nd law of thermodynamics in simple terms explain it with example?

A fundamental rule that determines the fate of the universe The second law of thermodynamics means hot things always cool unless you do something to stop them. It expresses a fundamental and simple truth about the universe: that disorder, characterised as a quantity known as entropy, always increases. The British astrophysicist Arthur Eddington have a stern warning to would-be theoretical physicists in 1915.

1. If your theory is found to be against the second law of thermodynamics I can give you no hope; there is nothing for it but to collapse in deepest humiliation,” he wrote.
2. The second law of thermodynamics is perhaps the most profound of the three laws of thermodynamics.
3. Its importance is best expressed by sketching out a situation which violates it.

Imagine placing 20 coins, heads up, on a tray, filming it as you give it a shake and then playing the film backwards. The coins start out as a jumbled mess, but all jump and eventually come to rest with the same side up – an unreal, slightly creepy sequence.

• Similarly imagine an egg yolk and white reassembling themselves after you’ve cracked it open, or even a world where it’s just as easy to pair up your socks in the right pairs as it is to jumble them up.
• The roots of thermodynamics lie in efforts to understand the steam engines that powered the industrial revolution of 18th and 19th-century Europe.

The French engineer Sadi Carnot discovered that their heat always tends to dissipate, moving to cooler regions. Anything that goes against this grain requires additional energy to power it. That too is because the jostling molecules of something hot are more disordered than those of something cool.

1. Entropy increase is so universal that many physicists propose it is why we see time flowing,
2. It is certainly why our hearts must constantly pump blood, supplying our cells with energy as a temporary stay against the inevitable onset of decay and disorder.
3. Is there any way out? Perhaps.
4. The laws of thermodynamics only hold true as statistical averages, and some think the second law won’t be so cast-iron on the very small scales of quantum physics where few particles are involved.

Some physicists even think quantum machines might bend the rules or cause them to be cast in a new form, That might not have much practical use on large scales, but one instance where quantum thermodynamics comes into play is at the event horizon of a black hole – so it could help solve the enduring riddle of how to unite general relativity with quantum theory,

The second law in its classical form also determines the ultimate fate of the universe. As entropy increases, eventually there’s no more order to make chaos from, and ultimately interesting things will stop happening – a long, slow ” heat death “. Or perhaps not. Other scenarios predict a more dramatic end,

And the founder of classical statistical thermodynamics came up with a bizarre theory in 1896. Ludwig Boltzmann argued that, given enough time in a large enough universe, fluctuations might randomly create a sub-universe that looks like ours. More plausibly, it might create a brain that thinks it exists in just such a universe – and that thinks entropy is always on the up.

## How is thermodynamics used in biology?

1. Introduction: Thermodynamics is Not Just for Dead Stuff – Thermodynamics has long been a key theory in biology, used in problems ranging from the interpretation of binding both in vitro and in vivo to the study of the conformations of DNA whether under the action of optical traps in well-characterized solutions or in the highly compacted state of the cellular interior.

Despite this long tradition, there is often the sneaking suspicion that because thermodynamics (perhaps more properly referred to as thermostatics) is a theory of equilibrium that tells us how to reckon the “terminal privileged states” of systems ( Callen, 1985 ), it is somehow irrelevant for thinking about the behavior of living cells which are demonstrably not in equilibrium.

While the terminal state of a living system is death, there are many problems for which an equilibrium treatment is not only a good starting point, but may be the most appropriate tool for the problem of interest. In a now classic article, Eugene Wigner spoke of the “unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in the natural sciences,” ( Wigner, 1960 ), expressing surprise at the truth of Galileo’s earlier assertion that “Mathematics is the language with which God has written the universe.” In the time since Wigner’s article, many others have taken liberties with his theme by noting the seemingly unreasonable effectiveness of other specific ideas in a much more general context than they were originally intended, and now it is our turn to add our names to the list.

• Indeed, the unreasonable effectiveness of equilibrium ideas for inherently out-of-equilibrium problems has already been developed by Astumian for specific cases such as a colloidal particle falling through water and a single molecule being stretched by an atomic force microscope ( Astumian, 2007 ).
• This chapter complements that of Astumian by exploring the perhaps surprising effectiveness of equilibrium thermodynamics in thinking about a wide range of biological problems.

Our chapter has several goals. First, we describe the key theoretical foundations required for the application of equilibrium statistical mechanics models to problems spanning from ligand-gated ion channels to the action of enhancers in transcriptional regulation.

1. In addition, we address conceptual issues related to the applicability of equilibrium concepts by using arguments about separation of time scales to determine when equilibrium ideas can be appropriately used in a living biological context, even though the cell as a whole is not in equilibrium.
2. With these theoretical preliminaries in hand, we carry out a series of illustrative case studies from the last decade or so that show the broad reach of equilibrium ideas to a number of topics that are both timely and exciting.

One of our main goals is to argue that equilibrium ideas are a good jumping-off point for thinking quantitatively about a range of problems in cell biology. In particular, they often lead to mathematical formulae that can be explicitly tested in biological experiments to arrive at a deeper understanding of a proposed mechanism.

#### What are the 2 basic concept of thermodynamics?

Rigid system: A closed system that communicates with the surroundings by heat only. Adiabatic system: A closed or open system that does not exchange energy with the surroundings by heat. Fig.2: Closed system, mass cannot cross the boundaries, but energy can.

#### What are the 2 laws of thermodynamics referenced?

1st Law of Thermodynamics – Energy cannot be created or destroyed.2nd Law of Thermodynamics – For a spontaneous process, the entropy of the universe increases.

### What is the second law of thermodynamic and why is it important?

A fundamental rule that determines the fate of the universe The second law of thermodynamics means hot things always cool unless you do something to stop them. It expresses a fundamental and simple truth about the universe: that disorder, characterised as a quantity known as entropy, always increases. The British astrophysicist Arthur Eddington have a stern warning to would-be theoretical physicists in 1915.

1. If your theory is found to be against the second law of thermodynamics I can give you no hope; there is nothing for it but to collapse in deepest humiliation,” he wrote.
2. The second law of thermodynamics is perhaps the most profound of the three laws of thermodynamics.
3. Its importance is best expressed by sketching out a situation which violates it.

Imagine placing 20 coins, heads up, on a tray, filming it as you give it a shake and then playing the film backwards. The coins start out as a jumbled mess, but all jump and eventually come to rest with the same side up – an unreal, slightly creepy sequence.

Similarly imagine an egg yolk and white reassembling themselves after you’ve cracked it open, or even a world where it’s just as easy to pair up your socks in the right pairs as it is to jumble them up. The roots of thermodynamics lie in efforts to understand the steam engines that powered the industrial revolution of 18th and 19th-century Europe.

The French engineer Sadi Carnot discovered that their heat always tends to dissipate, moving to cooler regions. Anything that goes against this grain requires additional energy to power it. That too is because the jostling molecules of something hot are more disordered than those of something cool.

Entropy increase is so universal that many physicists propose it is why we see time flowing, It is certainly why our hearts must constantly pump blood, supplying our cells with energy as a temporary stay against the inevitable onset of decay and disorder. Is there any way out? Perhaps. The laws of thermodynamics only hold true as statistical averages, and some think the second law won’t be so cast-iron on the very small scales of quantum physics where few particles are involved.

Some physicists even think quantum machines might bend the rules or cause them to be cast in a new form, That might not have much practical use on large scales, but one instance where quantum thermodynamics comes into play is at the event horizon of a black hole – so it could help solve the enduring riddle of how to unite general relativity with quantum theory,

The second law in its classical form also determines the ultimate fate of the universe. As entropy increases, eventually there’s no more order to make chaos from, and ultimately interesting things will stop happening – a long, slow ” heat death “. Or perhaps not. Other scenarios predict a more dramatic end,

And the founder of classical statistical thermodynamics came up with a bizarre theory in 1896. Ludwig Boltzmann argued that, given enough time in a large enough universe, fluctuations might randomly create a sub-universe that looks like ours. More plausibly, it might create a brain that thinks it exists in just such a universe – and that thinks entropy is always on the up.