What Makes An In Law Apartment Legal?
- Marvin Harvey
Defining In-law Apartments – An in-law apartment might be an apartment over a garage or a basement suite. Other variations are dwellings attached to a single-family home or a living space completely detached from the home, like a small guest house. Legally, an in-law apartment must have its own entrance, kitchen, bathroom and living space.
What makes an in-law apartment legal in CT?
Building Permits – Connecticut home additions, like all residential remodeling, should be handled by professionals. For your own safety, all home additions should be completed according to local building codes, laws, and regulations. Improper work can be extremely dangerous and will not be covered by homeowner’s insurance.
What’s another word for in-law apartment?
What’s an in-law suite? – An in-law suite is the most common name for a small apartment-like space on the same property as, or even attached to, a single-family home. You might also hear it referred to as a mother-in-law suite, guest house, granny pod, Ohana suite, or secondary suite. As the name suggests, those primarily interested in in-law suites are, well, in-laws (yours and your spouse’s). And while a recent survey found that people would prefer a little distance (15 to 45 minutes away, to be exact) between their home and their relatives, these spaces are a way to let your aging family members maintain their independence and live with privacy.
What is another name for a mother in-law suite?
A mother-in-law apartment (also called an in-law suite or granny flat ) is a small, private living area within a family house. This area can be attached to the main home, usually in a walk-out basement apartment or as a first-floor attachment or stand-alone in the nearby yard.
Why is it called mother in-law suite?
What is a Mother-in-Law Suite? – A mother-in-law suite, as the name implies, is an additional living space within your property or home designed for use by your in-laws. Put another way, it’s an additional, fully functional living space added onto a single family home.
Can you rent an inlaw apartment in CT?
Building Permits – Connecticut home additions, like all residential remodeling, should be handled by professionals. For your own safety, all home additions should be completed according to local building codes, laws, and regulations. Improper work can be extremely dangerous and will not be covered by homeowner’s insurance.
How do I report an illegal apartment in CT?
To report code violations on rental properties, please call 203-576-7072 or use Bridgeport 311.
Is an inlaw suite a good investment?
Look beyond the dollars to calculate value – Whether you require extra living space for a family member or for personal use, a mother-in-law suite can add value by increasing your home’s selling price and providing a source of rental income. Evaluate how your ADU will be utilized and the impact on your privacy and lifestyle as well as your budget and local zoning ordinances to determine the best type of accessory unit for your needs.
HomeLight can connect you with a top real estate agent who is knowledgeable about ADU trends in your area and can help price and market your home to maximize resale value. When calculating how much value a mother-in-law suite adds, don’t overlook the value that can’t be measured — the peace of mind that comes with knowing older parents are close by in case of emergency or that young children are in capable hands.
Header Image Source: (Natalya Volchenkova / Shutterstock)
What do you call an in-law house?
An in-law suite is the most common name for a small dwelling on the same property as (and perhaps attached to) a single-family home, where an aging family member (or others) can live with some modicum of privacy and independence. It’s often a separate space with its own bathroom, sometimes in a basement or over a garage.
In-law suites are also referred to as accessory dwelling units, multigenerational units, secondary suites, or granny flats. In Hawaii, they’re known as ohana units. In the Southwest, they’re frequently called casitas. No matter what the name, they’re a desirable feature in a home that comes in handy in many ways well beyond providing a place for mom alone.
Here’s everything homeowners need to know.
What is it called when you put a law in place?
ABSENT: Not present at a session.
Absent with leave: N ot present at a session with consent. Absent without leave: N ot present at a session without consent.
ACT: Legislation enacted into law. A bill that has passed both houses of the legislature, been enrolled, ratified, signed by the governor or passed over the governor’s office, and printed. It is a permanent measure, having the force of law until repealed.
Local act: Legislation enacted into law that has limited application. Private act: Legislation enacted into law that has limited application. Public act : Legislation enacted into law that applies to the public at large.
ADHERE: A step in parliamentary procedure whereby one house of the legislature votes to stand by its previous action in response to some conflicting action by the other chamber. ADJOURNMENT: Termination of a session for that day, with the hour and day of the next meeting being set.
Committee amendment: An alteration made (or proposed to be made) to a bill that is offered by a legislative committee. Floor amendment: An alteration offered to a legislative document that is presented by a legislator while that document is being discussed on the floor of that legislator’s chamber.
APPEAL: A parliamentary procedure for testing (and possibly changing) the decision of a presiding officer. APPORTIONMENT: Establishment of the legislative districts from which members are elected. APPROPRIATION: Funds allocated for various departments of government set aside by formal action for specific use.
Allows money to be spent; is not actual expenditure record. AT-LARGE ELECTION: An election in which candidates are chosen on an individual basis rather than as representatives of a geographically defined, single-member district. At-large elections can be held at the legislative and presidential levels.
In the United State of America, some states hold at-large elections for congressional seats, when, for instance, a state’s entire population warrants only one representative. AUTHOR: The person (usually a legislator) who presents a bill or resolution for consideration; may be joined by others, who are known as coauthors.
See also: introducer, patron, sponsor. BICAMERAL: A legislature consisting of two separate chambers, each serving as a check on the other’s power. BIENNIUM: Two-year term of legislative activity. BILL: Draft of a proposed law presented to the legislature for consideration. BIPARTISAN: Having an affiliation or association with (or representatives of) both political parties or caucuses in a two-party system.
BUDGET: (1) The suggested allocation of state moneys presented to the legislature for consideration; (2) a formal document that reflects the authorized expenditures of the state. CALENDAR: (1) A printed list of proposals that are arranged according to the order of business and are scheduled for consideration by a chamber.
- 2) Agenda of daily legislative business in a chamber.
- CALENDAR DAY: Literally a day as listed on the Gregorian calendar.
- CALL OF THE SENATE OR HOUSE: Procedure used to compel the attendance of members who are missing from the chamber and to compel those members already in attendance to remain in the chamber.
CARRY-OVER LEGISLATION: Legislation that is held over from the first year of a legislative biennium to the second year. CAUCUS: An informal meeting of a group of the members; most commonly based on political party affiliation, but may have other bases, such as gender, race, geographic location or specific issue.
- CENSURE: An action by a legislative body to officially reprimand an elected official for inappropriate or illegal actions committed by that official while in office.
- The act of censuring is an official condemnation for inappropriate or illegal actions committed by a public official while holding a position of trust.
CHAMBER: Official hall for the meeting of a legislative body. CLERK OF THE HOUSE OR ASSEMBLY: A non-legislator officer who is appointed or elected by the members of the House of Representatives or Assembly to perform and direct the parliamentary and clerical functions of the chamber.
Conference committee: A committee composed of members from the two houses specifically appointed to reconcile the differences between House and Senate versions of a bill or bills. Interim committee: A committee established to study or investigate certain matters between annual or biennial legislative sessions and to report to the next regular session. Joint committee: A committee composed of members from both chambers. Standing committee: A committee appointed with continuing responsibility in a general issue area or field of legislative activity.
COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE: Either house of the legislature sitting in its entirety as a committee to consider bills or issues. COMMITTEE REPORT: Official release of a bill or resolution from committee with (or without) a specific recommendation, such as “pass”, “pass as amended” or “do not pass.” COMMITTEE SUBSTITUTE: A bill offered by a committee in lieu of another bill that was originally referred to the committee for consideration; technically, the committee substitute is an amendment to the original bill.
- CONCURRENCE (TO CONCUR): Action by which one house agrees to a proposal or action that the other chamber has approved.
- CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Untenable position that threatens the ability of a legislator to vote impartially due to some personal interest in a legislative issue.
- CONSTITUENT: A citizen residing within the district of a legislator.
CONSTITUTION: A written instrument embodying the fundamental principles of the state that guarantees powers and duties of the government and guarantees certain rights to the people. CONSTITUTIONAL MAJORITY: One more than half of the members of a deliberative body; actual number may be defined in the state constitution.
CONVENE: When the members of a chamber gather for the meeting of the legislature daily, weekly and at the beginning of a session as provide by the constitution or law. DEBATABLE: Open to parliamentary discussion or argument. DEBATE: Discussion of a matter according to parliamentary rules. DECORUM: Proper order, etiquette and conduct of members during a floor session.
DIED IN COMMITTEE: The defeat of a bill by not returning it from committee to the house for further action. (Only permitted in certain states.) DILATORY: Deliberate use of parliamentary procedure to delay. DISSENT: Difference of opinion; to cast a negative vote.
DISTRICT: That division of the state represented by a legislator distinguished numerically or by geographical boundaries. DIVISION: A method of voting; a request that members stand or raise hands to be counted when the outcome of a voice vote is unclear or in dispute. DIVISION OF A QUESTION: Procedure to separate a matter to be voted upon into two or more questions.
EFFECTIVE DATE: A law generally becomes effective, or binding, either upon a date specified in the law itself or, in the absence of such a date, a fixed number of days (depending on the state) after the final adjournment of the session during which it was enacted or on signature by the governor.
ELECTION: Act of selecting a person to fill an office. EMERGENCY CLAUSE: A statement in a bill that indicates the act shall take immediate effect. ENACTING CLAUSE: That clause of an act that formally expresses the legislative sanction. It varies in different states, but usually begins “Be It Enacted.” ENGROSS: Most commonly, the process by which a bill is updated-that is, how adopted amendments and other changes are incorporated into a bill—as it makes its way through the Senate or House.
ENROLL: Most commonly, the process of changing a bill passed by both chambers into its final format for transmission to the governor. EXECUTIVE SESSION: A session excluding from the chamber or committee room all persons other than members and essential staff personnel.
EXCUSED: Absent with the permission of the body or the presiding officer. EXPUNGE: An action that directs the removal of specific portions from the journal. This is applicable in situations where objectionable, inflammatory or incorrect matter has been included in the journal. FILIBUSTER: The prolonged discussion of a bill to delay legislative action.
FIRST READING: The first presentation of a bill or its title for consideration. In some states, the first reading is done at the time of introduction. FISCAL: Dealing with state revenues and expenditures. FISCAL NOTE: A fiscal note seeks to state in dollars the estimated amount of increase or decrease in revenue or expenditures and the present and future implications of a piece of pending legislation.
- FISCAL YEAR: An accounting period of 12 months.
- FLOOR: That portion of the legislative chamber reserved for members and officers of the assembly or other persons granted privileged access.
- GALLERY: Balconies of the chamber from which visitors may view the proceedings of the legislature.
- GERMANENESS: The relevance or appropriateness of amendments or substitutes.
HEARING: Public discussion and appearance on a proposal or bill; usually scheduled by a committee. HOUSE: Generic term for a legislative body; usually the body in a bicameral legislature that has the greater number of members; shortened name for House of Representatives or House of Delegates.
- IMPEACHMENT: Procedure to remove from office a public official accused of misconduct.
- INDEFINITE POSTPONEMENT: A form of adverse disposition of a proposal for that session of the legislature.
- INSERT: Add language to a bill or resolution.
- INTERIM: The interval between regular sessions of the legislature.
INTRODUCER: The person (usually a legislator) who presents a bill or resolution for consideration; may be joined by others, who are known as cointroducer. See also: author, patron, sponsor INTRODUCTION: The formal presentation of a proposal after it has been drafted.
ITEM VETO: An action taken by the governor to prevent the enactment of an item of an appropriation bill; also may be called line item veto. JOINT RULES: Parliamentary rules governing joint procedures or operations of the Senate and House. JOINT SESSION: A combined meeting of the Senate and House in one chamber.
JOURNAL: An official chronological record of the actions taken and proceedings of the respective chambers. LEGISLATIVE DAY: A day on which either chamber convenes (or both chambers convene) to conduct official business. LEGISLATIVE INTENT: Purpose for which a measure is passed.
LEGISLATIVE LIAISON: Person appointed to communicate between legislators and other departments. LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT: Scrutiny of executive branch programs and performance by the legislature. LEGISLATIVE SERVICE AGENCY: Nonpartisan legislative branch agency providing services such as legal and bill drafting, impartial research and information or technical services.
LEGISLATOR: Elected member of a legislative body. LEGISLATURE: The branch of state government responsible for enacting laws. LINE ITEM: Numeric line in an appropriation or budget bill. LOBBYIST: A representative of a special interest group whose function is to influence legislation affecting his special interest.
- MAJORITY LEADER: A member of the majority political party designated to be a leader.
- The procedure for designating the majority leader and other officers varies from state to state.) MAJORITY PARTY: The political party having the greatest number of members in the legislature or in either chamber.
- MAJORITY REPORT: Recommendation of action on a measure that is submitted by a majority of the members of a committee.
MEASURE: General term for bill, resolution or memorial. MEMBER ELECT: Member who has been elected, but who has not yet taken the oath of office or who is not yet officially serving. MEMBERS PRESENT: The term used to refer to those members who are actually present at a daily session.
MEMORIAL: The method by which the legislature addresses or petitions Congress and other governments or governmental agencies; method by which the legislature congratulates or honors groups or individuals. MINORITY LEADER: A member of the minority political party designated to be leader. (Process of designation varies from state to state.) MINORITY PARTY: The political party having fewer numbers of members in the legislature or in either chamber.
MINORITY REPORT: A report that reflects the thinking of the members not favoring the majority position or action on an issue. MINUTES: Accurate record of the proceedings of a meeting in chronological order. MOTION: Formal proposal offered by a member of a deliberative assembly.
NONPARTISAN : Having no association or affiliation with a political party or caucus. OATH OF OFFICE: Oath taken by members-elect of the legislature prior to being seated and embarking upon official duties. ORDER OF BUSINESS: The defined routine of procedure in the legislative body each day. OUT OF ORDER: Not being conducted under proper parliamentary rules and procedures.
PARLIAMENTARY INQUIRY: Question posed by a member to the presiding officer for clarification of the procedure or business before the house. PARTISAN: – Associated or affiliated with a single political party or caucus. PATRON: The person (usually a legislator) who presents a bill or resolution for consideration; may be joined by others, who are known as copatrons.
- See also: author, introducer, sponsor PER DIEM: Literally, per day; daily expense money rendered to legislators or staff.
- PETITION: Formal request submitted by an individual or group of individuals to the legislature.
- POINT OF INFORMATION: A request from a legislator to the presiding officer for clarification of a procedural matter.
POINT OF ORDER: A question by a member to the presiding officer calling attention to a breach of order or of the rules. POSTPONE INDEFINITELY: A means of disposing of an issue by not setting a date on which to consider it again. PRECEDENT: Interpretation of rulings by presiding officers on specific rules; unwritten rules that are established by custom.
PREFILE: Ability to introduce a measure before the opening of the session. PRESIDENT: Usually, the title given to the person elected (or designated by constitution) as the presiding officer of the Senate. PRESIDING OFFICER: Person designated to preside at a legislative session. PREVIOUS QUESTION: A motion to close debate and bring the pending question or questions to an immediate vote.
PRO TEMPORE (PRO TEM): The designated officer of the senate or house acting in the absence of the regular presiding officer. QUORUM: When a legislative body is assembled, the minimum number of members required to transact business. QUORUM CALL: A method used to establish the presence of a majority for the lawful transacting of business.
RATIFY: To approve and make valid. READING: Presentation of a bill before either chamber by the reading the bill, its title or its number. A formal procedure required by constitution and rules that indicates a stage in enactment process. Most often, a bill must receive three readings on three different days in each legislative body.
REAPPORTIONMENT: Redrawing legislative district boundaries to provide equality of representation. RECESS: Intermission in a daily session; intermission from one day to the next;, REFERRAL: The assigning or referring of a bill to committee. REPEAL: A method by which a legislative action is revoked or annulled.
- RESOLUTION: A document that expresses the sentiment or intent of the legislature or a chamber, that governs the business of the legislature or a chamber, or that expresses recognition by the legislature or a chamber.
- ROLL CALL: Names of the members being called in alphabetical order and recorded; used to establish a quorum or to take a vote on an issue before the body.
RULES: Regulating principles or methods of legislative procedure. RULING OF THE CHAIR: A decision by the presiding officer concerning a question of order or procedure. SECRETARY OF THE SENATE: A non-legislator officer appointed or elected by the members of the Senate to perform and direct the parliamentary and clerical functions of the Senate; also may be called “clerk,” “chief clerk” or “principal secretary.” SENATE: A legislative body; usually the body in a bicameral legislature having the fewer number of members.
Regular session: The annual (or biennial) meeting of the legislature required by constitution Special (or extraordinary) session: A special meeting of the legislature that is called by the governor (or the legislature itself) and limited to specific matters.
SIMPLE MAJORITY: One more than half of those voting on a question. SINE DIE: Literally, “without day;” usually, adjournment without a day being set for reconvening; final adjournment. SPEAKER: Usually the title given to the person elected as the presiding officer of the House or Assembly; in some states, the title given to the presiding officer of the Senate.
- SPECIAL ORDER: (1) To set consideration of a bill or measure for a specific, future time of the session; (2) matter of business set for discussion at a special time, on a designated day or both.
- SPONSOR: The person (usually a legislator) who presents a bill or resolution for consideration; may be joined by others, who are known as cosponsor.
See also: author, introducer, patron. STATE: One of the 50 units constituting the United States of America. STATUTE: A formal enactment of the legislature of a more permanent nature. The term “statute” is used to designate written law, as distinguished from unwritten law.
- STATUS OF BILL: The progress of a bill at any given time in the legislative process.
- It can be in committee, on the calendar, in the other house, etc.
- STRIKE OUT: The deletion of language from a bill or resolution.
- SUNSET: Expiration date of a measure.
- SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATION: Adjustment of funds allocated by the original appropriation.
SUSPENSION OF THE RULES: Parliamentary procedure whereby actions can be taken that would otherwise be out of order. TERM OF OFFICE: Period of time for which a person is elected. TITLE: A concise statement of the subject and the contents of a bill. UNICAMERAL: A legislature with only one chamber.
- VETO: Action by the governor to disapprove a measure.
- VETO OVERRIDE: Vote by the legislature to pass a bill over a governor’s veto.
- VOICE VOTE: Oral expression of the members when a question is submitted for their determination.
- When asked by the presiding officers, members respond “aye” or “nay.” The presiding officer then decides which side prevailed.
VOTE: Formal expression of a decision by the body. YEAS AND NAYS: Recorded vote of members on an issue. YIELD: To relinquish the floor to another member to speak or ask question.
How many square feet is a typical mother-in-law suite?
hash-mark How Big Are Mother In Law Suites? – The typical mother-in-law suite is around 600 square feet and will have a living room, bedroom, kitchen, and bathroom. However, mother-in-law suites come in all shapes and sizes, and some can be much larger.
What do you call your mother-in-law after marriage?
What Do You Call Your Mother in Law? A bride’s stress does not always end after the wedding, it turns out. For many women, figuring out what to call their new mother-in-law is just as nerve wrecking as picking a wedding caterer or mapping out seating charts.
- For Mona Shand, addressing her mother-in-law was a source of great stress when she was a newlywed.
- For years, I just tried to avoid having to call her anything aside from ‘you,'” Ms.
- Shand, who got married in 2003, said.
- Even though she always had a strong relationship with her mother-in-law, Ms.
- Shand couldn’t bring herself to call her “mom.” “In my mind, that is a title reserved for one person and one person only,” she said.
Calling her by her first name, or a more formal “Mrs.” also didn’t sound right to Ms. Shand. Same with Patricia Quinn, who has been married for over 30 years and would rather skip a dish than directly address her mother-in-law by a name. “If I couldn’t catch her eye to get her attention, then I would have to ask someone else to pass me the potato salad,” said Ms.
Quinn. “Or I would do without it. It really is crazy, but that’s the way it is,” she said. When she was dating her now-husband, she called his mother “Mrs. Quinn,” but once they were married, that no longer sounded right to her. Calling her by her first name seemed too informal, and calling her “mom” was out of the question.
“That option seemed weird because she’s not my mom,” Ms. Quinn said. The confusion over what to call one’s mother-in-law does not surprise, a professor of linguistics at Georgetown University and author of You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation.
In so many ways, our American culture is less stratified than others, but this means less is prescribed, and more is up for grabs,” Ms. Tannen said. “In other cultures, you’d know exactly what you have to call them, and you’re home free,” she said. In Brazil, for instance, it’s a given that you call your mother-in-law by her first name.
In Egypt, a daughter-in-law would call her spouse’s mother “Tante,” which means aunt, and is the convention for addressing elders in your social circle. But in the U.S. there seems to be as much variety in what to call your mother-in-law as there are marriages.
- Almost two-dozen women were interviewed for this story, and their responses were all over the map, with no common thread connecting women of similar ages, or women who got married in the same decade.
- Some women call their mother-in-law “mom” because they feel very close to her, while others say that despite loving their mother-in-law very much, they couldn’t possibly use that term for anyone other than their biological mother.
Other women use “mom” for their mother-in-law because their own biological mother has passed away, but some would never call her in-law “mom” precisely because her own mother has died, and taking up a new “mom” seems disrespectful. While some women feel that calling a mother-in-law by her first name is too informal, others feel it’s too formal.
Some daughters-in-law make up their own term: One woman goes with “Mama Schaefer,” while another simply calls her “MIL.” One woman said she addresses her mother-in-law as “mom” in writing, but in person, she always uses her first name. And of course, there are those who, like Ms. Shand and Ms. Quinn, can’t find any term that sounds right, so they avoid calling their mothers-in-law anything at all.
“I have been a daughter-in-law for nine years now, and I have always struggled with what to call my mother-in-law,” said Teresa Watkins. “My solution is that when I speak to her, I do not address her with any title at all. I just skip it all together,” she said.
The source of the confusion may be rooted in the gradual in-formalization of social interactions in the U.S. “It’s a post World War II phenomenon, maybe even more recent,” said social historian, a professor emerita of history, human development and gender studies at Cornell University. The idea that you can choose what to call an elder goes hand in hand with the modern concept of individuality, Ms.
Brumberg said. But cultural changes are slow and organic and have left a lot of people confused. “There doesn’t seem to be a rule about it anymore,” Ms. Brumberg said. In Ms. Brumberg’s own family, her parents called their mothers-in-law “mama.” Ms. Brumberg’s daughter-in-law calls her Joan, which she likes.
As for her own mother-in-law, Ms. Brumberg said, “I certainly would never have called her by her first name. Occasionally I would say ‘mom,’ but usually I avoided calling her anything.” This diversity in nomenclature is an interesting marker of social change in families, and it probably happens in different ethnic groups and social classes in different rates, Ms.
Brumberg said. Knowing what to call your mother-in-law may be easier in families and communities that still have a strong naming tradition. Faith McKinney had no trouble knowing that she would call her mother-in-law “Ms. Dorothy.” “In the African American community it is considered disrespectful to call your elders by their first name, so we always add Mr.
What is a mother-in-law floor plan?
How a Mother-in-law Suite Makes It Easier for Families to Have a Multigenerational Home – Custom Home Builders – Schumacher Homes November 09, 2020 The rise in multigenerational house plans has homeowners looking for ways to welcome more family under the same roof. A mother-in-law suite is emerging as a popular option. Traditionally built with an aging parent in mind, mother-in-law suites benefit the entire household.
A parent gets peace of mind that they’re near loved ones who they can lean on while growing older. On the other side of it, homeowners get help with childcare, support when they face major life transitions, and an extra hand in cooking, cleaning, and other responsibilities that come with running a home.
What is a mother-in-law suite? A mother-in-law suite is a space designed for the long-term stay of one or multiple family members. Usually, that’s a homeowner’s parent or parents. The goal of a mother-in-law suite is to let multiple generations of family live in the same house while respecting everyone’s privacy and independence.
The definition of a mother-in-law suite has some flexibility to it. For instance, it’s generally agreed to consist of at least a bedroom and full bath. Some say it should also include at least a kitchenette and sitting area, if not a full kitchen and living area. A mother-in-law suite goes by other names, too, such as an in-law apartment or granny flat.
Some people refer to it as a Casita, particularly in the American Southwest. A Casita, however, has unique characteristics that distinguish it as a similar but different separate space. Layout basics of mother-in-law suite floor plans Think of a mother-in-law suite like an apartment that gives an elder family member space to live independently.
- Like an apartment, a mother-in-law suite can range from a simple efficiency to a high-end one-bedroom.
- A studio-like mother-in-law suite that includes a bedroom and full bathroom would allow access to other parts of the house, such as the kitchen and laundry, in a way that maintains everyone’s privacy.
More commonly though, mother-in-law suite designs feature kitchens and living areas, sometimes even a separate entrance. Speaking of separate entrances, mother-in-law suites can be detached from the house, but they’re usually part of the main home’s floor plan.
That’s an added benefit for parents who have limitations and need to be close to their family, yet not encroach upon them. It’s also why mother-in-law suites often incorporate accessible home design, Other ideas for how to use a mother-in-law suite Many homeowners build a mother-in-law suite as a permanent residence for a family member.
That’s especially true in the case of an aging parent or disabled relative. But some homeowners use their mother-in-law suite for extended stays, such as a grandparent who comes to visit while the kids are out of school for the summer. Between those extended stays, it becomes a temporary home office, or studio for art, yoga, or music.
There are more options, too. A mother-in-law suite can be used to host a live-in nanny, or for children transitioning after high school or college. Some capitalize on the space by renting it out. Designing a mother-in-law suite in your custom build If you’re planning a custom home and anticipate needing a mother-in-law suite, it’s smart to include it in the floor plan from the start.
That gives you the most control over how the suite will flow with the rest of the house. Building a mother-in-law suite addition later means less flexibility. Not to mention, it’ll likely be more expensive. You’ll have to route electrical, plumbing, and HVAC lines that could have been accounted for in the original build.
- Basements and the space above the garage work well for designing a mother-in-law suite.
- Basements offer a good amount of space and access to utility hookups.
- If it’s a walkout basement, you also get an easy way to add a separate entrance.
- Mother-in-law suites over garages are popular, too, because it strikes a good balance between closeness and privacy.
Keep in mind accessibility for both of these spaces, though, especially for elderly parents. Ideally, a mother-in-law suite should be on the first floor to minimize climbing up and down stairs. For that reason, many people opt for custom house plans with a second owner’s retreat, repurposing one as a mother-in-law suite.
- Check out our Ridgewood, Oakley, and Beverly II plans to see examples of home layouts that balance two owner’s retreats.
- Building a mother-in-law suite as a detached unit is an option, too.
- Just be sure to check with local regulations about accessory dwelling units, also called ADUs.
- Also check with your homeowner’s insurance, too, so there are no surprises.
Generally speaking though, making your mother-in-law suite part of your home’s floor plan is the most practical solution. About Schumacher Homes Schumacher Homes, based in Canton, Ohio, is America’s largest custom homebuilder, with operations in 32 markets in 14 states across the country.
- The National Housing Quality award winning company has built over 19,000 homes, customized to fit each family’s lifestyle, since its founding by Paul Schumacher in 1992.
- Schumacher Homes takes each customer’s inspiration and gives it a home.
- Each Schumacher Homes location includes a one-stop shopping design studio and model homes displaying the latest in architectural and product trends.
Stop in today, be inspired and receive your no obligation price quote.
What do two mother-in-law’s call each other?
Mothers-in-law – A mother-in-law is the of a person’s spouse. Two women who are mothers-in-law to each other’s children may be called co-mothers-in-law, or, if there are grandchildren, co-grandmothers, In comedy and in popular culture, the mother-in-law is stereotyped as bossy, unfriendly, hostile, nosy, overbearing and generally unpleasant.
They are often depicted as the bane of the husband, who is married to the mother-in-law’s daughter. A is a joke that lampoons the obnoxious mother-in-law character. Some use, so-called “mother-in-law languages”, special sub-languages used when in hearing distance of relatives, most commonly the mother-in-law.
A is also a type of dwelling, usually guest accommodations within a family home that may be used for members of the extended family.
How do you address mother-in-law?
Don’t make things complicated: Simply add the first letter of her first or last name (her preference!) to Mama. Go for a formal name if you’re still warming up to one another or if she’s very old fashioned.
What is the difference between an in-law suite and basement apartment?
What is a legal basement suite? Aren’t all secondary suites legal? – This is a great question – and the answer is simple – No. That doesn’t mean it’s illegal, it just means that what you do with your suite, whether you earn income on it and who can live in it, will be dictated by guidelines in place for your protection, the protection of potential tenants/residents, and for things like insurance, property taxes and utilities. A legal basement suite is a separate dwelling area in the basement of a house that conforms to all city and/or provincial legislative requirements. The term “basement suite” isn’t actually a technical term used in some cities’ bylaws (e.g. City of Edmonton ). The term you may encounter is “secondary suite”. Here are just some of things considered in making a basement suite a “legal” one:
Separate HVAC (heating, air, etc) Sound-proofing the shared ceiling/floor Separate laundry facilities Separate entrance Large enough basement windows to meet fire code regulations
An in-law suite (or nowadays, “Garden” or “Granny-Suite”) is another area of the home, typically in a basement (more recently also available over an attached or detached garage, or even a separate living unit on your lot) with, at minimum, a separate full bathroom and at least one bedroom. Some things to consider here:
This can have a separate or shared entrance with the primary home. Fire code regulations must still be met if located in a basement. Maximum square footage must meet city property guidelines. For example, some newer communities do not allow separate free-standing structures on your property, where older neighbourhoods, or “in-fill” developments can offer approved permits from the city within a certain square footage. If located over a garage, extra care must be given to property ventilation, access, etc.
Can you rent to in laws?
What is the law on renting to family members? – The main legal requirement when renting property to family members is that you have the correct mortgage in place. And you must tell your lender that you’re planning to rent to a family member, as failure to do so may be considered mortgage fraud.
A buy-to-let mortgage where the tenant is a family member of the landlord means more risk for the lenderThe lender may believe you would be more lenient with a family member as a tenantYou may have problems evicting a family member or imposing rulesThe lender may believe you’ll charge a less-than-market-value rent, or a ‘mate rate’
Can a brother and sister share a room legally in CT?
Location: JUVENILES – LEGISLATION; Scope: Connecticut laws/regulations; Ryan O ‘ Neil, Research Assistant 2011-R-0309 September 26, 2011 Notice to Readers This report provides brief highlights of new laws affecting children enacted during the 2011 regular and special sessions. Each summary indicates the public act (PA) number and effective date.
Not all provisions of the acts are included here. Complete summaries of all 2011 public acts will be available on OLR ‘ s webpage: http://cga.ct.gov/olr/olrpasums. asp, Readers are encouraged to obtain the full text of acts that interest them from the Connecticut State Library, House Clerks Office, or General Assembly ‘ s website ( www.cga.ct.gov/ ).
Table of Contents CHILDREN ‘ S HEALTH 5 Autism Spectrum Disorders 5 Childhood Immunization Task Force 5 Termination of Utility Service for Households with Hospitalized Children 6 Drop-In Pilot Program 6 Care of High-Risk Newborns 6 DAY CARE 7 Care4Kids Notifications 7 Nonprofit Day Care Center Licensing Exemption 7 DEPARTMENT OF CHILDREN AND FAMILIES (DCF) 7 Prohibition Against Placing Children Under Age Six in DCF Group Homes 7 DCF Internal Organization 8 Connecticut Juvenile Training School ‘ s Public Safety Committee 8 Notification of Parental Rights During a DCF Investigation 8 Waiving the Need for Separate Bedrooms 8 Reporting to Superior Court on Placement with a Relative 9 Kinship Care 9 State Advisory Council on Children and Families 9 Eliminating Reports 10 Ending DCF Services at Age 20 10 Placing a Child with Special Study Foster Parents 10 Access to DCF Records 11 Establishment of a Differential Response Program 11 Abuse or Neglect 11 EDUCATION 12 Identifying Foster Children in Schools 12 Additional Truancy Requirements for Schools 12 Establishing an Anti-Truancy Pilot Program in Waterbury 13 Early Childhood Education 13 Strengthening School Bullying Laws 14 JUVENILE JUSTICE 15 Juvenile Open Court Pilot Program 15 Juvenile Reentry and Education 15 Placing Arrested Children in Juvenile Detention Centers 16 Early Release of Juvenile Delinquents 16 Admissibility of Juvenile Confessions 17 Disclosure of Educational Records to Juvenile Detention Facilities 17 Other Juvenile Justice Changes 17 REPORTING CHILD ABUSE 18 Mandated Reporters in Schools 18 Child Abuse Registry 19 Notifying DCF When Teenagers are Arrested for Prostitution 19 Cross-Reporting Child Abuse and Animal Abuse 20 MISCELLANEOUS 20 Children and Disaster Planning 20 Results Based Accountability for Policies Affecting Children 20 Uniform Definitions 21 Court Findings Regarding Child Placement 21 Child Support 22 CHILDREN ‘ S HEALTH Autism Spectrum Disorders PA 11-44 ( 147 & 148) makes changes to the requirements for individual and group health insurance policies that provide coverage for medically necessary early intervention (birth-to-three services) provided as part of an individualized family service plan.
It prohibits these policies from imposing co-insurance, copayments, deductibles, or other out-of-pocket expenses for these services, unless they are high-deductible policies designed to be compatible with federally qualified health savings accounts. The act also increases the annual maximum benefit that group health insurers must provide for children with autism spectrum disorders who receive birth-to-three services.
By law, group health insurance policies must cover medically necessary birth-to-three services provided as part of an individualized family service plan for children with developmental delays. This coverage must include an annual maximum policy benefit of $6,400 per child, with an aggregate benefit of $19,200 per child over the three-year period.
The act expands these coverage amounts for children with autism spectrum disorders to $50,000 per child per year and $150,000 per child over the three-year period. The act specifies that coverage provided through a birth-to-three individualized service plan must (1) be credited toward these coverage amounts in other statutes mandating autism coverage and (2) not increase these coverage amounts.
The act applies to health insurance policies delivered, issued, or renewed in Connecticut that cover (1) basic hospital expenses; (2) basic medical-surgical expenses; (3) major medical expenses; and (4) hospital or medical services, including coverage under an HMO plan.
Due to the federal Employee Retirement and Income Security Act, state health insurance mandates do not apply to self-insured plans. EFFECTIVE DATE: January 1, 2012 Childhood Immunization Task Force PA 11-44 ( 163) establishes a 27-member childhood immunization task force consisting of legislative appointees, legislators, and executive branch members to consider whether the state should continue universal childhood immunizations.
By law, the Department of Public Health (DPH) commissioner determines the standard of care for childhood immunizations in Connecticut based on the recommended schedules of the (1) National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, (2) American Academy of Pediatrics, and (3) American Academy of Family Physicians.
Currently, DPH operates a federal “Vaccine for Children” program and its own immunization program funded by an assessment on health insurers. EFFECTIVE DATE: Upon passage Termination of Utility Service for Households with Hospitalized Children The law bars electric and gas utilities, from November 1 through May 1, from terminating, or refusing to reinstate, service to residential customers who are “hardship cases” who cannot pay their bill.
PA 11-80 ( 120) additionally prohibits the utilities from denying service during this period. It also makes the prohibition apply year-round in cases where such customers have a child up to 24 months old who (1) lives in the customer’s household, (2) has been admitted to the hospital, and (3) has received discharge papers on which the attending physician has indicated that utility service is needed for the child ‘ s health and well being.
- EFFECTIVE DATE: October 1, 2011 Drop-In Pilot Program PA 11-97 directs DPH to allow the establishment of a drop-in pilot program to provide facility-based temporary custodial care for any child 15 years of age or younger with a communicable or noncommunicable illness.
- The pilot program (1) must be administered by a licensed physician and (2) may provide temporary custodial care for not more than 12 children per day.
A child in the program may not receive more than nine hours of custodial care per day. EFFECTIVE DATE: October 1, 2011 Care of High-Risk Newborns PA 11-120 eliminates the requirement that DCF adopt regulations on the procedures principal providers (e.g., nurses and nursing assistants) of daily direct care for high-risk newborns in birthing hospitals must follow to participate in the discharge planning process and ongoing DCF functions concerning these newborns.
- Instead, DCF must coordinate with birthing hospitals to disseminate information on these procedures.
- Birthing hospitals care for women during delivery of a child or for women and their newborns following birth.) EFFECTIVE DATE: July 1, 2011 DAY CARE Care4Kids Notifications Existing law requires the Department of Social Services (DSS) to post a notice on its website and provide written notice to Care4Kids (the state ‘ s subsidized day care program) families and providers when it closes the program to new applicants, adopts eligibility standards that make it more difficult to qualify, or changes program benefits.
PA 11-18 requires DSS to also give notice, in the same manner and to the same entities, when it makes any other change to the program ‘ s status or terms. As under existing law, DSS must give 30 days notice before the changes become effective. EFFECTIVE DATE: Upon passage Nonprofit Day Care Center Licensing Exemption PA 11-193 exempts from day care licensing requirements child day care services administered by the Cardinal Shehan Center in Bridgeport, as long as the center informs the enrolled children ‘ s parents and guardians that its programs are not licensed by DPH to be daycare service providers.
- It does this by adding the center to a list of other exempt programs and organizations, such as boys ‘ and girls ‘ clubs.
- By law, DPH regulates and licenses child daycare centers and group and family daycare homes.
- EFFECTIVE DATE: July 1, 2011 DEPARTMENT OF CHILDREN AND FAMILIES (DCF) Prohibition Against Placing Children Under Age Six in DCF Group Homes PA 11-44 ( 164) would have generally prohibited the DCF commissioner from placing any child under age six, or any sibling group including a child under that age, in a child care facility (group home).
But PA 11-48 ( 305) repealed this change. The prohibition would not have applied if the (1) home was designed for children and their parents or (2) child ‘ s health needs were so severe that that they could only have been met in a group home. The provisions would have required a certification to the court when DCF placed a child or a sibling group containing such a child in a group home and a petition to the court for an emergency placement review hearing if a child or sibling group containing such a child remained in a group home for more than 30 days.
- EFFECTIVE DATE: The provisions would have taken effect on July 1, 2012 but were repealed effective July 1, 2011.
- DCF Internal Organization PA 11-105 requires the DCF commissioner to appoint up to two program directors and up to six regional directors in the unclassified service.
- Under prior law, she appointed directors as necessary, in the classified service, and with duties she determined.
By law, unchanged by the act, she must make the appointments after consulting with the State Advisory Council on Children and Families (SAC). The act replaces the department ‘ s structure of area directors, offices, and advisory councils in prior law with regional directors, offices, and advisory councils.
EFFECTIVE DATE: July 1, 2011 Connecticut Juvenile Training School ‘ s Public Safety Committee PA 11-105 eliminates the Connecticut Juvenile Training School ‘ s (CJTS) public safety committee and transfers responsibility for reviewing safety and security issues that affect CJTS ‘ s host municipality (Middletown) to the CJTS advisory committee.
(CJTS is the state’s all-male, high security juvenile detention facility.) EFFECTIVE DATE: July 1, 2011 Notification of Parental Rights During a DCF Investigation PA 11-112 requires DCF, when making an initial, in-person investigation of a complaint of child abuse or neglect to give the child ‘ s parent or guardian written notice of his or her rights, as well as the implications of his or her failure to communicate with the department.
- The DCF representative must (1) ask the parent or guardian to sign and date the notice as evidence of having received it and (2) immediately provide a copy of the signed notice to the parent or guardian.
- If the parent or guardian refuses to sign, the representative must (1) indicate on the notice that he or she was asked to sign and date it, but refused to do so and (2) sign it as witness to that fact.
EFFECTIVE DATE: October 1, 2011 Waiving the Need for Separate Bedrooms PA 11-116 authorizes DCF commissioner to waive any standard for separate bedrooms and room-sharing arrangements when placing a child in foster care with an unlicensed relative if doing so is in the child ‘ s best interest.
The law, unchanged by the act, bars the commissioner from waiving any standard or procedure related to safety. DCF regulations bar a child age three or older from sharing a bedroom with (1) another child of the opposite sex or (2) one of the same sex who is a disparate age. No child over age one can share a room with an adult without the department ‘ s permission.
EFFECTIVE DATE: October 1, 2011 Reporting to Superior Court on Placement with a Relative By law, the Superior Court must do a number of things at a preliminary hearing on a temporary custody order, order to appear, or the first hearing on a petition regarding a neglected, uncared for, or dependent child or youth.
- Among them is to identify any relation, either by blood or marriage, living in the state who might serve as a licensed foster parent or temporary custodian and order the DCF commissioner to investigate the appropriateness of placing a child with such a relative.
- PA 11-116 requires the commissioner to report to the court within 30 days of the hearing on the appropriateness of such a placement, rather than simply make a determination on the matter within that time.
EFFECTIVE DATE: October 1, 2011 Kinship Care PA 11-116 requires DCF to convene a working group to determine how to maximize kinship care for children in the department ‘ s care and custody. By October 1, 2011, the DCF commissioner must convene a working group to examine DCF practices and policies that affect kinship care.
Using existing resources, the group must consider agency regulations, cultural competence in recruiting relative homes, outreach practices, and family conferencing. The group must submit a report by January 1, 2012 to the Human Services and Children ‘ s committees summarizing existing policies and practices affecting kinship care and recommending ways to increase such care.
EFFECTIVE DATE: Upon passage State Advisory Council on Children and Families PA 11-120 adds two members to the SAC and adds foster parents to its membership. The governor appoints all members of the council, which the act increases from 17 to 19 members.
By law, at least 50% of the members must be parents or family members of children who are receiving or have received behavioral health, child welfare, or juvenile services. The act adds foster parents to this portion of the membership. EFFECTIVE DATE: October 1, 2011 Eliminating Reports PA 11-120 deletes DCF ‘ s duty to prepare a plan on (1) delinquent children to be placed in CJTS and (2) an approach to juvenile rehabilitation.
EFFECTIVE DATE: July 1, 2011 Ending DCF Services at Age 20 By law, courts can commit children to DCF ‘ s custody in cases of delinquency and Families with Service Needs (status offenders), and when they have intensive behavioral health needs that could not otherwise be met.
- Under PA 11-157, a DCF commitment ends at the earlier of the date (1) a court orders it to expire or (2) the child reaches age 20.
- If an existing court order goes beyond that age, it is cut off when the individual reaches age 20.
- Courts are also prohibited from ordering or continuing orders for DCF services beyond that age.
The act also specifies that DCF transfers to the Department of Correction’s (DOC) Manson or Niantic facilities end when the offender’s commitment ends, as described above, and the DOC jurisdiction over him or her ends simultaneously. EFFECTIVE DATE: October 1, 2011 Placing a Child with Special Study Foster Parents PA 11-166 eliminates the minimum age requirement with which DCF must comply to temporarily place a child with a special study foster parent.
- Previously, only children 10 years old or older could be placed in such care.
- By law: 1.
- A special study foster parent is at least 21 years old and not licensed by DCF to provide foster care; 2.
- A child may be placed with such a parent for up to 90 days when the placement is in the child ‘ s best interest; 3.
the placement is made after DCF completes a satisfactory home visit and a basic family assessment; 4. the special study foster parent attests that he or she and any adult living in the household has not been convicted of a crime or arrested for any of specified felonies or for the possession, use, or sale of a controlled substance; and 5.
- A special study foster parent is subject to the licensure requirement if the placement exceeds 90 days.
- EFFECTIVE DATE: July 1, 2011 Access to DCF Records By law, DCF may not disclose its records to anyone unless (1) state law or federal regulations require or allow the disclosure or (2) the subject of the record or his or her authorized representative consents to the disclosure.
PA 11-167 generally expands the list of individuals and entities to whom DCF must, or may, disclose its otherwise confidential records, while broadening the circumstances in which the department can deny access. Also, in a number of instances, it limits or changes the use the recipient may make of materials contained in a record.
- By law, unauthorized disclosures are subject to imprisonment for up to one year, a fine of up to $1,000, or both.
- EFFECTIVE DATE: October 1, 2011 Establishment of a Differential Response Program PA 11-240 authorizes DCF commissioner to establish a “differential response program” for cases that the department classifies as lower-risk.
Accordingly, it allows the commissioner or a designee, when the department receives reports of alleged child abuse or neglect, to refer to community providers for family assessments and services, rather than investigate, those cases that it classifies as presenting a lower risk.
- It permits the DCF commissioner to establish such a differential response system for the type of referral the act authorizes.
- Under the act, when warranted, cases referred for family assessments can be referred for standard child protection services and vice versa.
- EFFECTIVE DATE: July 1, 2011 Abuse or Neglect PA 11-240 prohibits DCF from finding a child or youth neglected solely because his or her parents are impoverished.
It also eliminates children or youth who have been abused from the definition of “neglect.” The act also changes the definition of “abuse” of children and youth by providing that a child or youth can be found to be abused, rather than deemed to be abused, if he or she is found to have statutorily specified adverse conditions.
- The act removes the statutory definition of a “dependent” child or youth in juvenile court matters.
- These children and youth were defined in prior law as those whose home was a suitable one for them except for the financial inability of their parent, guardian, or other person maintaining the home to provide for the child’s or youth’s specialized care needs.
This change appears to eliminate DCF authority over claims of dependency unless they also satisfy the definition of either abuse or neglect. EFFECTIVE DATE: July 1, 2011 EDUCATION Identifying Foster Children in Schools PA 11-93 requires DCF, when asked by school boards that have foster children from other towns attending schools under the boards ‘ jurisdiction, to provide the foster child ‘ s name, birth date, and school of origin.
- EFFECTIVE DATE: October 1, 2011 Additional Truancy Requirements for Schools By law, each school board must adopt policies and procedures for dealing with truants that include certain specific actions.
- Among these are that (1) school personnel or volunteers under their direction make a reasonable effort to notify parents by phone when their child fails to appear for school and there is no indication that the parent knows of the child ‘ s absence; (2) school officials meet with a child ‘ s parents within 10 school days after the child ‘ s fourth unexcused absence in a month or 10th in a school year; and (3) when a parent does not attend the required meeting or otherwise fails to cooperate in addressing the truancy, the superintendent of schools file a written complaint with the Superior Court alleging that the child ‘ s family is a Family With Service Needs (FWSN).
PA 11-136 ( 16-18) requires: 1. school personnel or volunteers to notify the parent of a child ‘ s absence by mail as well as by phone, 2. the mailed notice to warn that two unexcused absences in a month or five in a year could lead the school superintendent to file a FWSN complaint, and 3.
The superintendent to file a FWSN complaint within 15 days after a parent fails to attend the meeting with school officials or otherwise fails to cooperate in addressing his or her child ‘ s school absences. Prior law imposed no deadline for filing the FWSN complaint. By law, superintendents must include truancy data in the school and school district profiles they must submit to SDE each year.
The act also requires superintendents to include, in the narrative part of the profiles, a description of their school board ‘ s actions to reduce truancy. By July 1, 2012, the act requires the State Board of Education to define an “excused” and “unexcused” absence and requires school boards to use the definitions to (1) report required truancy data on school profiles and (2) implement required truancy policies and procedures.
- There was formerly no requirement for a uniform statewide definition of these terms.
- EFFECTIVE DATE: July 1, 2011 Establishing an Anti-Truancy Pilot Program in Waterbury PA 11-177 authorizes the probate court administrator to establish a pilot truancy clinic in Waterbury, within available appropriations.
The Waterbury Regional Children ‘ s Probate Court administrative judge must administer the clinic. The purpose of the clinic is to identify and resolve the systemic causes of school absenteeism using nonpunitive procedures. The act requires the truancy clinic to establish participation protocols and programs and relationships with schools and other individuals and organizations in the community to provide support services to clinic participants.
- The probate court administrator must establish implementation policies and procedures and measure effectiveness.
- The clinic administrator must report to the probate court administrator, by September 1, 2012 and annually after that, on the clinic ‘ s effectiveness.
- By January 1, 2015, the probate court administrator must report on the clinic ‘ s effectiveness to the Education and Judiciary committees.
The act also authorizes (1) the administrative judge to refer any truancy clinic matter to a probate magistrate or attorney probate referee and (2) probate magistrates or attorney probate referees to hear these matters. EFFECTIVE DATE: Upon passage Early Childhood Education PA 11-181 creates, by July 1, 2013, a coordinated system of early care and education and child development.
- It requires the governor, by July 15, 2011 to appoint a planning director within the Office of Policy and Management (OPM) to develop a plan to implement the system.
- The act lists the system ‘ s duties and the things the planning director must consider in developing the implementation plan.
- It requires various state agencies to help him or her develop in the plan.
It (1) requires the system to collaborate with local and regional early childhood councils to implement the system at the local level and (2) lists the childhood council ‘ s duties in the collaboration. It requires the planning director to report to the Early Childhood Education Cabinet and several legislative committees, at various times, on the progress in planning and implementing the system.
The act eliminates SDE ‘ s Office of Early Childhood Planning, Outreach and Coordination and all of its duties. It also changes the membership of the Early Childhood Education Cabinet and expands it from 17 to 20. Strengthening School Bullying Laws PA 11-232 expands the types of conduct that constitute school bullying and the situations where it can occur.
It expressly identifies as bullying (1) any targeting of a student based on the student ‘ s actual or perceived “differentiating” characteristics, such as race, gender, sexual orientation, or physical appearance and (2) actions taken through electronic communications or devices that otherwise qualify as bullying and are known collectively as “cyberbullying.” The act (1) makes the school principal responsible for investigating or designating someone to investigate and address bullying whether it occurs in- or out-of-school, if it affects the school or students in the school or school district and (2) requires all school employees, not just teachers and administrators, to report bullying incidents they see or that are reported to them to the principal or his or her designee.
- It requires schools and school districts to adopt safe school climate plans, rather than policies, to address bullying.
- It adds to the requirements for such plans that they, among other things, (1) establish deadlines for reporting, investigating, and notifying parents and guardians about bullying incidents; (2) prohibit retaliation against those who report bullying; and (3) require school officials to notify police when they believe bullying conduct constitutes a crime.
The act requires certified and noncertified employees, as well as certain contractors, working in public schools to receive annual training in how to identify, intervene, and prevent bullying and suicide among students. It also requires beginning teachers and teacher candidates to complete training on these topics.
- It grants immunity to school boards, school employees, students, parents, and others against damage claims arising from good faith reports of bullying and responses to bullying in accordance with a district ‘ s safe school climate plan.
- The act requires: 1.
- Each school to carry out a biennial assessment of its school climate, using instruments disseminated by SDE; 2.
school superintendents and principals to designate staff members and school committees to be responsible for school climate and responses to bullying in each school and district; and 3. SDE to establish a statewide network to provide resources, materials, and training on school bullying to school districts in the state.
EFFECTIVE DATE: July 1, 2011 JUVENILE JUSTICE Juvenile Open Court Pilot Program PA 11-51 ( 30 and 225) repeals a Judicial Branch Juvenile Access Pilot Program, established in 2009 to increase public access to proceedings where a child is alleged to be uncared for, neglected, abused, or dependent, or is the subject of a petition for termination of parental rights.
In place of the pilot program, the act permits all family matters judges to open their courtrooms to people with a legitimate interest in the hearing or work of the court. People who may be granted access include: 1. foster parents and relatives; 2. service providers; and 3.
- Members of the media and individuals or representatives of any agency, entity, or association.
- For a child ‘ s safety and protection, judges may direct members of the last group who are present at a hearing not to disclose information that identifies the child, his or her custodian or caretaker, or members of the child ‘ s family involved in the case.
EFFECTIVE DATE: July 1, 2011 except the repeal of certain obsolete statutes is effective upon passage. Juvenile Reentry and Education PA 11-115 : 1. expands a student ‘ s right to re-enroll in his or her old school district after being sent to a juvenile detention center, the Connecticut Juvenile Training School, or another residential placement for committing an offense for which he or she could be expelled from school; 2.
requires school districts to immediately enroll or re-enroll a student transferring from either of the unified school districts (USDs) run by DOC and DCF (USD #1 and USD #2, respectively); 3. requires a school district to re-enroll such a student in his or her former school, if the student went to school in the district before attending school in a USD and the former school has appropriate grade levels for the student; 4.
establishes a deadline by which a new school district or charter school must notify a transfer student ‘ s previous district or charter school of a student ‘ s enrollment, and extends to USD #2 the required deadlines for a new school district or charter school to notify USD #1 of a student ‘ s transfer; and 5.
- Requires school districts and charter schools to give students credit for instruction received in USD #2 within 30 days after receiving the student’s records, as they already had to do for instruction received in USD #1.
- EFFECTIVE DATE: July 1, 2011 Placing Arrested Children in Juvenile Detention Centers PA 11-154 prohibits police officers from placing children they arrest, but who have not yet appeared before a judge, in a juvenile detention center without a Superior Court order.
It also makes other juvenile justice changes. EFFECTIVE DATE: October 1, 2011, except a new reporting requirement is effective upon passage. Early Release of Juvenile Delinquents PA 11-156 allows some detained juvenile delinquents to qualify for leave and release earlier than they would have otherwise.
- Under existing DCF facility rules, juvenile delinquents cannot be granted leave or release unless they have satisfactorily completed a 60-day fitness and security risk evaluation.
- The act allows the DCF commissioner to waive this requirement when a delinquent who transferred from one facility to another had already satisfactorily completed the evaluation before the transfer.
The act also eliminates a requirement that DCF prepare a plan to keep delinquents sent to CJTS housed in that facility for at least one year. The plan also had to take a comprehensive approach to juvenile rehabilitation. EFFECTIVE DATE: October 1, 2011 Admissibility of Juvenile Confessions By law, admissions, confessions, or statements made by a 16-year-old are inadmissible in any related delinquency proceeding unless the (1) police or juvenile court official made reasonable efforts to contact the child’s parent or guardian, (2) child was advised that he or she has a right to contact a parent or guardian and have him or her present during the interview, and (3) child was told about his or her Miranda rights.
Under PA 11-157, beginning July 1, 2012, these rules do not apply to admissions, confessions, or statements a 16- or 17-year-old makes to a police officer in connection with a case transferred to the juvenile docket from the youthful offender, regular criminal, or any motor vehicle docket, thus making them admissible in a court proceeding.
The act also makes the same exception for such confessions from the “totality of circumstances” test that ordinarily governs the admissibility of confessions in court proceedings. EFFECTIVE DATE: July 1, 2012 Disclosure of Educational Records to Juvenile Detention Facilities When a student is being held at CJTS or in a community detention facility, PA 11-157 requires the local or regional board of education of the town where the student is enrolled, in compliance with federal regulations, to provide the student’s educational records to the facility on request and without the parent’s written permission.
- If the records are supplied without parental permission, the school must notify the parent or guardian at the time it releases the records.
- These records may not be further disclosed without a court order or the written consent of the student’s parent or guardian.
- The facility can use the records only to provide the detainee with educational services.
EFFECTIVE DATE: October 1, 2011 Other Juvenile Justice Changes PA 11-157 also: 1. removes crimes related to failure to appear and violations of the conditions of release from the definition of “delinquent child,” and related provisions; 2. excludes delinquent acts from the definition of “family violence crimes”; 3.
- Adds as serious juvenile offenses (SJO) 1st and 2nd degree strangulation and home invasion, thereby increasing penalties for these offenses; 4.
- Removes 2nd degree hindering prosecution from enumerated SJOs; 5.
- Beginning July 1, 2012, permits 17-year-olds alleged to have committed an offense that is pending on the youthful offender, regular criminal, or any motor vehicle docket on or after that date to have their cases transferred to juvenile court if juvenile programs are available that would more appropriately meet their needs and the youth and community would be better served by the treatment; 6.
eliminates the requirement that DCF plan to keep juveniles sent to the Connecticut Juvenile Training School (CJTS) for at least one year; 7. requires police to notify the superintendent of the district where an arrested student attends school, as an alternative to the district where he or she lives; 8.
requires schools to maintain confidentiality about juvenile justice and disciplinary matters that involve students age 16 and 17, not just younger students; 9. mandates that delinquency convictions for evading responsibility with a motor vehicle involving death or serious injury be reported to the Department of Motor Vehicles for the purpose of determining whether administrative sanctions against the child ‘ s driver’s license are warranted; 10.
requires police departments to handle reports of missing 15- to 17-year-olds in the same manner as they handle reports involving younger children and vulnerable adults; and 11. cuts off DCF services for children in families with service needs (status offenders) at age 18.
- EFFECTIVE DATE: October 1, 2011, except the provisions involving 17-year-olds in delinquency proceedings are effective July 1, 2012.
- REPORTING CHILD ABUSE Mandated Reporters in Schools PA 11-93 expands the state ‘ s “mandated reporter” law, which generally requires specified professionals to report to DCF or local law enforcement when they suspect that children have been abused or neglected.
It requires: 1. DCF, in consultation with the State Department of Education (SDE), to craft a model mandated reporter policy for school boards to use to train school personnel; 2. the DCF commissioner to (a) offer a refresher reporter training program; (b) within available funding, provide training to all new school employees; and (c) develop a policy for investigating the school ‘ s mandated reporters who either fail to report or report late; and 3.
School boards to take certain steps to ensure that school districts offer reporter training. The act also establishes additional steps to be followed when the alleged perpetrator of the abuse or neglect is a school employee, including notification of certain school personnel and SDE. It adds to the responsibilities school boards have when assisting DCF with investigations as well as performing their own, and requires DCF to do random quality assurance reviews of reports involving school employees.
EFFECTIVE DATE: July 1, 2011 Child Abuse Registry PA 11-93 makes several changes in the use of, and reporting to, the child abuse registry that DCF must maintain. It: 1. requires school boards to require applicants for any position in the public schools to submit to a registry check; 2.
- Requires DCF to develop a plan to implement this requirement and submit it to the Education and Human Services committees; 3.
- Requires teachers, when first applying or renewing their state teaching certification, to submit to registry checks; and 4.
- Allows disclosure of certain information in the registry.
EFFECTIVE DATE: Upon passage Notifying DCF When Teenagers are Arrested for Prostitution PA 11-180 requires a police officer who arrests a 16- or 17-year-old on prostitution charges to report suspected child abuse or neglect to DCF. The report to DCF must be in accordance with the child abuse reporting law, which outlines report contents and imposes filing deadlines.
- By law, a police officer is a mandated reporter who must report suspected child abuse or neglect to DCF and is subject to penalties for failure to do so.
- The act requires an officer to make an oral report as soon as practicable, but within 12 hours (presumably of the arrest), and a written report within 48 hours after making the oral report.
EFFECTIVE DATE: October 1, 2011 Cross-Reporting Child Abuse and Animal Abuse PA 11-194 requires state, regional, and municipal animal control officers (ACOs) and DCF employees to report to the Department of Agriculture (DOAG) commissioner when they reasonably suspect that an animal is being treated cruelly, harmed, or neglected.
- The DOAG commissioner must forward the information he or she receives from the ACOs to the DCF commissioner in a monthly report.
- The DCF commissioner must then determine whether any address in an animal cruelty report corresponds to an address where there is an open investigation of a child in response to a report of child abuse or neglect.
The DCF commissioner must develop and implement training for her department ‘ s employees on how to identify cruelty or harm to or neglect of animals and their relationship to child welfare case practices. She must also train ACOs concerning identifying and reporting child abuse and neglect.
All training must be accomplished within available appropriations. EFFECTIVE DATE: October 1, 2011 MISCELLANEOUS Children and Disaster Planning PA 11-66 requires the commissioner of the Department of Emergency Management and Homeland Security (DEMHS) to amend the state ‘ s civil preparedness plan and program to include planning and activities specifically for children and youth in the event of natural or man-made disasters and terrorism.
Starting by January 1, 2012, the commissioner must annually report to the General Assembly on homeland preparedness and emergency response plans and activities for children. The act specifies the provisions that the report and updated and amended plan and programs must address and include.
EFFECTIVE DATE: Upon passage Results Based Accountability for Policies Affecting Children PA 11-109 requires the Children ‘ s Committee to (1) maintain an annual report card evaluating the progress of state policies and programs affecting children; (2) develop, with a working group, progress indicators and measures related to issues affecting children; and (3) consult with the Appropriations Committee ‘ s results-based accountability (RBA) subcommittee to identify child welfare system programs that must prepare their own annual report cards.
The act specifies the (1) progress indicators that must be included in the Children ‘ s Committee ‘ s report card along with relevant data and (2) report card ‘ s distribution requirements. It identifies the participants in the working group, the issues for which indicators and measures must be developed, and the subsequent review process the committee must conduct.
EFFECTIVE DATE: July 1, 2011 Uniform Definitions PA 11-157 incorporates by reference definitions of “child” and “youth” from the delinquency statutes into the general definitions of those terms in the DCF statutes. The previous general definition of a child was a person under age 16; under the act it is a person under age 18 who has not been emancipated (legally designated an adult).
The definition of youth changes from anyone at least age 16 and younger than 19 to an unemancipated 16- or 17-year-old. This expands the laws regarding a child to cover 16- and 17-year-olds (in some case excluding emancipated minors). EFFECTIVE DATE: October 1, 2011 Court Findings Regarding Child Placement Under PA 11-180, before a Superior or probate court places or approves a child for adoption outside the state or a Superior Court commits an abused or neglected child to an out-of-state DCF placement, the court must find that the placement complies with the Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children (ICPC).
In either case, the court ‘ s findings must include: 1. a finding that the state has received written notice from the receiving state that the proposed placement does not appear to be contrary to the child ‘ s interests, 2. the court has reviewed the notice, 3. whether the receiving state has completed the home study the compact requires or another home study, and 4.
whether the receiving state ‘ s study supports the placement. Under the act, the Superior Court finding must be on the record, the probate court finding does not. The ICPC governs placement of children into and out of Connecticut for adoption, foster care, and residence with relatives after court action.
- Its purpose is to facilitate home studies in the receiving state before placement and supervision after placement (CGS 17a-175 ).
- EFFECTIVE DATE: October 1, 2011 Child Support The law requires parents to support their children.
- Wage withholding orders, authorizing employers to deduct established child support obligations from paychecks, are the most common way of pursuing support for parties separated or divorced or who never married the child ‘ s other parent.
PA 11-214 and PA 11-219 makes numerous changes in the child support laws including statutes governing the Department of Social Services ‘ Bureau of Child Support Enforcement and the Judicial Branch ‘ s Support Enforcement Services Division. PA 11-233 ( 15) establishes a pilot program to provide employment opportunities for people legally obliged to provide child support.
What happens if you rent a property illegally?
You could be sent to prison for 5 years or get an unlimited fine for renting property in England to someone who you knew or had ‘reasonable cause to believe’ did not have the right to rent in the UK. This includes if you had any reason to believe that:
they did not have leave (permission) to enter or stay in the UK their leave had expired their papers were incorrect or false
You can also be fined if both of the following apply:
you rent your property to someone who is not allowed to stay in the UK you cannot show that you checked their right to rent
Can I sue my landlord for renting an illegal apartment California?
Is A Lease for An Illegal, Unpermitted, Or Unwarranted Unit Valid And Enforceable? – Generally, contracts for an illegal purpose, such as a lease agreement for an unpermitted unit, are unlawful and void. But this rule is not absolute. Lauren Carter v. Jerry Cohen, 188 Cal.App.4th 1038, 1048 (2010).
Although rental agreements for illegal units are unlawful, tenants can enforce the contract and sue their landlord for their damages based on the principle that when a law’s purpose in prohibiting certain conduct is to protect a class of people from the activities of another, the members of the protected class may maintain an action despite having been a party to the illegal transaction.
Id at 1050. While tenants can enforce the contract, landlords cannot. Specifically, a landlord is not entitled to collect or request rent from the tenant in an unpermitted unit. Gruzen v. Henry, 84 Cal. App.3d 517, 519 (1978). Tenants in an illegal unit, though, should be aware that they can still be subjected to an attempted eviction.
This can happen if the owner is cited by a government agency for having an illegal unit. The tenant may be served with an eviction notice to perform substantial repairs to bring the unit up to code or to demolish the unit, which are both just-cause reasons for eviction under most local rent ordinances.
Not all just-cause reasons for eviction of a tenant in an illegal unit are clear-cut. For example, while nonpayment of rent is a just-cause reason for eviction under the Los Angeles Rent Stabilization Ordinance, the Appellate Division of the Los Angeles Superior Court has held that a three-day pay or quit notice for non-payment of rent served to a tenant living in a unit that did not have Certificate of Occupancy was fatally defective.
- North 7th Street Associates v.
- Guillermo Constante, 7 Cal.
- App.5th Supp.1 (2016).
- The Court reasoned that because a landlord is not entitled to collect rent for an illegal unit, the landlord could not then evict the tenant for nonpayment. Id.
- While the case is not binding in the Bay Area, the decision marks a notable shift in how future courts may view tenants’ rights concerning illegal units.
For now, tenants in an illegal unit that have been served any type of eviction notice should immediately contact an experienced tenant attorney to discuss their options.
Can I sue my landlord for emotional distress in CT?
Can Tenants Sue Landlords for Emotional Distress? – In short – yes. Every resident of the United States has the right to file a civil lawsuit against another they believe caused them harm. Still, the right to file a suit does not mean the court will agree and award damages.
- The tenant may have options if a landlord’s deliberate or negligent actions cause severe emotional injuries.
- In that case, they could sue the landlord for emotional distress.
- They could file on the grounds of intentional infliction of emotional distress.
- Thus, the court could award damages if verifiable proof backs the claims.
The preponderance of evidence will rest on the tenant, and complex cases are rarely successful. The courts will often dismiss the claim because of a lack of evidence. That said, landlords can take steps to protect themselves. Learning about and following laws could mean avoiding legal troubles and adverse consequences.
What makes a legal bedroom in CT?
The State of Connecticut Department of Public Health defines a bedroom as follows: ‘Bedroom means those areas within a residential building that have the potential to be utilized as a sleeping area on a consistent basis.
What makes you qualified for an apartment?
1. Proof of income – Like past landlords, your future landlord wants assurance that you’ll be able to make your monthly rent payments on time each month. Generally, you should make three times the rent to qualify and you’ll need to prove that you have this income.
How many unrelated tenants can occupy a house in CT?
HOW ARE OCCUPANCY REGULATIONS ENFORCED? –
The definition of family established in the Mansfield Zoning Regulations limits the number of unrelated individuals that can live in a dwelling unit to 3. Rental units that were established prior to August 15, 2010 are allowed a maximum of 4 unrelated individuals. Exceptions to these limits are available for groups that meet the criteria of a functional family as identified in the definition and any groups protected by the “reasonable accommodation” criteria of the Federal Americans with Disabilities Act or Fair Housing Act as described in the definition. The maximum number of unrelated individuals that may live in a specific dwelling unit can be found under the Landlord Registration Reports on the left side menu. If a unit is not listed, please contact the the Department of Building & Housing Inspection at [email protected],Enforcement Officers conduct both random inspections as well as inspections related to complaints. If you suspect that a neighboring property may exceed the occupancy requirements, please contact the Department of Building & Housing Inspection at [email protected],Unless we have a complaint from tenants regarding living conditions or the property is scheduled for its biennial certificate renewal inspection, we do not have the right to enter the dwelling to look for evidence of overcrowding. As such, our primary enforcement mechanism is to determine whether the same vehicles are parked at the property on multiple days.