What Is The Natural Law Party?

What Is The Natural Law Party
Page 2 – Dr. John Hagelin Launches U.S. Peace Government on July 4 Announces New, “Complementary” Government at an International Press Press Conference in Washington, D.C., on July 2 Peace Government to Create Harmony in America and Peace in the World

Dr. John Hagelin

During an historic press conference on July 2 in Washington, D.C., Dr. John Hagelin, renowned quantum physicist and Natural Law Party 2000 presidential candidate, launched his new U.S. Peace Government to bring prevention-oriented, problem-free administration to America.

The U.S. Peace Government—a knowledge-based, complementary government—is composed of 400 of America’s top scientists, health professionals, educators, and other leading experts on the deepest principles of Natural Law, representing all 50 states. Over 100 Cabinet members and representatives packed the July 2 press conference, along with more than a dozen members of the Washington press corps, including reporters from the largest newspapers in the U.S., India, China, and Japan.

Dr. Hagelin was flanked at the news conference by 11 leading Cabinet-level representatives, whose comments are now posted on the new U.S. Peace Government website at, (To read the statements, please ; to see an online video of the press conference, please,)

Speakers’ panel prepares for the July 2 press conference

More Than a Gigantic Policy Think Tank “The U.S. Peace Government is being founded today to prevent problems and violence in America, and to promote peace in the world,” Dr. Hagelin said at the press conference. “This complementary government will not compete with the existing government, which is largely concerned with crisis management.

Dr. Hagelin addresses the Inaugural Convention of the U.S. Peace Government

The U.S. Peace Government is more than just a gigantic policy think tank,” Dr. Hagelin said. “More than merely advising government, it will directly implement proven, prevention-oriented solutions. These programs will be offered and administered through 100-200 Peace Palaces in major cities across the country.

Peace Palace Bethesda, Maryland Opened May 4, 2003

After the press conference, one of the most respected political writers in Washington said that the Peace Government represents the “rise of a balancing power in the nation” to counterbalance the “extremism, fundamentalism and fanaticism” of those in power in Washington now.

He said the atmosphere in Washington has changed drastically with the arrival of George Bush as president and that there was now great fear in the city—that even reporters were under pressure from their editors and publishers not to report anything critical of the president. He said that the Peace Government would give a voice to the true “moral and spiritual foundations of America” and added that the July 2 launch gave him hope.

Inaugural Convention of the U.S. Peace Government

U.S. Peace Government representatives pack the Inaugural Convention

Two days after the Washington launch, Dr. Hagelin hosted the grand Inaugural Convention of the U.S. Peace Government, held on July 4 and 5 in Fairfield, Iowa. This convention was attended by nearly 300 cabinet members, representatives, and supporters, and included a full day of conferences on prevention-oriented health care; consciousness-based education; new programs in organic agriculture; and information about Peace Palaces.

The Inaugural Convention proceedings will soon be posted at, Governing from the Level of Collective Consciousness “The establishment of the U.S. Peace Government is, in part, to replace our corrupt, money-driven system, where elected leaders’ primary expertise is raising special interest money from corporate sponsors, with the principle of a ‘meritocracy’—rule by the competent,” Dr.

Hagelin said. “But its primary purpose is to bring support of the deepest level of Natural Law and raise man-made government to be on a par with Nature’s Government, which administers the ever-expanding universe with perfect order.

Peace Government representatives discuss consciousness-based approaches to education

In many respects, the U.S. Peace Government will be America’s primary government, because it will govern the nation from the crucial level of collective consciousness,” Dr. Hagelin said. “By establishing peace-creating groups across America, the U.S. Peace Government will defuse the acute societal stress that fuels violence, crime, drug abuse, and other life- and health-afflicting behaviors, thereby directly improving the health, wealth, and destiny of the country.

Therefore, its impact will be profound and far reaching.” Dr. Hagelin praised the U.S. Peace Government cabinet members for “demonstrating a strong commitment to the public good” and for their willingness to “utilize their deep knowledge and practical competence to lead society in a peaceful and evolutionary direction.” “It is time to bring a scientific basis to government, and to enjoy prevention-oriented, problem-free administration,” Dr.

Hagelin said. : The Natural Law Party of the United States of America

What are the 4 types of political parties?

Types of party organizations – Political scientists have distinguished between different types of political parties that have evolved throughout history. These include cadre parties, mass parties, catch-all parties and cartel parties. : 163–178  Cadre parties were political elites that were concerned with contesting elections and restricted the influence of outsiders, who were only required to assist in election campaigns.

What is Green party platform?

Green Party of the United States
Abbreviation GPUS
  • Ahmed Eltouny ( NJ )
  • Christopher Stella ( LA )
  • Rei Stone-Grover ( MI )
  • Garret Wasserman ( PA )
  • Margaret Elisabeth ( WA )
  • Tamar Yager ( VA )
  • Anita Rios ( OH )
Governing body Green National Committee
Founders Howie Hawkins John Rensenbrink
Founded April 2001 ; 21 years ago
Split from Greens/Green Party USA
Preceded by Association of State Green Parties
Headquarters 6411 Orchard Avenue, Suite 101, Takoma Park, Maryland 20912
Newspaper Green Pages
Youth wing Young Ecosocialists
Women’s wing National Women’s Caucus
LGBTQIA+ wing Lavender Greens
Latino and Hispanic wing Latin Caucus
Black wing National Black Caucus
Membership (2021) 245,626
  • Communalism
  • Eco-socialism
  • Green politics
  • Left-wing populism
  • Libertarian socialism
  • Progressivism
Political position Left-wing
International affiliation Global Greens (Associate member)
Colors Green
Seats in the Senate 0 / 100
Seats in the House of Representatives 0 / 435
State governorships 0 / 50
Seats in state upper chambers 0 / 1,972
Seats in state lower chambers 0 / 5,411
Territorial governorships 0 / 5
Seats in territorial upper chambers 0 / 97
Seats in territorial lower chambers 0 / 91
Other elected officials 136 (November 2022)
Election symbol
  • Politics of United States
  • Political parties
  • Elections

The Green Party of the United States ( GPUS ) is a federation of Green state political parties in the United States, The party promotes green politics, specifically environmentalism ; nonviolence ; social justice ; participatory democracy, grassroots democracy ; anti-war ; anti-racism ; libertarian socialism and eco-socialism,

On the political spectrum, the party is generally seen as left-wing, The GPUS was founded in 2001 as the Association of State Green Parties (ASGP) split from the Greens/Green Party USA (G/GPUSA). After its founding, the GPUS soon became the primary national green organization in the country, surpassing the G/GPUSA, which was formed in 1991 out of the Green Committees of Correspondence (CoC), a collection of local green groups active since the year 1984.

The ASGP, which formed in 1996, had increasingly distanced itself from the G/GPUSA in the late 1990s. John Rensenbrink and Howie Hawkins were co-founders of the Green Party. The Greens gained widespread public attention during the 2000 presidential election, when the ticket composed of Ralph Nader and Winona LaDuke won 2.7% of the popular vote.

What are all the US political parties?

The two-party system and the two major parties – The electoral system in the U.S. is called a two-party system. That means that two parties dominate the political field in all three levels of government. In the U.S. these two parties are the Republican Party and the Democratic Party.

  • Other parties, often generally termed “third parties”, in the U.S.
  • Include The Green Party, Libertarians, Constitution Party and Natural Law Party.
  • In the U.S., political candidates do not have to get the majority of votes – that is, more than 50% of votes – to be elected.
  • Instead, candidates need a plurality of votes – that is, a higher percentage of votes than other candidates running for office.

Since the Democratic and Republican Parties are the two largest parties in the U.S., candidates from these two parties tend to get the plurality of votes. Therefore, other smaller parties are often left unsuccessful in elections. Americans whose political values closely align with candidates from one of the third parties might therefore instead choose to vote for either the Democratic or the Republican Party.

They do this to ensure that their vote is used on a candidate who has a better chance of winning. This keeps the two-party-system in effect. One advantage of having a two-party system is that it helps ensure that the two main parties in power have a wide platform that represents the general public. Because the two parties are so large, there is room for a wide range of political positions within each party.

This means that there may exist slightly varying political viewpoints on different matters within each party.

What do Republicans believe in?

Separation of powers – Many contemporary Republicans voice support of strict constructionism or textualism, the judicial philosophy that the Constitution should be interpreted narrowly and as close to the original intent as is practicable rather than a more flexible “living Constitution” model.

  1. Most Republicans point to Roe v.
  2. Wade as a case of judicial activism, where the court overturned most laws restricting abortion on the basis of a right to privacy inferred from the Bill of Rights and the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution,
  3. Some Republicans have actively sought to block judges whom they see as being activist judges and have sought the appointment of judges who claim to practice judicial restraint,
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The issue of judicial deference to the legislature is a matter of some debate—like the Democrats, most Republicans criticize court decisions that overturn their own (conservative) legislation as overstepping bounds and support decisions that overturn opposing legislation.

Some commentators have advocated that the Republicans take a more aggressive approach and support legislative supremacy more firmly. The Republican Party has supported various bills within the last decade to strip some or all federal courts of the ability to hear certain types of cases, in an attempt to strengthen the power of individual state’s rights.

These jurisdiction stripping laws have included removing federal review of the recognition of same-sex marriage with the Marriage Protection Act, the constitutionality of the Pledge of Allegiance with the Pledge Protection Act, and the rights of detainees in Guantanamo Bay in the Detainee Treatment Act,

  • The Supreme Court overruled the last of these limitations in Hamdan v.
  • Rumsfeld,
  • Compared to Democrats, many Republicans believe in a more robust version of federalism with greater limitations placed upon federal authorities and a larger role reserved for those of the individual States.
  • Following this view on federalism, Republicans often take a less expansive reading of congressional power under the Commerce Clause, such as in the opinion of William Rehnquist in United States v.

Lopez, Many Republicans on the more libertarian wing wish for a more dramatic narrowing of Commerce Clause power by revisiting, among other cases, Wickard v. Filburn, a case that held that growing wheat on a farm for consumption on the same farm fell under congressional power to “regulate commerce,

What is the keystone party?

Establishment – The party was founded by members of the Libertarian Party of Pennsylvania who felt the Libertarian Party was “veering too hard to the right”. The party’s first and current chairman is former Chairman of the York County branch of the Libertarian Party, Gus Tatlas.

What are the Libertarian Party beliefs?

Libertarian Party
Abbreviation LP
Chairperson Angela McArdle ( CA )
Governing body Libertarian National Committee
Founder David Nolan
Founded December 11, 1971 ; 51 years ago
Headquarters 1444 Duke St. Alexandria, Virginia 22314
Membership (2022) 694,200
Ideology Majority: Libertarianism Laissez-faire Classical liberalism Cultural liberalism Economic liberalism Fiscal conservatism Non-interventionism Deontological libertarianism Factions: Minarchism Anarcho-capitalism Paleolibertarianism
Political position Syncretic Social: Left wing Fiscal: Right wing
International affiliation International Alliance of Libertarian Parties
Colors Gold-yellow
Slogan ” The Party of Principle “
Seats in the Senate 0 / 100
Seats in the House of Representatives 0 / 435
State governorships 0 / 50
Seats in state upper chambers 0 / 1,972
Seats in state lower chambers 1 / 5,411
Territorial governorships 0 / 5
Seats in territorial upper chambers 0 / 97
Seats in territorial lower chambers 0 / 91
Other elected officials 322 (November 2022)
Election symbol
  • Politics of the United States
  • Political parties
  • Elections

The Libertarian Party ( LP ) is a political party in the United States that promotes civil liberties, non-interventionism, laissez-faire capitalism, and limiting the size and scope of government, The party was conceived in August 1971 at meetings in the home of David F.

Nolan in Westminster, Colorado, and was officially formed on December 11, 1971, in Colorado Springs, Colorado, The organizers of the party drew inspiration from the works and ideas of the prominent Austrian school economist, Murray Rothbard, The founding of the party was prompted in part due to concerns about the Nixon administration, the Vietnam War, conscription, and the introduction of fiat money,

The party generally promotes a classical liberal platform, in contrast to the Democratic Party ‘s modern liberalism and progressivism and the Republican Party ‘s conservatism, Gary Johnson, the party’s presidential nominee in 2012 and 2016, claims that the Libertarian Party is more culturally liberal than Democrats, and more fiscally conservative than Republicans.

Its fiscal policy positions include lowering taxes, abolishing the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), decreasing the national debt, allowing people to opt out of Social Security and eliminating the welfare state, in part by utilizing private charities, Its cultural policy positions include ending the prohibition of illegal drugs, advocating criminal justice reform, supporting same-sex marriage, ending capital punishment, and supporting gun ownership rights,

As of 2021, it is the third-largest political party in the United States by voter registration. In the 2020 election the Libertarians gained a seat in the Wyoming House of Representatives, giving them their first state legislative win since 2000. As of August 2022, there are 310 Libertarians holding elected office: 193 of them partisan offices and 117 of them non-partisan offices.

There are 693,634 voters registered as Libertarian in the 31 states that report Libertarian registration statistics and Washington, D.C. The first electoral vote for a woman was that for Tonie Nathan of the party for vice president in the 1972 United States presidential election due to a faithless elector supporter who eschewed his expected votes for President Richard Nixon and Vice President Spiro Agnew in favor of the Libertarian ticket.

The first and only Libertarian in Congress was Justin Amash, who joined the Libertarian Party in 2020 and left the U.S. House of Representatives in 2021 after choosing not to seek re-election,

What is left wing and right wing?

Ideological groupings. Generally, the left wing is characterized by an emphasis on ‘ideas such as freedom, equality, fraternity, rights, progress, reform and internationalism’ while the right wing is characterized by an emphasis on ‘notions such as authority, hierarchy, order, duty, tradition, reaction and nationalism’

Are libertarians left or right?

Definition – Although libertarianism originated as a form of left-wing politics, the development in the mid-20th century of modern libertarianism in the United States resulted in libertarianism being commonly associated with right-wing politics, It also resulted in several authors and political scientists using two or more categorizations to distinguish libertarian views on the nature of property and capital, usually along left–right or socialist–capitalist lines.

Right-libertarians reject the label due to its association with conservatism and right-wing politics, calling themselves simply libertarians, while proponents of free-market anti-capitalism in the United States consciously label themselves as left-libertarians and see themselves as being part of a broad libertarian left.

While the term libertarian has been largely synonymous with anarchism as part of the left, continuing today as part of the libertarian left in opposition to the moderate left such as social democracy or authoritarian and statist socialism, its meaning has more recently diluted with wider adoption from ideologically disparate groups, including the right.

  • As a term, libertarian can include both the New Left Marxists (who do not associate with a vanguard party ) and extreme liberals (primarily concerned with civil liberties ) or civil libertarians,
  • Additionally, some libertarians use the term libertarian socialist to avoid anarchism’s negative connotations and emphasize its connections with socialism.

The revival of free-market ideologies during the mid- to late 20th century came with disagreement over what to call the movement. While many of its adherents prefer the term libertarian, many conservative libertarians reject the term’s association with the 1960s New Left and its connotations of libertine hedonism.

  • The movement is divided over the use of conservatism as an alternative.
  • Those who seek both economic and social liberty would be known as liberals, but that term developed associations opposite of the limited government, low-taxation, minimal state advocated by the movement.
  • Name variants of the free-market revival movement include classical liberalism, economic liberalism, free-market liberalism and neoliberalism,

As a term, libertarian or economic libertarian has the most colloquial acceptance to describe a member of the movement, with the latter term being based on both the ideology’s primacy of economics and its distinction from libertarians of the New Left.

  1. While both historical libertarianism and contemporary economic libertarianism share general antipathy towards power by government authority, the latter exempts power wielded through free-market capitalism,
  2. Historically, libertarians including Herbert Spencer and Max Stirner supported the protection of an individual’s freedom from powers of government and private ownership.

In contrast, while condemning governmental encroachment on personal liberties, modern American libertarians support freedoms on the basis of their agreement with private property rights. The abolishment of public amenities is a common theme in modern American libertarian writings.

  • According to modern American libertarian Walter Block, left-libertarians and right-libertarians agree with certain libertarian premises, but “where differ is in terms of the logical implications of these founding axioms”.
  • Although several modern American libertarians reject the political spectrum, especially the left–right political spectrum, several strands of libertarianism in the United States and right-libertarianism have been described as being right-wing, New Right or radical right and reactionary,
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While some American libertarians such as Walter Block, Harry Browne, Tibor Machan, Justin Raimondo, Leonard Read and Murray Rothbard deny any association with either the left or right, other American libertarians such as Kevin Carson, Karl Hess, and Roderick T.

Long have written about libertarianism’s left-wing opposition to authoritarian rule and argued that libertarianism is fundamentally a left-wing position. Rothbard himself previously made the same point. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy defines libertarianism as the moral view that agents initially fully own themselves and have certain moral powers to acquire property rights in external things.

Libertarian historian George Woodcock defines libertarianism as the philosophy that fundamentally doubts authority and advocates transforming society by reform or revolution. Libertarian philosopher Roderick T. Long defines libertarianism as “any political position that advocates a radical redistribution of power from the coercive state to voluntary associations of free individuals”, whether “voluntary association” takes the form of the free market or of communal co-operatives.

What do liberals stand for?

Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on the rights of the individual, liberty, consent of the governed, political equality and equality before the law. Liberals espouse various views depending on their understanding of these principles.

Which political party is bigger in world?

Parties with over 50 million members

Rank Name Abbreviation
1 Bharatiya Janata Party BJP
2 Chinese Communist Party CCP CPC

What do liberal Democrats stand for?

Environmentalism – The Liberal Democrats have strongly advocated for environmental protection and have typically taken more radical stances on environmental issues than either Labour or the Conservatives. In 1993, the party put forward proposals for an EU tax on energy use and CO 2 emissions.

  • Designate an ecologically coherent network of marine protected areas with appropriate management by 2020.
  • Encourage the uptake of water metering, including introducing metering in all defined water-stressed areas by 2025, coupled with the development of national social tariffs to protect low income households.
  • Complete the coastal path, introduce a fuller Right to Roam and a new designation of National Nature Parks to protect up to a million acres of accessible green space valued by local communities.

What are the 5 political parties?

Political Parties | The Presidential Election Process | Elections | Classroom Materials at the Library of Congress | Library of Congress Dixiecrats, Know-Nothings, Free-Soil, Prohibition: These are but a few of the many political parties that have played a role in American presidential elections.

  1. The diverse conditions of historical eras, and differing ideologies of America’s people, gave rise to various political parties, founded to advance specific ideals and the candidates who represented them.
  2. Today, America is a multi-party system.
  3. The Democratic Party and the Republican Party are the most powerful.

Yet other parties, such as the Reform, Libertarian, Socialist, Natural Law, Constitution, and Green Parties can promote candidates in a presidential election. It is likely that political parties will continue to play a major role in presidential elections.

What are the 2 largest third political parties?

Current U.S. third parties – Main article: This list does not include political organizations that do not run candidates for office but otherwise function similarly to third parties. For non-electoral political “parties”,, Currently, the and Parties are the largest in the U.S. after the Republican and Democratic Parties. Shown here are signs of their, respectively.

What does a conservative believe?

Conservatism in the United States Origin, history, and development of conservatism in the United States “American conservative” redirects here. For the magazine, see, This article is about the origin, history, and development of conservatism in the United States. For the broader political and social philosophy, see, For other uses, see,

This article is part of on





  • (modern)
Think tanks

Other organizations


Variants and movements

See also


Part of a on Variants





Religious conservatism

National variants

Related topics

Conservatism in the United States is a and based on a belief in,,,, and limited power to, and organizations, along with, are influential, and American conservatism is one of the majority political ideologies within the, American social conservatives typically support what they consider,, traditional, and, while,, and,

Is Obama a Republican or Democratic?

Barack Obama President of the United States from 2009 to 2017 “Barack” and “Obama” redirect here. For other uses, see,, and, Barack Obama Official portrait, 2012 44th In office January 20, 2009 – January 20, 2017 Preceded by Succeeded by from In office January 3, 2005 – November 16, 2008 Preceded by Succeeded by Member of the from the district In office January 8, 1997 – November 4, 2004 Preceded by Succeeded by Personal detailsBorn Barack Hussein Obama II ( 1961-08-04 ) August 4, 1961 (age 61),, U.S.Political partySpouse ​ ( m.1992 ) ​ Children



  • ()
  • ()


  • Politician
  • lawyer
  • author


This article is part of a series about



44th President of the United States

  • Inaugurations



First term

  • Timeline

Second term

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Presidential campaigns



Barack Hussein Obama II ( ( ) ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th from 2009 to 2017. A member of the, Obama was the first African-American president of the United States. He previously served as a from from 2005 to 2008 and as an from 1997 to 2004, and previously worked as a civil rights lawyer before entering politics.

Obama was born in, Hawaii. After graduating from in 1983, he worked as a in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in, where he was the first black president of the, After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the from 1992 to 2004. Turning to elective politics, he in the from 1997 until 2004, when he,

Obama received national attention in 2004 with his March Senate primary win, his well-received July, and his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, after against, he was nominated by the Democratic Party for president and chose as his running mate.

Obama was elected over nominee in the and was on January 20, 2009. Nine months later, he was named the laureate, a decision that drew a mixture of praise and criticism. Obama’s first-term actions addressed the and included a, a partial extension of ‘s, legislation to, a major, and the end of a major US in,

Obama also appointed Justices and, the former became the first on the Supreme Court. He ordered which killed and downplayed Bush’s counterinsurgency model, expanding air strikes and making extensive use of special forces while encouraging greater reliance on host-government militaries.

After winning by defeating Republican opponent, Obama was on January 20, 2013. In his second term, Obama took steps to, signing a major and an to limit, Obama also presided over the implementation of the and other legislation passed in his first term, and he negotiated a with Iran and, The number of in fell dramatically during Obama’s second term, though U.S.

soldiers remained in Afghanistan throughout, Obama left office on January 20, 2017, and continues to reside in, His in Chicago began construction in 2021. During Obama’s terms as president, the United States’ reputation abroad, as well as the American economy, significantly improved.

What does right wing mean in politics?

Right-wing politics Political alignment favoring traditional politics “Right-wing” redirects here. For the term used in sport, see,

Part of the

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Leaders and organization

Internal elections

/td> between parties

propaganda poster depicting the 1909 poster An anti-nazi and pro, propaganda poster “Political right” redirects here. For political freedoms, see, Right-wing politics describes the range of that view certain and as inevitable, natural, normal, or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of,,, or,

  •  693, 721  Hierarchy and may be seen as natural results of traditional social differences or competition in,
  • Right-wing politics are considered the counterpart to, and the is one of the most widely accepted,
  • The term right-wing can generally refer to the section of a political party or system that advocates and, and typically favours socially traditional ideas.

The Right includes and, while a minority of right-wing movements, such as, harbor sentiments. The Right also includes certain groups who are socially liberal and fiscally, such as,

What is a polar party?

The Polar Party (Greenlandic: Issittup Partiia, Danish: Polarpartiet) was a nationalist and conservative political party in Greenland led by Nikolaj Heinrich. Polar Party. Leader. Nikolaj Heinrich. Ideology.

What is a Delta party?

American Delta Party is a political party founded by Rocky De La Fuente in 2016. American Delta Party held its national convention on September 1, 2016, in Chester Springs, Pennsylvania. De La Fuente was nominated as this party’s presidential nominee on August 8, 2016.

What does the indigenous party stand for?

Our VISION is to break down the barriers of communication and increase understanding of Indigenous issues in this country. We stand for UNITY, regardless of how you identify. Membership form.

What is the 4th political party?

Bibliography –

  • Burner, David. Herbert Hoover: A Public Life, (1979).
  • Burnham, Walter Dean, “The System of 1896: An Analysis,” in Paul Kleppner, et al., The Evolution of American Electoral Systems, Greenwood. (1983) pp 147–202.
    • Burnham, Walter Dean. “Periodization Schemes and ‘Party Systems’: The “System of 1896″ as a Case in Point,” Social Science History, Vol.10, No.3 (Autumn, 1986), pp.263–314.
  • Carter, Susan, ed. Historical Statistics of the U.S. (Millennium Edition) (2006) series Ca11
  • Cherny, Robert W. A Righteous Cause: The Life of William Jennings Bryan (1994)
  • The Warrior and the Priest: Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt, (1983) a dual biography
  • Craig, Douglas B. After Wilson: The Struggle for the Democratic Party, 1920–1934 (1992)
  • Degler, Carl N. (1964). “American Political Parties and the Rise of the City: An Interpretation”. Journal of American History, Organization of American Historians.51 (1): 41–59.:.,
  • Edwards, Rebecca. Angels in the Machinery: Gender in American Party Politics from the Civil War to the Progressive Era (1997)
  • Fahey, James J. “Building Populist Discourse: An Analysis of Populist Communication in American Presidential Elections, 1896–2016.” Social Science Quarterly 102.4 (2021): 1268-1288.
  • Folsom, Burton W. “Tinkerers, Tipplers, and Traitors: Ethnicity and Democratic Reform in Nebraska During the Progressive Era.” Pacific Historical Review 1981 50(1): 53-75.
  • Gosnell, Harold F. Boss Platt and His New York Machine: A Study of the Political Leadership of Thomas C. Platt, Theodore Roosevelt, and Others (1924)
  • Gould, Lewis L. America in the Progressive Era, 1890–1914 (2000)
  • Gould, Lewis L. Four Hats in the Ring: The 1912 Election and the Birth of Modern American Politics (2008)
  • Gustafson, Melanie. “Partisan Women in the Progressive Era: the Struggle for Inclusion in American Political Parties.” Journal of Women’s History 1997 9(2): 8–30. Fulltext online at SwetsWise and Ebsco.
  • Harbaugh, William Henry. The Life and Times of Theodore Roosevelt. (1963)
  • Harrison, Robert. Congress, Progressive Reform, and the New American State (2004)
  • Hofstadter, Richard. The Age of Reform: From Bryan to F.D.R. (1955)
  • Hofstadter, Richard. The American Political Tradition (1948), chapters on Bryan, Roosevelt, Wilson and Hoover
  • Jensen, Richard. The Winning of the Midwest: Social and Political Conflict, 1888–1896 (1971)
  • Jensen, Richard. Grass Roots Politics: Parties, Issues, and Voters, 1854–1983 (1983)
  • Kazin, Michael. What It Took to Win: A History of the Democratic Party (2022)
  • Keller, Morton. Affairs of State: Public Life in Late Nineteenth Century America (1977)
  • Kleppner, Paul. Continuity and Change in Electoral Politics, 1893–1928 Greenwood.1987
  • Lawrence, David G. (1996). The Collapse of the Democratic Presidential Majority: Realignment, Dealignment, and Electoral Change from Franklin Roosevelt to Bill Clinton, Westview Press.,
  • Lee, Demetrius Walker, “The Ballot as a Party-System Switch: The Role of the Australian Ballot in Party-System Change and Development in the USA,” Party Politics, Vol.11, No.2, 217–241 (2005)
  • Lichtman, A.J. “Critical elections theory and the reality of American presidential politics, 1916–40.” American Historical Review (1976) 81: 317–348.
  • Lichtman, Allan J. Prejudice and the Old Politics: The Presidential Election of 1928 (1979).
  • Link, Arthur Stanley. Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era, 1910–1917 (1972) standard political history of the era
  • Link, Arthur. Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era, 1910–1917 (1963)
  • McSeveney, Samuel T. “The Fourth Party System and Progressive Politics”, in.L. Sandy Maisel and William Shade (eds) Parties and Politics in American History (1994)
  • Mahan, Russell L. “William Jennings Bryan and the Presidential Campaign of 1896” White House Studies 2003 3(2): 215–227.
  • Morris, Edmund. Theodore Rex (2002), detailed biography of Roosevelt as president 1901–1909
  • Mowry, George. The Era of Theodore Roosevelt and the Birth of Modern America, 1900–1912. (1954)
  • Murphy, Paul L. ed. “Political Realignment and the Fourth-Party System, 1896 to 1910,” in Paul L. Murphy, ed., Political parties in American history: 1890-present (vol 3.1974) pp.945-1000.
  • Murphy, Paul L. ed. “The Fourth-Party System in Transition, 1910-1924,” in Paul L. Murphy, ed., Political parties in American history: 1890-present (vol 3.1974) pp.1001-1008,
  • Rothbard, Murray N. The Progressive Era (2017), libertarian interpretation
  • Sanders, Elizabeth. Roots of Reform: Farmers, Workers, and the American State, 1877–1917 (1999). argues the Democrats were the true progressives and GOP was mostly conservative
  • . The Party of Reform: Democrats in the Progressive Era (1989), covers 1910–1930.
  • Schlesinger, Arthur, Jr., ed. History of American Presidential Elections, 1789–2008 (2011) 3 vol and 11 vol editions; detailed analysis of each election, with primary documents;
  • Sundquist, James L. Dynamics of the Party System, (2nd ed.1983)
  • Ware, Alan. The American Direct Primary: Party Institutionalization and Transformation in the North (2002)
  • Williams, R. Hal. Realigning America: McKinley, Bryan, and the Remarkable Election of 1896 (2010)

How many types of political parties are there?

List of political parties in India










General elections

National coalitions




has a, The (ECI) accords recognition to the national level and the state level political parties based upon objective criteria. A recognised political party enjoys privileges like a reserved party symbol, free broadcast time on state-run television and radio, consultation in the setting of election dates, and giving input in setting electoral rules and regulations.

  1. Other political parties that wish to contest local, state or national elections are required to be registered by the Election Commission of India.
  2. Registered Parties are upgraded as recognised National Party or State Party by the ECI if they meet the relevant criteria after a or election.
  3. The Recognised Party status is reviewed periodically by the ECI.

Before the amendment in 2016 (came into force with effect from 1 January 2014), if a political party failed to fulfill the criteria in the subsequent Lok Sabha or state legislative assembly election, they lost their status as a recognised Party. In 2016, the ECI announced that such a review would take place after two consecutive elections instead of every election.

  1. Therefore, a political party shall retain the recognised Party status even if they do not meet the criteria in the next election.
  2. However, if they fail to meet the criteria in the subsequent election following the next election, they would lose their status.
  3. As per latest publication dated 23 September 2021 from Election Commission of India, the total number of parties registered was 2858, with 9 national parties, 54 state parties and 2796 unrecognised parties.

All registered parties contesting elections need to choose a symbol from a list of available symbols offered by the EC. All 28 states of the country along with the of, and have elected governments unless is imposed under certain conditions.

What are the 6 major political parties?

Political Parties | The Presidential Election Process | Elections | Classroom Materials at the Library of Congress | Library of Congress Dixiecrats, Know-Nothings, Free-Soil, Prohibition: These are but a few of the many political parties that have played a role in American presidential elections.

The diverse conditions of historical eras, and differing ideologies of America’s people, gave rise to various political parties, founded to advance specific ideals and the candidates who represented them. Today, America is a multi-party system. The Democratic Party and the Republican Party are the most powerful.

Yet other parties, such as the Reform, Libertarian, Socialist, Natural Law, Constitution, and Green Parties can promote candidates in a presidential election. It is likely that political parties will continue to play a major role in presidential elections.

What are the 4 types of minor parties?

United States – Main article: Further information: In the, minor parties are often described as, Minor parties in the U.S. include the, the,, and others that have less influence than the major parties. Since the (1861–1865), the major parties have been the and the,

Third-Party Presidential Candidates, 1832–1996
Third-party candidates who received more than the historical average of 5.6 percent of the popular vote or at least one electoral college vote are listed below, three of which were former presidents (follow links for more information on their time as president).
Year Candidate Popular Vote % Electoral Votes Outcome in Next Election
8.4 0 Did not run; endorsed Republican candidate George W. Bush
Independent H. Ross Perot 18.9 0 Ran as Reform Party candidate
Independent 6.6 0 Did not run
0.0 1 () Did not run; his elector was instead the Libertarian candidate.
13.5 46 1972 Candidate John Schmitz Won 1.4 percent of the popular vote (slightly over one million votes). Wallace was shot while running for the Democratic nomination that year.
16.6 13 Returned to Republican Party
Progressive (“Bull Moose”) 27.4 88 Returned to Republican Party
1912 6 0 Won 3.2 percent of the popular vote
Populist 8.5 22 Endorsed Democratic candidate
12.6 39 Party dissolved
1860 Southern Democrats 18.1 72 Party dissolved
American (“”) 21.5 8 Party dissolved
10.1 0 Won 4.9 percent of the vote
Anti-Masonic 7.7 7 Endorsed Whig candidate
Percentages in bold are those over 10% in elections.
Source: (Bureau of International Information Programs, 2006)