Which Best Describes The Second Law Of Thermodynamics?
- Marvin Harvey
What does the 2nd law of thermodynamics state? – Energy is the ability to bring about change or to do work. The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that “in all energy exchanges, if no energy enters or leaves the system, the potential energy of the state will always be less than that of the initial state.” This is also commonly referred to as entropy.
Answer: c) When an isolated system undergoes a spontaneous change, the entropy of the system will increase.
What is the first and second law of thermodynamics?
The first law of thermodynamics provides the definition of the internal energy of a thermodynamic system, and expresses the law of conservation of energy. The second law is concerned with the direction of natural processes. It asserts that a natural process runs only in one sense, and is not reversible.
What is the second law of entropy?
What is the Second Law of Thermodynamics? – The second law of thermodynamics states that any spontaneously occurring process will always lead to an escalation in the (S) of the universe. In simple words, the law explains that an isolated system’s entropy will never decrease over time. The second law clearly explains that it is impossible to convert heat energy to mechanical energy with 100 per cent efficiency. For example, if we look at the piston in an engine, the gas is heated to increase its pressure and drive a piston. However, even as the piston moves, there is always some leftover heat in the gas that cannot be used for carrying out any other work.
What is the Kelvin-Planck statement of second law of thermodynamics?
Relation between Kelvin’s statement and Planck’s proposition – It is almost customary in textbooks to speak of the “Kelvin–Planck statement” of the law, as for example in the text by ter Haar and Wergeland, This version, also known as the heat engine statement, of the second law states that It is impossible to devise a cyclically operating device, the sole effect of which is to absorb energy in the form of heat from a single thermal reservoir and to deliver an equivalent amount of work,
What would happen if the first law of thermodynamics was violated?
The first law of thermodynamics asserts that energy must be conserved in any process involving the exchange of heat and work between a system and its surroundings. A machine that violated the first law would be called a perpetual motion machine of the first kind because it would manufacture its own energy out of nothing and thereby run forever.
Such a machine would be impossible even in theory. However, this impossibility would not prevent the construction of a machine that could extract essentially limitless amounts of heat from its surroundings (earth, air, and sea) and convert it entirely into work. Although such a hypothetical machine would not violate conservation of energy, the total failure of inventors to build such a machine, known as a perpetual motion machine of the second kind, led to the discovery of the second law of thermodynamics.
The second law of thermodynamics can be precisely stated in the following two forms, as originally formulated in the 19th century by the Scottish physicist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) and the German physicist Rudolf Clausius, respectively: A cyclic transformation whose only final result is to transform heat extracted from a source which is at the same temperature throughout into work is impossible.
- A cyclic transformation whose only final result is to transfer heat from a body at a given temperature to a body at a higher temperature is impossible.
- The two statements are in fact equivalent because, if the first were possible, then the work obtained could be used, for example, to generate electricity that could then be discharged through an electric heater installed in a body at a higher temperature.
The net effect would be a flow of heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature, thereby violating the second (Clausius) form of the second law. Conversely, if the second form were possible, then the heat transferred to the higher temperature could be used to run a heat engine that would convert part of the heat into work.
The final result would be a conversion of heat into work at constant temperature—a violation of the first (Kelvin) form of the second law. Central to the following discussion of entropy is the concept of a heat reservoir capable of providing essentially limitless amounts of heat at a fixed temperature.
This is of course an idealization, but the temperature of a large body of water such as the Atlantic Ocean does not materially change if a small amount of heat is withdrawn to run a heat engine. The essential point is that the heat reservoir is assumed to have a well-defined temperature that does not change as a result of the process being considered.
What does the second law of thermodynamics really mean?
Thermodynamics, in particular the second law of thermodynamics, states that in an isolated system entropy will always increase with time (reversible processes only exist in ideal, well controlled experiments). An isolated system is a system where energy is conserved, no energy in, no energy out.
What are real world example of the 2nd Law of thermodynamics?
Second law of thermodynamics examples and applications The second law of thermodynamics states that heat can flow spontaneously from a hot object to a cold object; heat will not flow spontaneously from a cold object to a hot object. Carnot engine, heat engine are some examples of second law of thermodynamics.
Which statement represents the second law of thermodynamics?
the second law of thermodynamics: A law stating that states that the entropy of an isolated system never decreases, because isolated systems spontaneously evolve toward thermodynamic equilibrium—the state of maximum entropy. Equivalently, perpetual motion machines of the second kind are impossible.
Is there any proof for the 2nd Law of thermodynamics?
a simple and veritable proof of the Second Law of Thermodynamics (SLT), namely that the entropy of an isolated thermodynamic system always increases. E ectively and resultantly, this proof requires or points to the idea that the SLT holds not only statisti-cally for an isolated system as currently understood, but must hold exactly for each of