What Is Media Law?

What Is Media Law
Media law is law that regulates media production and use. Media law can encompass many different types of media including broadcast television, internet and print media. The practice of media law may involve all of the types of legal issues that might arise during the production or consumption of various types of media.

What are media mass media and mass media law?

Mass media law is a legal field that encompasses a variety of communications industries, such as print media, film, broadcasting, and the Internet. With modern communications technologies, the mass media has the ability to affect many people in a variety of ways.

  1. The laws that govern these communications can be complicated and have far-reaching results.
  2. Many of the suits brought by media lawyers involve copyright infringement, defamation, censorship, and privacy.
  3. Copyright law is one of the main ways that mass media law is involved in communications industries.

Copyrights apply to print, visual, audio, and digital media, Individuals and corporations own copyrights on creative communications or works, and media law often attempts to protect those rights. What Is Media Law The Internet is governed under mass media law. Copyright holders may require legal aid if their rights are contested, or if the creative work is copied without authorization, or pirated. Also, copyright law allows reproduction rights to be purchased. For example, a filmmaker may wish to purchase rights in order to make a movie based on a previously published book. What Is Media Law Many of the law suits brought by media lawyers involve copyright infringement and censorship. Libel usually involves statements that are printed or broadcast. Libel is therefore typically recorded and somehow published for public consumption. Slander, on the other hand, usually involves a defamation made verbally or by gesture, and may or may not be recorded in some way. What Is Media Law The Freedom of Information Act is intended to make government agency information available to all. Privacy law is often considered to be part of mass media law. Individuals and organizations are sometimes granted the right to keep certain information private. What Is Media Law Mass media lawyers may deal with the legal balance between free speech and censorship. Mass media law has had to adapt to accommodate Internet communications. Blogs, social networking sites, and easy access to visual and print material can all affect legal issues such as copyright law, defamation, and free speech.

What is mass media law in Nigeria?

Media Regulatory and institutional structure Summarise the regulatory framework for the media sector in your jurisdiction. The National Broadcasting Commission Act (the NBC Act) regulates the broadcasting sector in Nigeria. The NBC Act also established NBC, which is responsible for regulating the broadcasting industry.

There is also the Nigeria Broadcasting Code (BC), which was issued by NBC in the exercise of its power under the NBC Act. The BC represents the minimum standard for broadcasting in Nigeria. Ownership restrictions Do any foreign ownership restrictions apply to media services? Is the ownership or control of broadcasters otherwise restricted? Are there any regulations in relation to the cross-ownership of media companies, including radio, television and newspapers? Yes, the ownership of broadcasting networks is restricted.

The NBC Act requires the NBC to satisfy itself when granting a broadcasting licence that the applicant can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the NBC that he or she is not applying on behalf of any foreign interest. The NBC is also prohibited from granting a licence to either a religious organisation or a political party.

Foreign investors can therefore participate in broadcasting activities, provided that the majority of shares in a broadcasting company are held by Nigerians. In terms of cross-ownership in the broadcasting industry, the NBC Act provides that a person is prohibited from having ‘controlling shares in more than two of each of the broadcast sectors of transmission’.

Apart from the provisions in the NBC Act, there are no regulations regarding cross-ownership of media companies. Licensing requirements What are the licensing requirements for broadcasting, including the fees payable and the timescale for the necessary authorisations? To operate a radio, sound, television, cable or satellite station in Nigeria, an application in the prescribed form is addressed to the Director-General (DG) of the NBC requesting approval to purchase a set of application forms indicating the licence category and proposed location.

a certificate of incorporation;a certified copy of the company’s memorandum and articles of association;an engineering design of systems, including a feasibility study;a letter of undertaking to abide by the terms of the licence; anda letter of reference from the company’s bankers.

Section 9(1) of the NBC Act sets out the criteria used by the NBC in the grant of a broadcast licence and these require the applicant to be a corporate body registered in Nigeria or a broadcasting station owned, established or operated by the federal, state or local government.

Type Fee (naira)
Category A (any location in the Federal Capital Territory, Lagos and Rivers states) Radio 20 million
Open TV 15 million
Cable TV 10 million
Category B (any location in all other states) Radio 15 million
Open TV 11.25 million
Cable TV 7.5 million
Public stations 5 million for five years or 1 million per television or radio channel per annum for five years
Direct broadcast satellite (single channel) 10 million
Direct-to-home (multi-channel) 25 million
Dealer (wholesale) 120 million per annum
Importer (wholesaler) 120 million per annum
Retailer 30 million per annum

There is no specific timescale for the grant of a licence. Foreign programmes and local content requirements Are there any regulations concerning the broadcasting of foreign-produced programmes? Do the rules require a minimum amount of local content? What types of media fall outside this regime? The NBC Act and the BC regulate the broadcasting of programmes and the minimum local and foreign programme content.

Under the BC, foreign content is permissible provided it conveys intrinsic relevance to the education, information and entertainment of the Nigerian citizenry. The BC stipulates that a broadcaster shall ensure that the selection of foreign programmes reflects the development needs of the Nigerian nation and ensure respect for the Nigerian cultural sensibilities.

In addition, with the exception of special religious and sports programmes or events of national importance, Nigerian broadcasters shall not relay foreign broadcasts live on terrestrial platforms. In terms of characterising how a broadcasting programme may qualify as local content, the Addendum to the 6 th Edition of the BC (the Addendum) issued by the NBC in 2020 provides that:

the producer of the programme must be Nigerian, residing in Nigeria;the directors of the programme are Nigerian; orthe authors of the programme are Nigerian.

In addition, it goes on to provide that:

75 per cent of the leading authors and major supporting cast, including voice actors, or on-screen presenters appearing in the programme are Nigerian;a minimum of 75 per cent of programme expenses and 75 per cent of post-production expenses are paid for services provided by Nigerians or Nigerian companies, which may be obtained from programme commission, licensing, advertising-funded programming grants, co-funding arrangements, commercial sponsorship and financing initiatives, all of which must not be subject to ‘foreign ownership or arbitrary interference’; andwhere the production is a collaboration with a foreign entity, the producer shall ensure that Nigeria production locations, talents, skills, sets, etc, constitute at least 75 per cent of the entire production.

The broadcaster is required by the BC to ensure that all productions targeted at the Nigerian market must meet a minimum of 60 per cent local content requirement. The local content requirement applies to all categories of programming including but not limited to fiction, series, serials, films, documentaries, arts and educational programmes, news, sports events, games, advertising, teleshopping or teletext services.

Last, a broadcaster is required by the local content rules in the Addendum to source its local content from independent producers where it is not a direct production of the broadcaster. Failure to comply with the local content rules is a Class B breach under the BC and will attract sanctions. Advertising How is broadcast media advertising regulated? Is online advertising subject to the same regulation? Broadcast media advertising is regulated by the NBC Act, the BC, the Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria Act (the APCON Act), the Nigerian Code of Advertising Practice and Sales Promotion and the APCON Vetting Guidelines (the Vetting Guidelines).

Under the Vetting Guidelines, any broadcast media advertising material must be submitted for approval by the Advertising Standards Panel before it is aired. Online broadcasting is subject to the BC to the extent that it is transmitted by an online or web broadcaster operating in Nigeria, and it shall additionally conform to the provisions of the BC on programming standards.

Must-carry obligations Are there regulations specifying a basic package of programmes that must be carried by operators’ broadcasting distribution networks? Is there a mechanism for financing the costs of such obligations? Beyond the local content obligations mandated by the BC, there are no other obligations that specify the basic package of programmes, and (or) in relation to must-carry.

At present. there is no mechanism for financing local content obligations in Nigeria. However, there is a local content development fund into which a subscription broadcaster shall make a mandatory payment, where it fails to comply with its local content obligations regarding its subscription service.

  • Regulation of new media content Is new media content and its delivery regulated differently from traditional broadcast media? How? Internet radio and broadcasting streaming signals from and into Nigeria requires a licence from NBC.
  • In practice, most of the internet radio stations operating in Nigeria already have a radio (or another broadcast) licence issued by NBC.

The BC also requires the local content for this category of licence to be 60 per cent. The regulations and conditions governing news, programmes, advertising and sponsorship in relation to other forms of broadcasting or broadcast licence are also applicable to internet broadcasting.

Digital switchover When is the switchover from analogue to digital broadcasting required or when did it occur? How will radio frequencies freed up by the switchover be reallocated? The first phase of the digital switch over (DSO) was successfully launched in five states and the Federal Capital Territory in Nigeria between April 2016 and February 2018.

According to the timeline released by the NBC in March 2021, the second phase of the DSO will commence in Lagos state on 29 April 2021 and be extended to four other states by 12 August 2021. The third and final phase of the DSO will commence in December 2021 and is expected to be concluded by 8 December 2022.

The Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) is proposing that the radio frequencies freed up should be reallocated to mobile broadband. Digital formats Does regulation restrict how broadcasters can use their spectrum? Yes. Broadcasters are required to use the spectrum assigned to them in accordance with the technical specifications contained in the licence conditions.

Media plurality Is there any process for assessing or regulating media plurality (or a similar concept) in your jurisdiction? May the authorities require companies to take any steps as a result of such an assessment? The BC incorporate some provisions that are consistent with media pluralism.

  • Some of these provisions are that the BC requires broadcasters to ensure that all sides to any issue of public interest are equitably presented for fairness and balance and be above inherent biases, prejudices and subjective mindsets.
  • In addition, the BC provides that panellists in discussion programmes are expected to reflect various viewpoints, and for political broadcasts, broadcasters are to accord equal airtime to all political parties or views, with particular regard to the duration and the particular time within which such programmes can be broadcasted during political campaign periods.

Key trends and expected changes Provide a summary of key emerging trends and hot topics in media regulation in your country. The Minister of Information and Culture, the supervising Minister of the NBC, has stated on several occasions that the federal government of Nigeria (FGN) intends to enact legislation that would subject social media and over-the-top (OTT) media services to the regulatory purview of the NBC; however, as at the time of this writing, no such legislation sponsored by the Executive has been presented to the National Assembly for consideration.

Although it is noteworthy that the Addendum issued in 2020 by the NBC made some far-reaching provisions that have an implication for operators of social media, OTT and internet access platforms. This intention by the FGN to regulate social media was amplified when on 4 June 2021, the Minister of Information and Culture announced the suspension of Twitter, the micro-blogging platform, in Nigeria.

In making this announcement, the Minister cited the persistent use of the platform for activities that are capable of undermining Nigeria’s corporate existence, and thereafter directed the NBC to immediately commence the process of licensing all OTT and social media operations in Nigeria.

Although it is not clear what power the Minister exercised in making this announcement and effecting the subsequent suspension of Twitter in Nigeria, the FGN in court documents filed in its defence to the legal challenge of the suspension before the Economic Community of West African States Court of Justice, contended that the Minister exercised certain powers under the Penal Code (Northern States) and in the Criminal Code Act that authorises the Minister to ban the use, establishment, ownership and operation of any medium for the dissemination of information in the public interest.

These provisions according to the FGN served as the legal authority for suspending Twitter, although this suspension was since lifted on 13 January 2022. This case remains ongoing.

What are the types of media law?

Media & Communication Law in India – Communication is the process by which exchange of information by various methods occur, whereas media is a medium or instrument of the storage or communication information. Hence, both these topics are closely linked.

  1. Media and Communication systems vary from nation to nation depending upon a nation’s politics, religion and culture.
  2. In India, a country with a parliamentary democracy, there exists ample amount of laws that dictate media and communication.
  3. An array of laws and legal terms are associated with the media and communication sector such as: Copyright Law: This deals with the exclusivity of the information and the rights of a person who owns such information to communicate it, reproduce it, license it etc.

Telecommunication Laws: The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) set up under the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997, is the regulatory authority that takes cognizance of telecommunication regulatory matters. Further the Information Technology Act, 2000 has indirect reach in the telecommunication sector, for example, for telecom and internet related issues.

The Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act, 1995 acts as a regulatory legislation for cable television broadcasting. Censorship: Central Board of Film Certification is the foremost body that censors content in a movie which is deemed to have elements not tolerable and acceptable by the Indian Society.

Their role is to certify every cinematographic film being broadcasted and/or circulated in Indian Territory. These laws are the very few in a vast directory of laws that govern the media and communication sector. A few more examples of the same are, Indian Press Act; Vernacular Press Act; Constitutional Provisions regarding Press Freedom and Freedom of Speech; Official Secrets Act; Press and Registration of Books Act; Delivery of Books and Newspapers Act Copyright Act; Press Council of India Act.

What type of law is media law?

What Is Media Law? – Media law governs what can be published and broadcast. Some of the elements that media law includes are censorship and the tort of defamation, as well as privacy, This area of law also relates to intellectual property law (i.e. issues such as copyright and ownership). Consequently, media law is a broad area of law which covers:

Broadcasting – public service broadcasting (e.g. BBC) and commercial broadcasting (e.g. ITV) Publishing – e.g. books, newspapers, print magazines Music – includes working with talent, producers and managers Film & television Digital media – includes gaming and social media, such as tweets and Facebook campaigns Advertising and marketing Theatre – includes working across ballet, opera, dance and circus, with producers, theatre owners, not-for-profit companies, venues, drama schools, industry bodies, agents and creative talent

Take a look at this video by law firm Bird & Bird for a little more insight into eSports law, a form of gaming law, and how to break into it. Advertisement cookies to view the content.” data-cli-src=”https://www.youtube.com/embed/8s3LIV8s2EE” width=”560″ height=”315″ frameborder=”0″ allowfullscreen=”allowfullscreen” data-mce-fragment=”1″>

What are the four laws of media?

The Laws of Media: the effects of media can be described by the four laws of enhancement, obsolescence, retrieval and flip or reversal as described above. the limits of its potential reverses or flips into an opposite or complementary form.’

What are the two main areas of media law?

Learning Objectives –

  1. Identify important laws that relate to different aspects of the media.
  2. Explain the effects of important laws on media outlets and audiences.
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Media law has been a much-debated topic ever since the first U.S. media industry laws appeared in the early 1900s. The contention surrounding media law largely stems from the liberties guaranteed under the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which includes the freedom of the press.

  1. Generally speaking, media law comprises two areas: telecommunications law, which regulates radio and television broadcasts, and print law, which addresses publications such as books, newspapers, and magazines.
  2. Despite differences between the two areas, many media laws involve First Amendment protections.

This section explores several areas of media law: privacy, libel and slander, copyright and intellectual property, freedom of information, and equal time and coverage. In 1974, Congress passed the Privacy Act, which “protects records that can be retrieved by personal identifiers such as a name, social security number, or other identifying number or symbol (U.S.

  • Department of Health and Human Services).” This act also regulates how agencies can collect, store, and use information and requires agencies to tell individuals when they are collecting information about them.
  • Designed to ensure that all First Amendment guarantees remain honored, the act requires all public and private agencies to function within its boundaries.

Under the Privacy Act, media personnel must be careful to avoid revealing certain information about an individual without his or her permission, even if that portrayal is factually accurate. Privacy laws, including the Privacy Act, “limityour ability to publish private facts about someone and recognizean individual’s right to stop you from using his or her name, likeness, and other personal attributes for certain exploitative purposes (Citizen Media Law Project).” Members of the media can avoid the pitfalls of privacy laws by maintaining a professional relationship with a community.

To avoid liability, journalists and other media professionals are encouraged to report or comment only on “matters of legitimate public interest and only portray people who have a reasonable relationship to topic (Citizen Media Law Project).” In 2005, a legal dispute arose between congressional aides Robert Steinbuch and Jessica Cutler.

Steinbuch sued Cutler for publishing information about their intimate relationship; however, the case was dismissed when the court decided that Cutler had only provided facts that were already publically known (Citizen Media Law Project).

What do you learn in media law?

Learn Media Law with Online Courses, Classes, & Lessons Media Law is a branch of law that deals with legal issues such as intellectual property or digital media. It also touches on free speech and the first amendment because of influence from public airways.

  1. It regulates the entertainment industry but often overlaps with other media through intellectual property laws.
  2. Areas that come under media law are broadcast television, radio, print media such as newspaper, and, most recently, the internet through things like social media or digital media.
  3. Not all media follows the same rules and regulations under the law.

Broadcast media, for example, is subject to numerous regulations, while the internet has fewer regulations concerning freedom of speech or invasion of privacy.

Why do we study media law?

The role of the media, both mass media, community media and small and medium-sized media outlets, is instrumental in realising and exercising the right to freedom of expression. Media regulation is enforced by of law, rules or procedures and varies across the world.

  1. They exist to protect freedom of expression and media freedom and regulate media markets, ownership, infrastructure and technical standards and, importantly, protect public interests such as media pluralism and diversity.
  2. Regional instruments, a category of international law – see the page on International Standards –, offer insight into which areas should be protected by national law and regulated to defend the right to freedom of expression and media freedom.

This page does not attempt to compare all relevant sections contained within these regional instruments, but will mention a few to clarify the main areas The Declaration of Principles on Freedom of Expression and Access to Information in Africa 2019 of the African Court of Human Rights (ACHR), covers 16 principles to which national legislation should adhere, i.a.

and covers media diversity and pluralism, independent, community and private media, criminal measures and prohibited speech and economic measures that ‘promote a conducive economic environment in which all media can flourish.’ Declaration of Principles on Freedom of Expression of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACHR) covers 13 principles, i.a.

prohibition of prior censorship, source protection, privacy laws, public funding and advertising and plurality and diversity and anti-trust law. Article 13(3) of the Inter-American Convention, protecting freedom of thought and opinion, states that The right of expression may not be restricted by indirect methods or means, such as the abuse of government or private controls over newsprint, radio broadcasting frequencies, or equipment used in the dissemination of information, or by any other means tending to impede the communication and circulation of ideas and opinions.

What are the 7 types of media?

Types Of Media Types of Media We can start our discussion of media by defining and describing different kinds of media that children are using today. Modern media comes in many different formats, including print media (books, magazines, newspapers), television, movies, video games, music, cell phones, various kinds of software, and the Internet.

Each type of media involves both content, and also a device or object through which that content is delivered. Print Media The term ‘print media’ is used to describe the traditional or “old-fashioned” print-based media that today’s parents grew up with, including newspapers, magazines, books, and comics or graphic novels.

Historically, only wealthy publishers had access to sophisticated type-setting technologies necessary to create printed material, but this has changed in recent years with the widespread accessibility of desktop publishing software and print-on-demand publication services such as Lulu.com (LINK).

More recently, electronic book readers such as the which store hundreds of books on a single device and which allow readers to directly download books and newspapers have become popular. Television Television has been entertaining American families for over fifty years. In the beginning, there were few programs to pick from, but today, there are literally hundreds of general and specialty channels to choose from and thousands upon thousands of programs.

Where it was once the case that programs had to be watched at the time they were broadcast on a television, this is no longer the case. Today, viewers can summon a movie or television episode whenever they want, through many cable or satellite services’ pay-per-view or free on-demand services.

They may also download or stream episodes from the Internet and watch them on their computers. Viewers may use DVR (digital video recorder) devices, such as a to record programs at one time and watch them at another time. Viewers with certain cell phones may even watch programs through their cell phones.

Movies Movies (films) are the oldest form of motion picture technology capable of capturing lifelike video-style images. Originally, movies could only be consumed at a neighborhood movie theater, but these days movies are widely available for people to consume in their homes, on their computers, and even in through their telephones.

Commercial movies are broadcast on television, and via cable and satellite services which may feature High Definition (HD) video resolution and sound, essentially allowing the movie theater experience to be replicated in a home theater environment. Commercial movies are also distributed on DVD and Blu-Ray disks, which can be rented from stores and through-the-mail services such as, and through downloadable computer files, which can be legally downloaded from movie rental services such as and or streamed through Netflix or on-demand cable services.

Home movies produced by amateurs with inexpensive video cameras are now also widely available through video sharing websites such as and, Video Games Available since the early 1980s, video games have only grown in popularity among youth. Today’s games make use of advanced graphics and processors to enable three dimensional game play featuring highly realistic landscapes and physics simulations, and the ability to compete against other players through a network connection.

Modern video games are immersive, exciting and increasingly interactive. Players feel like they really are in the situation because of the life-like graphics and sounds. Through video games, youth can extend their pretend play, as they become soldiers, aliens, race car drivers, street fighters, and football players.

Popular gaming consoles today include, and, There are also hand held consoles which enable mobile game play such as, As well, some video games can also be played on personal computers. Most video games use a hand-held device with buttons, joysticks, and other devices for manipulating the characters on the screen.

  1. However, the newer games systems use motion-detecting sensors, such as accelerometers which encourage players to move their entire body to complete game activities.
  2. For example, in Wii Tennis, a player swings his entire arm to have the player on the screen hit the tennis ball.
  3. Games such as the recently popular are played in a networked universe shared simultaneously by thousands of gamers at once.

Players may be across the street from one another or across the globe using the the Internet to participate in a shared three-dimensional world in which each player can control one or more avatars, and chat using text or voice. As advocates of mental health and wellness, we take great pride in educating our readers on the various online therapy providers available. Myndfulness App Designed to Help You Feel Better Daily Download Now For Free : Types Of Media

What are media law issues?

Communications and Media Law Issues – Communications and media law encompasses all legal issues affecting the media and telecommunications industries. These issues include free speech issues, defamation, copyright, and censorship. There are also issues involving privacy and whether content may be printed, broadcast over the air, or published online.

  1. Communications and media law used to primarily affect journalists, publishers, and large telephone companies.
  2. But since the advent of the Internet and desktop publishing, everyday people are just as likely to face similar legal complications.
  3. Restaurants may sue people who post defamatory reviews online, and blogging websites might be forced to remove content that violates its terms of service.

Responding to these possible infringements may require the legal expertise of a lawyer.

Is media law well paid?

Media Law is Commercial Law – Media law is in actual fact all about the commercial relationship between the media, whether this be internet companies, newspapers, magazine publishers, advertising companies or book publishers, and their clients – the customers.

The vast majority of the work of a media lawyer relates to contracts. Contracts for users of websites, contracts for the use of a trademark, contracts for the use of intellectual property, contracts for the purchase of media items, but contracts nonetheless. Commercial contracts are boring. Reviewing commercial contracts is even more boring.

Drafting commercial contracts is tedium beyond no other. Defamation actions are usually not very interesting either. A lot of time is usually spent arguing about the finite details of an application. Contrary to the impression I don’t think you very often get out of the office, let alone chase anyone round the streets slapping them on the shoulder with an emergency injunction.

  1. Media law is not an exciting area of law at all.
  2. In fact it is perhaps on the more dry areas.
  3. It is however very lucrative.
  4. If you are working in a media law firm, chance are your clients are blue chip companies, large organisations or wealthy private individuals.
  5. All of these types of clients pay well, or are expected to pay well.

As a result you are likely to receive a good salary or level of remuneration. I once coached a media solicitor working for a well known law firm acting on behalf of wealthy private individuals. As an associate he received a salary of £350k per annum. For this he was expected to put in shifts at the office that would make a junior doctor in the NHS gasp in shock at.

How do you become a media law?

If you complete an undergraduate law degree, this should be followed by a one year Legal Practice Course (LPC). After that you’ll need to be trained ‘on the job’ on a two-year training contract with a law firm. If you don’t choose law as your undergraduate degree it is still possible to train as a media lawyer.

How many laws of media are there?

Author Information: Gregory Sandstrom, European Humanities University, Vilnius, Lithuania, SERRC, [email protected] Sandstrom, Gregory.2012. Laws of media – The four effects: A McLuhan contribution to social epistemology. Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 1 (12): 1-6.

  1. The PDF of the article gives specific page numbers.
  2. Shortlink: http://wp.me/p1Bfg0-uc I n 1988, Eric McLuhan published some of the final papers of his father’s pioneering work, weaving together his own thoughts on language, media and communication in the form of a systematic approach to media studies, technology and culture.

As a book with a method-as-starting-point, the McLuhans’ left open the possibility for future scholars to continue their work on media effects, the so-called ‘laws of media.’ What was needed was to find a way for them to be further applied, to become compatible or to resonate with various scientific and research communities in the electronic-information era.

This article briefly presents the laws of media or ‘Four Effects.’ The purpose is to contribute to what people think and know (cf. epistemologically) about science and technology, as individuals and as members of various societies. The provocative McLuhan Media Model can be applied as a way of exploring the relationship between causes and effects, which is an interdisciplinary topic of great extension.

Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980) was engaged in questioning and investigating the effects of print, electronic technology and various forms of ‘new media’ as they influence our lives. Together at the University of Toronto with Eric Havelock, Northrop Frye, Edmund Carpenter, Walter J.

  1. Ong and briefly with Harold Innis, from the early 1950’s to late 1970s, McLuhan and their ‘Toronto Communication School’ delivered profound, if not always mainstream or quickly comprehendible insights into the history of language and speech (e.g.
  2. Orality vs.
  3. Literacy) and their impact on science, technology and culture.

McLuhan believed that the essential message of human-made media is found when we realize that media are ‘outterings’ or ‘utterings’ (cf. ‘extensions’) of ourselves, and that by learning about them we thus also learn about ourselves. This description may raise initial concerns from some readers.

For example, should such topics as media and communications even count as ‘scientific’ (usually ‘natural science’ is the common meaning in Anglo-Saxon discourse) let alone suggest the possibility that they constitute the topical basis for a ‘new science,’ as indicated in Laws of Media’s subtitle? Could an English professor ever possibly hope to solve long-standing theoretical and applied puzzles in or about science and human nature, through cross-disciplinary applications of literary theory to culture? To answer these concerns is yet another test for the McLuhan method, and may ultimately help to measure Marshall McLuhan’s legacy in the increasingly wired ‘global village’ and explain his lasting success and influence as a so-called sage and visionary of the electronic-information age.

In McLuhan’s messages, the term ‘media’ is used quite broadly to include technologies, artefacts and even words and scientific theories of human discovery or invention. These may all be analyzed in his unique tetrad-form of Four Effects articulated in Laws of Media.

We found that everything man makes and does, every procedure, every style, every artefact, every poem, song, painting, gimmick, gadget, theory, technology – every product of human effort – manifested the same four dimensions.” (Eric McLuhan, 1988: ix) Though some people are taken aback by physicists, astronomers, cosmologists or biologists who make claims to having achieved (or even just proposed) a grand unified theory (GUT), for a very good reason the same charge does not apply to the McLuhans.

This is largely due to the fact that the Four Effects method is limited to artefacts of human-making and not placed on natural(ly selected) things. In other words, it does not challenge naturalistic ideologies that depend on cosmological or biological speculations with a totalising super-human alternative.

  1. McLuhan prescribed his so-called Four Effects (laws of media) as a complementary method to Aristotle’s well-known Four Causes: Material, Efficient, Formal, and Final.
  2. The Four Effects, which I will briefly elaborate on below, were named as follows: Retrieval, Reversal, Obsolescence and Amplification or Enhancement.

These Four Effects are meant to apply simultaneously, and not linearly or sequentially, mirroring the method of Aristotle’s Four Causes. If applied properly and inventively, their perceptual impact on the reader will be one of aural/visual, discontinuous, resonant interplay, as they reveal already present or future features of media, culture and technology.

The combination of the four causes and the four effects is the most comprehensive and capable framework that has been developed so far whereby to evaluate the impacts and implications of new technologies. (Sheridan 1990) In the book Laws of Media, Marshall McLuhan’s earlier work unites in a general anthropic method that brings all language, aural and visual culture, technology and theoretical relativising to bear in an inspiring mix of catholic genius and mystical allure.

The medium is the message and the method is what matters in Laws of Media. The Four Effects allow for a reflexive investigative approach to whatever artefact or theory the participant (reader/listener/observer) chooses to apply them, in other words, an epistemology that is both personal and at the same time inevitably social.

  1. The tetrad model and its implications for science, philosophy and life therefore are meant to shock us (sensibly) and to open new doors to further discovery, following the historic lead of G.
  2. Vico’s Science Nuova and F.
  3. Bacon’s Novum Organum.
  4. Combined with McLuhan’s mosaic approach, the Four Effects in tetrad-form suggest a new way, a ‘new science’ to consider media, culture, technology and science.
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The potential perceptual reach of this simultaneous method of effects alone may open up fresh communicative connections, which arouse reasons for excitement and exploration in new scientific and humanitarian areas. The possibility of buried scientific treasure often prompts public and private curiosity.

McLuhan’s late-career contribution and oftentimes forgotten Four Effects count as just such an opportunity. Though many voices were afterwards critical of Laws of Media as a belated public relations attempt to re-vitalize McLuhan’s popularity of the 1960’s, a small group of others has given Marshall and Eric praise for the clarity it offers to McLuhan’s earlier writing.

Laws of Media is the metaphysical coda of McLuhan’s career: a vision of history, language, metaphor, and technology compressed into the diamond-like facets of the amplify/obsolesce/retrieve/reverse tetrads a book that purports to present a method rather than an encyclopaedia of applications of it.

  • Guardiani, 1996) We now know that McLuhan had been thinking about ‘laws’ since the time he was a student at the University of Manitoba in the 1930’s.
  • His writing and other intellectual activities in the middle of the 20th century on culture and technology reflected and re-sounded the rising influence of the electronic-information era reverberating on the human psyche.

The so-called ‘laws of media’ came together after more than thirty years studying, researching and writing about media, information and communication technologies and their effects on humanity. From his personal letters, at 19, having entered the University of Manitoba (Canada), McLuhan wrote: When I have had a bit more philosophy and psychology I am going to work out some of the great ‘laws’ that govern the affairs of men, temporal and spiritual What I should do would be to take this field of the ‘laws’ and show that in spheres of science, literature, history, thot, action, human and superhuman, everything is a mass of timeless truth and consistent order.

I would take a number of concrete examples and work them out in detail I feel that if I am to make a contribution here, that it will be one of stimulating minds better fitted than mine to elaborate the theory. possesses the advantage of simplicity and I am convinced that it is ever so close to the truth.” (in Guardini 1996) The Laws of Media: Four Effects Viewed in the form of a simultaneous tetrad, McLuhan poses the following questions about media: A.

“What recurrence or RETRIEVAL of earlier actions and services is brought into play simultaneously by the new form? What older, previously obsolesced ground is brought back and inheres in the new form?” B. “When pushed to the limits of its potential, the new form will tend to reverse what had been its original characteristics.

What is the REVERSAL potential of the new form?” C. “If some aspect of a situation is enlarged or enhanced, simultaneously the old condition or un-enhanced situation is displaced thereby. What is pushed aside or OBSOLESCED by the new ‘organ’?” D. “What does the artefact ENHANCE or intensify or make possible or accelerate? This can be asked concerning a wastebasket, a painting, a steamroller, or a zipper, as well as about a proposition in Euclid or a law of physics.

It can be asked about any word or phrase in any language.” (1988) As simple as it may initially seem or sound, that is the laws of media or Four Effects in brief; four categories applicable to any form and content of media, theory or human artefact. The invitation is to try them out on your own terms and topics and see what effects you can discover in the emergence of new (or old) media.

McLuhan’s method suggests that the reader should ask them-self the questions: what does the new artefact or theory retrieve? What does it reverse into? What does it obsolesce? And what things does it enhance or amplify? Such a general methodological framework for inquiry into scientific research and experimentation could help scientists and scholars to reflect further upon the message(s) of their theories and technological achievements.

By clarifying this, the general public may better understand the relevance and possible importance of science and technology and when we should potentially stop developing certain theories or technologies if they threaten our safety and security on a global scale.

  1. It may be that McLuhan’s laws of media, his Four Effects will someday resonate more broadly with people and gain awareness in society and higher education.
  2. The verdict is still out, even as we have just celebrated 100 years from McLuhan’s birth in 1911.
  3. As we now face many environmental and ecological challenges during our era, the McLuhans’ method is one contribution that a social epistemology of media can potentially make use of in order to evaluate (without necessarily moralising) what we mean by science and technology.

And if that happens, then perhaps Aristotle would be proud to have his Four Causes finally married in the global village with McLuhan’s Four Effects. Image 1: “Laws of Media: The Internet”, Martin Soules, “McLuhan Light and Dark” http://www.media-studies.ca/articles/mcluhan.htm What Is Media Law Image 2: “Laws of Media: Mobile Phone”, Marshall McLuhan, from Laws of Media, 1988, page 153. Which media would you propose to add to the encyclopaedia of uses for the Four Effects? ~~ References Federman, Mark. “On Reading McLuhan.” McLuhan Program in Culture and Technology. http://individual.utoronto.ca/markfederman/OnReadingMcLuhan.pdf Guardiani, Francesco.1996.

  1. Reviewing the Reviews: Laws of Media and the Critics.” McLuhan Studies.
  2. Projects.chass.utoronto.ca/mcluhan-studies/v1_iss1/1_1art5.htm Marshall McLuhan Speaks Centennial 2011.
  3. Http://marshallmcluhanspeaks.com/ McLuhan, Marshall and Eric McLuhan.1988.
  4. Laws of Media: The New Science.
  5. University of Toronto Press.

Sandstrom, Gregory. “Laws of Media and the Extension of Evolution.” www.academia.edu/1674849/Laws_of_Media_and_the_Extension_of_Evolution Sheridan, William.1990. The Paradigm Shift of the Information Age. Literary Review. Soules, Marshall. “McLuhan Light and Dark.” www.media-studies.ca/articles/mcluhan.htm Gary Wolf called him “electronic culture’s immortal saint.” (“The Wisdom of Saint Marshall, the Holy Fool.” Wired Magazine.

What is new media law?

California is leading the charge to monitor and potentially regulate the spread of misinformation and disinformation via social media. In September, Gov. Gavin Newsom signed the Social Media Accountability and Transparency Act into law to bring transparency and accountability to the nation’s largest social media platforms used by tens of millions of Americans.

What is the history of media law?

Post Independence Era – The Indian National Congress came to power in 1947, declaring India an independent state. The ‘Press Law Enquiry Committee, 1947′ was set up to examine and give recommendations on the existing media law. The ‘Indian Press (Emergency Powers) Act, 1931′ and ‘Foreign Relations Act, 1932′ were repealed, and modifications were made to Section 124-A of IPC.

The ‘Telegraph Act, 1885′ and ‘Post Office Act, 1898′ were amended. The ‘Press (Objectionable Matters) Act, 1951′ was enacted to control the press moderately, but it was repealed in 1957. The ‘Press Commission of India, 1952′ was established which led to the development of the ‘Press Council of India’,

The ‘Press Trust of India, 1949′ was established by the Indian and Eastern Newspaper Society to form independent news agencies. The ‘Newspaper (Price and Page) Act, 1956′ was enacted to prevent unfair competition through price regulations on the press.

  • The newspaper could not increase its volume of publication without raising its price.
  • The Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in the landmark judgment of Sakal Papers vs Union of India,
  • It held that the government could only impose indirect restrictions on the freedom of the press on the grounds under Article 19(2).

However, this freedom of the press was short-lived. In June 1975, the National Emergency was proclaimed leading to the introduction of censorship laws in independent India. The ‘Prevention of Publication of Objectionable Matter Act, 1976′, the ‘Parliamentary Proceedings (Protection of Publication) Repeal Act, 1976′, and the ‘Press Council (Repeal) Act, 1976′ were enacted to deny press the access to justice by the procedure established by law against their illegal detentions.

What is privacy in media law?

Privacy and Media India, at present, does not have an independent statute protecting privacy; the right to privacy is a deemed right under the Constitution. The right to privacy has to be understood in the context of two fundamental rights: the right to freedom under Article 19 and the right to life under Article 21 of the Constitution.

  1. The higher judiciary of the country has recognised the right to privacy as a right implicit in the right to life and liberty guaranteed to the citizens of this country by Article 21,
  2. The Indian law has made some exceptions to the rule of privacy in the interest of the public, especially, subsequent to the enactment of the Right to Information Act, 2005 (RTI).

The RTI Act, makes an exception under section 8 (1) (j), which exempts disclosure of any personal information which is not connected to any public activity or of public interest or which would cause an unwarranted invasion of privacy of an individual.

What constitutes an unwarranted invasion of privacy is not defined. However, courts have taken a positive stand on what constitutes privacy in different circumstances. Constitutional Framework of Privacy The right to privacy is recognised as a fundamental right under the Constitution of India. It is guaranteed under the right to freedom (Article 19) and the right to life (Article 21) of the Constitution.

Article 19(1) (a) guarantees all citizens the right to freedom of speech and expression. It is the right to freedom of speech and expression that gives the media the right to publish any information. Reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right can be imposed by the State in the interests of sovereignty and integrity of the State, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence.

  1. Article 21 of the Constitution provides: No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.
  2. Courts have interpreted the right to privacy as implicit in the right to life.
  3. In R.Rajagopal v.
  4. State of T.N.
  5. And PUCL v.
  6. UOI the courts observed that the right to privacy is an essential ingredient of the right to life.

For instance, in R. Rajagopal v State of Tamil Nadu, Auto Shankar: Who was sentenced to death for committing six murders: in his autobiography divulged his relations with a few police officials. The Supreme Court in dealing with the question on the right to privacy, observed, that the right to privacy is implicit in the right to life and liberty guaranteed to the citizens of the country by Article 21.

  1. It is a ‘right to be left alone.’ “A citizen has a right to safeguard the privacy of his own, his family, marriage, procreation, motherhood, child-bearing and education among other matters.
  2. The publication of any of the aforesaid personal information without the consent of the person, whether accurate or inaccurate and ‘whether laudatory or critical’ would be in violation of the right to privacy of the person and liable for damages.

The exception being, when a person voluntarily invites controversy or such publication is based on public records, then there is no violation of privacy. In PUCL v. UOI which is popularly known as the wire-tapping case, the question before the court was whether wire-tapping was an infringement of a citizen’s right to privacy.

The court held that an infringement on the right to privacy would depend on the facts and circumstances of a case. It observed that: telephone conversation is an important facet of a man’s private life. Right to privacy would certainly include telephone-conversation in the privacy of one’s home or office.

Telephone-tapping would, thus, infract Article 21 of the Constitution of India unless it is permitted under the procedure established by law.” It further observed that the right to privacy also derives from Article 19 for “when a person is talking on telephone, he is exercising his right to freedom of speech and expression.” In Kharak Singh v.

State of U.P where police surveillance was being challenged on account of violation of the right to privacy, the Supreme Court held that domiciliary night visits were violative of Article 21 of the Constitution and the personal liberty of an individual. Right to Privacy Under Article 21 In India, the law of privacy evolved due to the challenge raised on police surveillance.

The Court, struck down a regulation permitting surveillance and equated ‘personal liberty’ with ‘privacy’, and observed, that the concept of liberty in Article 21 was comprehensive enough to include privacy. and that a person’s house, where he lives with his family is his ‘castle’ and that nothing is more deleterious to a man’s physical happiness and health than a calculated interference with his privacy.

The law of privacy is the recognition of the individual’s right to be let alone and to have his personal space inviolate. Freedom of Expression and information U/A 19(1) (a) The right to impart and receive information is a species of the right to freedom of speech and expression. A citizen has a Fundamental Right to use the best means of imparting and receiving information.

The State is not only under an obligation to respect the Fundamental Rights of the citizens, but also equally under an obligation to ensure conditions under which the Right can be meaningfully and effectively be enjoyed by one and all. Freedom of speech and expression is basic to and indivisible from a democratic polity.

In Kaleidoscope (India) (P) Ltd.v. Phoolan Devi, the trial Judge restrained the exhibition of the controversial film Bandit Queen both in India and abroad. The trial court reached a prima facie view that the film infringed the right to privacy of Phoolan Devi, notwithstanding that she had assigned her copyright in her writings to the film producers.

This was upheld by the Division Bench. The Court observed that even assuming that Phoolan Devi was a public figure whose private life was exposed to the media, the question was to what extent private matters relating to rape or the alleged murders committed by her could be commercially exploited, and not just as news items or matters of public interest.

  1. Right of privacy and Right to know under Article 21 Article 21 enshrines right to life and personal liberty.
  2. The expressions right to life and personal liberty are compendious terms, which include within themselves variety of rights and attributes.
  3. Some of them are also found in Article 19 and thus have two sources at the same time.

In R.P.Limited v Indian Express Newspapers the Supreme Court read into Article 21 the right to know. The Supreme Court held that right to know is a necessary ingredient of participatory democracy. Safeguarding Identity of Children The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act lays down that the media should not disclose the names, addresses or schools of juveniles in conflict with the law or that of a child in need of care and protection, which would lead to their identification.

  1. No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his or her honour and reputation.
  2. The child has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Article 40 of the Convention, states that the privacy of a child accused of infringing penal law should be protected at all stages of the proceedings.

  • Safeguarding Identity of Rape Victims
  • Right of privacy and Sting Operations
  • International Conventions

Section 228A of the Indian Penal Code makes disclosure of the identity of a rape victim punishable. In the recent Aarushi Talwar murder case and the rape of an international student studying at the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS) the media frenzy compromised the privacy of the TISS victim and besmirched the character of the dead person.

In the TISS case, the media did not reveal the name of the girl, but revealed the name of the university and the course she was pursuing, which is in violation of the PCI norms. In addition to revealing names of individuals, the PCI norms expressly states that visual representation in moments of personal grief should be avoided.

In the Aarushi murder case, the media repeatedly violated this norm. Section 5 of the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act, 1995 and the Cable Television Network Rules (hereafter the Cable Television Networks Act), stipulates that no programme can be transmitted or retransmitted on any cable service which contains anything obscene, defamatory, deliberate, false and suggestive innuendos and half truths.

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The Rules prescribes a programming code to be followed by channels responsible for transmission/re-transmission of any programme. Internationally the right to privacy has been protected in a number of conventions. For instance, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 (UDHR) under Article 12 provides that: “No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, or to attacks upon his honour and reputation.

Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.” The UDHR protects any arbitrary interference from the State to a person’s right to privacy. Similarly, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1976 (ICCPR) under Article 17 imposes the State to ensure that individuals are protected by law against arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation.

  1. Thus, ensuring that States enact laws to protect individual’s right to privacy.
  2. India has ratified the above conventions.
  3. The ratification of the Conventions mandates the State to take steps to enact laws to protect its citizens.
  4. Although, human right activists have periodically demanded that the State take adequate measures to protect human rights of the vulnerable in society, the right to privacy has received little attention.

Trial by media is a phrase popular in the late 20th century and early 21st century to describe the impact of television and newspaper coverage on a person’s reputation by creating a widespread perception of guilt or innocence before, or after, a verdict in a court of law.

Media has been the voice of thousands through which a platform is provided for the common man. In rapidly changing socio economic conditions like in India (largest democratic country) media has gained prominence and hence referred as a fourth pillar of democracy. Of course sometimes a drop of ink dropped down from the journalist’s pen might be more powerful than a bullet from the soldier’s gun.

According to criminal jurisprudence a suspect/accused is entitled to a fair trial until proven guilty/innocent by the court of law. IMPACT OF MEDIA TRIALS MEDIA TRIALS vs. FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND EXPRESSION Freedom of speech plays a crucial role in the formation of public opinion on social, political and economic matters.

  1. Similarly, the persons in power should be able to keep the people informed about their policies and projects, therefore, it can be said that freedom of speech is the mother of all other liberties.
  2. In Printers (Mysore) Ltd.v.
  3. CTO the Supreme Court has reiterated that though freedom of the press is not expressly guaranteed as a fundamental right, it is implicit in the freedom of speech and expression.

Freedom of the press has always been a cherished right in all democratic countries and the press has rightly been described as the fourth chamber of democracy. In R. Rajagopal v. State of T.N the Supreme Court of India has held that freedom of the press extends to engaging in uninhabited debate about the involvement of public figures in public issues and events.

But, as regards their private life, a proper balancing of freedom of the press as well as the right of privacy and maintained defamation has to be performed in terms of the democratic way of life laid down in the Constitution. Therefore, in view of the observations made by the Supreme Court in various judgments and the views expressed by various jurists, it is crystal clear that the freedom of the press flows from the freedom of expression which is guaranteed to all citizens by Article 19(1)(a).

Press stands on no higher footing than any other citizen and cannot claim any privilege (unless conferred specifically by law), as such, as distinct from those of any other citizen. The press cannot be subjected to any special restrictions which could not be imposed on any citizen of the country.

MEDIA TRIAL vs. FAIR TRIAL Trial by media has created a problem because it involves a tug of war between two conflicting principles free press and free trial, in both of which the public are vitally interested. The freedom of the press stems from the right of the public in a democracy to be involved on the issues of the day, which affect them.

This is the justification for investigative and campaign journalism. At the same time, the Right to Fair Trial, i.e., a trial uninfluenced by extraneous pressures is recognized as a basic tenet of justice in India. A journalist may thus be liable for contempt of Court if he publishes anything which might prejudice a ‘fair trial’ or anything which impairs the impartiality of the Court to decide a cause on its merits, whether the proceedings before the Court be a criminal or civil proceeding.

  • In Zahira Habibullah Sheikh v.
  • State of Gujarat, the Supreme Court explained that a fair trial obviously would mean a trial before an impartial Judge, a fair prosecutor and atmosphere of judicial calm.
  • Fair trial means a trial in which bias or prejudice for or against the accused, the witnesses, or the cause which is being tried is eliminated.

MEDIA TRIAL vs. RIGHT TO BE REPRESENTED Through media trial, we have started to create pressure on the lawyers even: to not take up cases of accused, thus trying to force these accused to go to trial without any defense. Is this not against the principles of natural justice? Every person has a right to get himself represented by a lawyer of his choice and put his point before the adjudicating court and no one has the right to debar him from doing so.

For an instance, when eminent lawyer Ram Jethmalani decided to defend Manu Sharma, a prime accused in a murder case, he was subject to public derision. A senior editor of a television news channel CNN-IBN called the decision to represent Sharma an attempt to defend the indefensible, IS MEDIA TRIAL A CONTEMPT OF COURT? Trial by Media is Contempt of Court and needs to be punished.

The Contempt of Court Act defines contempt by identifying it as civil and criminal. Criminal contempt has further been divided into three types:

  1. Scandalizing
  2. Prejudicing trial, and
  3. Hindering the administration of justice.

Prejudice or interference with the judicial process: This provision owes its origin to the principle of natural justice; ‘every accused has a right to a fair trial’ clubbed with the principle that ‘Justice may not only be done it must also seem to be done’.

  • There are multiple ways in which attempts are made to prejudice trial.
  • If such cases are allowed to be successful will be that the persons will be convicted of offences which they have not committed.
  • Contempt of court has been introduced in order to prevent such unjust and unfair trials.
  • No publication, which is calculated to poison the minds of jurors, intimidate witnesses or parties or to create an atmosphere in which the administration of justice would be difficult or impossible, amounts to contempt.

Commenting on the pending cases or abuse of party may amount to contempt only when a case is triable by a judge. No editor has the right to assume the role of an investigator to try to prejudice the court against any person. Bed Impact of Media trial Pro-Plaintiff Media Bias Litigation involving well-known companies or individuals always has grabbed the attention of the news media, especially when it involves sensational charges.

The magnitude of the coverage and the filter through which the media reports on litigation can create a clear plaintiff bias in civil cases, While small companies can find themselves under the media spotlight in a particularly novel or bet the company suit, the media tends to focus on allegations against established and respected corporate defendants.

These larger companies tend to have household names, and allegations against them can make good copy even if the allegations are seemingly spurious, commonplace or unproven. The same is true for litigation involving celebrity defendants

  1. The Nature of Bias in High-Publicity Cases
  2. The Additional Pressure on Judges in High-Publicity Trials
  3. Conclusion

A larger issue is the complex nature of juror bias and how that bias predisposes a juror toward one side in a case. It is no secret that we all have biases. The difficulty comes from understanding how those biases may ultimately affect the viewing of evidence and the deliberations in a case.

Judges are also Human Beings they too care about the reputation and promotion. That time is gone when judges are not considered as social because it will harm their reputation. Now days Judges are social and being an human being they care about their promotions and remunerations. In high profile cases they tend to be bias and give verdict as per as media reports just to be in lime light.

This will surely help them to get a promotion before other competitive judges. Media is so much into our daily life’s that judges too can’t stay away from it and they usually tend to give verdict as per media reports. The media create a series of unconscious pressures on a juror in a high-profile trial.

  • Jurors know that they are being watched by the world.
  • They are not only making a decision for themselves, but they are making a statement for their family, co-workers, community, and society as a whole.
  • This elevates their verdict to a level beyond the evidence.
  • Though media act as a watchdog and act as a platform to bring people voice to the notice of society and legislatures.

But now days media is so much sensationalized and they just do for their salaries and TRP’s. There are few reporters those showing only those news for what they have been paid by political parties. From the above account it becomes clear that the media had a more negative influence rather than a positive effect (except for a few exceptions here and there).

What are the 3 sectors of media?

The Different Sectors Within The Media Industry There are three major sectors within the creative media profession (T.V, radio and film). I decided to look more deeply in the area of British T.V, to look at some of the leading producers, the leading products and how the T.V industry can grow.

  1. The major broadcasters in T.V are the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation), ITV (Independent Television), Channel 4, Channel 5, BskyB (British Sky Broadcasting Group) and Virgin Media.
  2. We then looked more deeply into who creates the products for the broadcasters and found that outside the broadcasters there were two major producers of content, SYCO TV and Endemol U.K.

SYCO TV have created such franchises as X-Factor, the “Got Talent” franchise and Red Or Black to name a few. Endemol U.K have produced such shows as Big Brother, Ready Steady Cook and 8 out of 10 cats. The common theme between these two producers of content is reality TV.

  • Producers like creating new reality T.V shows as it is essentially cheap labour.
  • Members of the public do not need to be paid as much as presenters or celebrities and so bringing “the public” onto T.V is favoured amongst the content producers.
  • Through our research I have discovered that the largest growing market and the best to tap into for further development would be teenage market, perhaps a realistic teenage drama.A current program marketed to teenagers is a programme called “Waterloo Rd”.

You can tell it is marketed to teenagers because it is set in a school and deals with teenage issues such as bullying and school pressures. The last episode of Waterloo Rd was in the top 20 most viewed programs on BBC1 with 4.47 million viewers. Another program that was marketed to a younger audience was a show called “E:20”.

What are the two main areas of media law?

Learning Objectives –

  1. Identify important laws that relate to different aspects of the media.
  2. Explain the effects of important laws on media outlets and audiences.

Media law has been a much-debated topic ever since the first U.S. media industry laws appeared in the early 1900s. The contention surrounding media law largely stems from the liberties guaranteed under the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which includes the freedom of the press.

Generally speaking, media law comprises two areas: telecommunications law, which regulates radio and television broadcasts, and print law, which addresses publications such as books, newspapers, and magazines. Despite differences between the two areas, many media laws involve First Amendment protections.

This section explores several areas of media law: privacy, libel and slander, copyright and intellectual property, freedom of information, and equal time and coverage. In 1974, Congress passed the Privacy Act, which “protects records that can be retrieved by personal identifiers such as a name, social security number, or other identifying number or symbol (U.S.

  1. Department of Health and Human Services).” This act also regulates how agencies can collect, store, and use information and requires agencies to tell individuals when they are collecting information about them.
  2. Designed to ensure that all First Amendment guarantees remain honored, the act requires all public and private agencies to function within its boundaries.

Under the Privacy Act, media personnel must be careful to avoid revealing certain information about an individual without his or her permission, even if that portrayal is factually accurate. Privacy laws, including the Privacy Act, “limityour ability to publish private facts about someone and recognizean individual’s right to stop you from using his or her name, likeness, and other personal attributes for certain exploitative purposes (Citizen Media Law Project).” Members of the media can avoid the pitfalls of privacy laws by maintaining a professional relationship with a community.

To avoid liability, journalists and other media professionals are encouraged to report or comment only on “matters of legitimate public interest and only portray people who have a reasonable relationship to topic (Citizen Media Law Project).” In 2005, a legal dispute arose between congressional aides Robert Steinbuch and Jessica Cutler.

Steinbuch sued Cutler for publishing information about their intimate relationship; however, the case was dismissed when the court decided that Cutler had only provided facts that were already publically known (Citizen Media Law Project).

What is the mass media?

5. Mass media is communication -whether written, broadcast, or spoken- that reaches a large audience. This includes television, radio, advertising, movies, the Internet, newspapers, magazines, and so forth. Mass media is a significant force in modern culture, particularly in America.

Sociologists refer to this as a media ted culture where media reflects and creates the culture. Learn more in: Consumed Consumer Within the Framework of New Communication Technologies 6. Communication systems in which messages are delivered to very large audiences. The association to broadcasting led to the use of the expression mostly in relation to radio and television, but printed material, in particular newspapers and magazines, can also be considered mass media,

Learn more in: Seek and Ye Shall Find 13. Mass media are channels of communication which aid the transfer of meaning from a sender to heterogenous audiences simultaneously. It refers to a varied range of media technologies that reach a large audience through mass communication.

  • Examples include; television, radio, newspapers, magazines, motion pictures.
  • Learn more in: Indigenous Language Media and Safe Motherhood Practices 14.
  • Communication systems in which messages are delivered to very large audiences.
  • The association to broadcasting led to the use of the expression mostly in relation to radio and television, but printed material, in particular newspapers and magazines, can also be considered mass media,

Learn more in: Seek and Ye Shall Find 25. The primary means of providing information—whether spoken, written, or broadcast—about political, economic, social, technological, legal, environmental, and gender issues to the public. Examples of mass media include newspapers, magazines, books, advertising, radio, movies, television, and the internet.

What is mass media subject in class 11?

The course is designed to provide fundamental information on analysis of film, TV (including News), print articles, understanding of the pipeline multiple products of the media & Entertainment industry (TV show/segment, film, article, ad – film, etc.), concept of assembly line, animation, roles people play, skills &