Who Developed The Law Of Universal Gravitation?

Who Developed The Law Of Universal Gravitation
Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation Sir Isaac Newton’s law of inertia states an object will continue to move in a straight line unless acted on by another force. But then, how did this explain why the moon orbited the earth? What was the other force? Newton theorized the same force that caused an apple to fall from a tree was also the force that kept the moon in place.

Over several years, Newton worked until he had developed the law of universal gravitation, which debuted in his book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1869). This idea stood until the concepts of quantum theory and relativity were posed in the mid 19th century. Help your students understand the law of gravity with these classroom resources.

Subjects Astronomy, Earth Science, Physics : Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation

Did Galileo discover the universal law of gravitation?

Sign up for Scientific American ’s free newsletters. ” data-newsletterpromo_article-image=”https://static.scientificamerican.com/sciam/cache/file/4641809D-B8F1-41A3-9E5A87C21ADB2FD8_source.png” data-newsletterpromo_article-button-text=”Sign Up” data-newsletterpromo_article-button-link=”https://www.scientificamerican.com/page/newsletter-sign-up/?origincode=2018_sciam_ArticlePromo_NewsletterSignUp” name=”articleBody” itemprop=”articleBody”> Note: this is the third of three parts of the essay. The first two parts were published yesterday and the day before (see links at the bottom of the page). The very first discovery in fundamental physics, made by Galileo, – the law of free fall – was also the first discovery in physics of gravity. It was the starting point for Newton’s law of universal gravitation a few decades later. Was it possible for Galileo himself to discover the law of universal gravitation at his level of mathematization and by his style of doing science? Yes it was, although Galileo’s predisposition was quite unfavorable, since he rejected statements on attraction as an explanation of the Solar system. But nevertheless Galileo could come to the law of universal attraction by a way starting with his discovery that free falling projectile is moving on parabolic trajectory. He understood that parabolic trajectory was but an approximate result for “flat Earth”, or for small initial velocity. He didn’t know the form of trajectory in general case but he could grasp that very high initial horizontal velocity would make the projectile to go far away from the Earth. Galileo is often reproached for his keeping to “backward” ideally circular planetary orbit despite the observational reality summarized in Kepler’s law of elliptical orbits. Indeed Galileo ignored rather than reject Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. Circular planetary orbit was the simplest model to probe into physics of planetary motion, and Galileo could do this. Even without knowing the general form of trajectory of free falling object, he could ask what initial horizontal velocity V would make a projectile to move at the same constant distance from the surface of the spherical Earth. And he could answer this question by means of math no more sophisticated than the theorem of Pythagoras: V = (gR) ½, where g is the acceleration of free fall and R is the radius of the Earth. This is the so called first cosmic velocity (~ 8 km/s) reached for the first time in October 1957 by Sputnik 1. The motion at a constant distance from of the Earth resembles the Moon’s motion too much for Galileo to miss this resemblance. But Galileo would find that the relation V = (gR) ½ holds for the Moon only if acceleration of free fall on the Moon’s distance from the Earth g M is about 3600 times less than g E he had measured on the Earth, since the distance to Moon R M is about 60 times larger than R E, and Moon’s orbital velocity is about 1 km/s. It would hint at relation g(R)~ R -2, which is, in fact, very close to the law of universal gravitation, because here evidently the Earth determines the acceleration of free fall on specific distance from the (center of the) Earth. So the Earth is the source of such a universal acceleration in the space around it. Combining this relation with the previous, Galileo would get a relation for the astronomically observable parameters V ~ R – ½, Having verified this relation for the planets in the Solar system and for the satellites of Jupiter (discovered by himself in 1610), Galileo could realize that he got the 3rd Kepler’s law for circular planetary motion and could discern both a real sense in the unpleasing Kepler’s wording on heavenly planetary attraction and the connection of the 3rd Kepler’s law with the earthly phenomenon of free fall. Then, in usual Galileo’s way of thought experimentation, he could be playing with placing a thought Moon further and further from Earth and closer to Mars. When the Moon is on equal distances from the both planets, he could ask whose satellite this thought Moon would be. This way he would come to the idea of combine action of the two planets making the thought Moon to move with combine accelerations, as the result of two attractions. And this would be virtually the law of universal gravitation, even if yet for circular movement. Thus Galileo would come to the law of universal gravitation. Why didn’t he do it? A probable reason was that he was too serious about his biblical worldview – regardless of how far he was from official theology. Galileo was unable to accept a friendly suggestion from the Pope (who was his admirer) to write about his science freely but without claiming that his theory was real truth rather than a hypothesis, even if the best one compare to others. If Galileo had been an atheist he could condescend to scientific backwardness of the religious authority, and in his writing to address to his colleagues the scientists with obviating repercussions by proper – hypothetical – wording. But being an honest biblical believer he had to defend his truth-seeking. So he invented a literary form to obviate administrative restrictions in his Dialogues and had to spend too much time and effort for his kind of popular-science writing. Nevertheless he failed to circumvent the scientific ignorance of society and the Church and, as a result of persecution, his intellectual and social freedom was harshly restricted for the rest of his life. Of course in the history of science Galileo’s “unnecessary” popular-science writings had played a very important role in propagating the new way of doing science all over Europe. But being too busy for too long with such writings and with opposition to ideological officialdom Galileo left the honor for developing his research into the law of universal gravity to Newton who started his quest in a lucky windy day by a legendary apple tree. Again there is no bad without some good – the story of how Newton came to his law can support the opportunity Galileo had had. It is known that Newton came to the idea of inverse-square gravity in his twenties (in the 1660s) employing circular motion, parabolic approxi­mation and Galileo’s kinematics, and sometimes Newton is reproached for being “excessive in offering credit to Galileo” (rather than to Decartes). Besides historical reconstructions based on Newton’s later writings there is only one sort of eyewitness evidence about his real way to his idea. It is the apple story written by a friend of Newton William Stukeley.25 years after Newton’s death. Stukeley related their conversation on 15 April 1726: “After dinner, the weather being warm, we went into the garden, & drank thea under the shade of some appletrees, only he, & myself. Amidst other discourse, he told me, he was just in the same situation, as when formerly, the notion of gravitation came into his mind. “Why should that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground,” thought he to him self: occasion’d by the fall of an apple, as he sat in a contemplative mood: “Why should it not go sideways, or upwards? But constantly to the earths centre? assuredly, the reason is, that the earth draws it. There must be a drawing power in matter. & the sum of the drawing power in the matter of the earth must be in the earths center, not in any side of the earth. Therefore dos this apple fall perpendicularly, or toward the center. If matter thus draws matter; it must be in proportion of its quantity. Therefore the apple draws the earth, as well as the earth draws the apple.” That there is a power like that we here call gravity which extends its self thro’ the universe & thus by degrees, he began to apply this property of gravitation to the motion of the earth, & of the heavenly bodys: to consider thir distances, their magnitudes, thir periodical revolutions: to find out, that this property, conjointly with a progressive motion impressed on them in the beginning, perfectly solv’d thir circular courses; kept the planets from falling upon one another, or dropping all together into one center. & thus he unfolded the Universe. This was the birth of those amazing discoverys, whereby he built philosophy on a solid foundation, to the astonishment of all Europe.” From my extensive experience in oral history about events that happened a few decades earlier (including written recollections), I’ve learn that this kind of source is both priceless and unreliable. To decide which element of the evidence is what, one have to understand the personality of the witness and the whole situation as deeply as possible. From this Stukeley’s description, with its direct speech and Newton’s “thought to himself”, one can infer that the author was concerned to tell a good story rather than to be as accurate as possible. Stukeley was neither a physicist nor a historian of science, he was an archaeologist who described himself as a “druid”. When he wrote, many years later, that Newton “was just in the same situation” he apparently forgot that April is a bit too early for falling apples. Hopefully I am not the only historian of physics for whom Stukeley’s explanation doesn’t make real sense, I am unable to imagine the train of Newton’s thought at the time when the great discoverer hadn’t yet made his amazing discovery. I rather see the explanation which satisfied the archaeologist-druid at the time when “all Europe” knew what was universal gravity. The only fact that seems to be undeniable is that falling apple somehow triggered the discovery, and a historian of physics may feel free to guess what did happened in that lucky day when Newton saw a falling apple. My guess is that the lucky day was windy and the wind was gusty. So Newton saw the apple falling in a parabolic way. He could easily grasp that a stronger gust of wind would make the parabola wider, and he could ask himself what if the gust would be strong enough to keep falling apple to stay at the constant distance from the spherical Earth’s surface, that is on a circular orbit. Then he could follow the above described way to the inverse-square universal gravity. Here Newton needed only Galileo’s kinematics, rather than sophisticated mathematics of Decartes. Newton, just like Galileo, did not like the old-fashioned astrological, non-mathematical idea of planetary “attraction”, but had to accept it as re-invented mathemitized fundamentals under the weight of its successful corollaries supported by empirical evidence, just like Galileo had to re-invent and corroborate the notion of the movement in the vacuum. Newton’s real way to universal gravity was manifested in his thought experiment in the very beginning of his manuscript ‘A Treatise of the System of the World’ which preceded to his ‘Principia’, but was published posthumously: “That by means of centripetal forces, the Planets may be retained in certain orbits, we may easily understand, if we consider the motions of projectiles. For a stone projected is by the pressure of its own weight forced out of the rectilinear path, which by the projection alone it should have pursued, and made to describe a curve line in the air; and through that crooked way is at last brought down to the ground. And the greater the velocity is with which it is projected, the farther it goes before it falls to the Earth. We may therefore suppose the velocity to be so increased, that it would describe an arc of 1, 2, 5, 10, 100, 1,000 miles before it arrived at Earth, till at last, exceeding the limits of the Earth, it should pass quite by without touching it.” Here “stone projected” could be a pseudonym of his falling apple. Here we can finish “what-if” and “how-specifically” history of the law of universal gravity and return to a general question why this fundamental discovery as well as the invention of the fundamental physics happened only in European civilization, and whether it was facilitated by the Biblical background of its culture and by biblical theism of the originators of fundamental physics. The last hypothesis might outrage a typical descendant of Biblical civilization of today, when church is securely separated from state, and religious faith is considered a wholly private issue separated from all mundane affairs including science. However more important are opinions of not so typical physicists who firsthand experienced insights and discoveries in physics which required all the creative resources of a person. An atheist Boltzmann expressed his admiration for Maxwell’s equations in theistic way by quoting from Geothe’s Faust: “Was it a god who wrote these signs? Which still my inner rage, which fill my heart with joy, and which, in a mysterious way, reveal the forces of nature around me”. To the mind of Einstein, who was no a churchgoer at all, “Our moral leanings and tastes, our sense of beauty and religious instincts, are all tributary forces in helping the reasoning faculty toward its highest achievements.” According to a survey conducted by the magazine “Physics World” about two thirds of its readers think that religion and science are compatible, with half of them being non-believers and one third believing that their faith enhances their appreciation of science. So, apparently, many contemporary physicists the atheists could join Boltzmann in thanking God for helping Maxwell – as well as Newton and Galileo – to make their fundamental discoveries. And so why don’t contemporary historians of science, regardless of their (ir)religious affiliations, join Einstein in appreciation of the role of “religious instincts” (rather than official theology), at least when considering the origin of modern physics in the 17th century? Scientific progress and intellectual freedom in the 21st century In thinking about the beneficial cultural infrastructure for scientific progress, comparative history might be a good resource, although in the 21st century to promote the Bible might be not the only way to ensure such an infrastructure. Thanks to the amazing advancement of science, nowadays the double postulate of fundamental science is self-evident without biblical support. Various social forces are working in a society to find out persons endowed with extraordinary curiosity and independent thinking and to provide them with necessary freedom to develop their personal abilities to make new inventions in science and technology. Here, as the history of science shows, the intellectual freedom is the most relevant among all the human rights. Instructive is the comparison of two sciences – biology and physics – against the same totalitarian background of Stalin’s Russia. In the 1920s and the early 1930s both sciences were doing pretty well in the USSR, until the late 1930s when Stalin’s Great Purge killed millions of innocent people including some of the best physicists and biologists. However in the post-war USSR the fates of the two sciences were quite different. An agronomist T. Lysenko, enthroned in the Soviet biology directly by Stalin, effectively suppressed intellectual freedom in Soviet biology to result in its major destruction. On the other hand, the urgent need for nuclear weapons made Soviet leaders restrain their control over the intellectual freedom of physicists, and the highest level of the freedom was allowed at the closed nuclear center where nuclear weapons were designed. One of the weapons designers, the theoretical physicist Andrei Sakharov, in 1968, was expelled from this center after his article “Reflections on Progress, Peaceful Coexistence, and Intellectual Freedom” had been published in Samizdat and then in the New York Times. It transformed the secret “father of the Soviet H-bomb” into a public figure. His way to publicity was unique. Being a top expert in strategic balance and privy to strategic information in full, in 1967, he became gravely concerned with a problem of strategic antiballistic defense. He sent a secret detailed letter to the Politburo explaining the increased threat of nuclear war. In those days he felt himself a defender of socialism and a non-dogmatic Marxist. Sakharov saw the fact that the founders of Marxism didn’t foreseen: due to advancement in science and technology humanity was facing the threat of global suicide within half an hour, the travel time for a nuclear missile. Sakharov actions were exercises in intellectual freedom coupled with social responsibility. He was well aware that the real intellectual freedom could thrive only on the basis of respect for the rule of law. However, the Soviet leaders had no respect for both intellectual freedom and social responsibility of citizens, they did not heed the advice of a top non-dogmatic expert and didn’t allow Sakharov to publish a non-secret version of his analysis. It was only then he found that his intellectual freedom, so essential in his profession, was dangerously restricted. Feeling himself free enough, he went public to prevent nuclear war. Correcting the official formula, Sakharov wrote that “evolution, not revolution, is the best locomotive of history” and confessed himself to be a “reformer and principled foe of violent revolutionary changes of the social structure, which have always led to the destruction of the economic and legal system, to mass suffering, lawlessness, and horror.” Soviet leaders failed to make the necessary reforms, and the regime collapsed. Chinese economic reforms show that it was not the only possible outcome. And if Chinese reformers could also create a beneficial cultural infrastructure for scientific inventiveness it would be the best practical response to the grand question of Needham, who was so sympathetic to Chinese civilization. History hints that respect for intellectual freedom and for the rule of law is the best secular approximation to the Biblical prerequisites for fundamental physics at the time of its origin. Acknowledgments I am grateful to Chia-Hsiung Tze for helping me to appreciate the Needham question, to Lanfranco Belloni for help in checking with the original Italian of Galileo, to Robert S. Cohen, who helped me to appreciate Edgar Zilsel, to Sergey Zelensky and the Methodological seminar at the Institute for History of Science and Technology (Moscow) for stimulating discussions, and to John Stachel for helpful critical remarks. References: J. Bruce Brackenridge. The key to Newton’s dynamics. University of California Press, 1995, p.27, 35. William Stukeley. Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton’s life.1752. Isaac Newton. A treatise of the system of the world, 1728, p.5-6.A. Einstein. Science and God. A German Dialog // Forum and Century.1930.V.83.P.375. Robert P Crease. Religion explained // Physics World, Jul 31, 2009 G. Gorelik, and V.Ya.Frenkel, Matvei Petrovich Bronstein and Soviet Theoretical Physics in the Thirties, Basel-Boston: Birkhaeuser Verlag, 1994; Springer Basel AG, 2011 (e-book)).G. Gorelik, ‘Meine antisowjetische Taetigkeit.’ Russische Physiker unter Stalin, Transl.H. Rotter. Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: Vieweg, 1995.G. Gorelik, with A.W. Bouis, The World of Andrei Sakharov. Oxford University Press.2005. See all three parts of this essay: How the Modern Physics was invented in the 17th century, part 1: The Needham Question How the Modern Physics was invented in the 17th century, part 2: source of fundamental laws How the Modern Physics was invented in the 17th century, part 3: Why Galileo didn’t discover universal gravitation? The views expressed are those of the author(s) and are not necessarily those of Scientific American.

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Who formulated the three laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation?

What are Newton’s Laws of Motion? –

  1. An object at rest remains at rest, and an object in motion remains in motion at constant speed and in a straight line unless acted on by an unbalanced force.
  2. The acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the amount of force applied.
  3. Whenever one object exerts a force on another object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite on the first.

Sir Isaac Newton worked in many areas of mathematics and physics. He developed the theories of gravitation in 1666 when he was only 23 years old. In 1686, he presented his three laws of motion in the “Principia Mathematica Philosophiae Naturalis.” By developing his three laws of motion, Newton revolutionized science.

What laws did Galileo discover?

What Was Galileo Famous For? – Galileo’s laws of motion, made from his measurements that all bodies accelerate at the same rate regardless of their mass or size, paved the way for the codification of classical mechanics by, Galileo’s heliocentrism (with modifications by ) soon became accepted scientific fact.

  • His inventions, from compasses and balances to improved telescopes and microscopes, revolutionized astronomy and biology.
  • Galilleo discovered craters and mountains on the moon, the phases of Venus, Jupiter’s moons and the stars of the Milky Way.
  • His penchant for thoughtful and inventive experimentation pushed the scientific method toward its modern form.

In his conflict with the Church, Galileo was also largely vindicated. thinkers like Voltaire used tales of his trial (often in simplified and exaggerated form) to portray Galileo as a martyr for objectivity. Recent scholarship suggests Galileo’s actual trial and punishment were as much a matter of courtly intrigue and philosophical minutiae as of inherent tension between religion and science.

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What is the theory of universal gravitation?

Abstract: – In 1687 English physicist Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) published a law of universal gravitation in his influential work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). In its simplest form, Newton’s law of universal gravitation states that bodies with mass attract each other with a force that varies directly as the product of their masses and inversely as the square of the distance between them.

  1. This mathematically elegant law, however, offered a remarkably reasoned and profound insight into the mechanics of the natural world because revealed a cosmos bound together by the mutual gravitational attraction of its constituent particles.
  2. Moreover, along with Newton’s laws of motion, the law of universal gravitation became the guiding model for the future development of physical law.

Newton’s law of universal gravitation was derived from German mathematician and astronomer Johannes Kepler’s (1571-1630) laws of planetary motion, the concept of “action-at-a-distance,” and Newton’s own laws of motion. Building on Galileo’s observations of falling bodies, Newton asserted that gravity is a universal property of all matter.

Although the force of gravity can become infinitesimally small at increasing distances between bodies, all bodies of mass exert gravitational force on each other. Newton extrapolated that the force of gravity (later characterized by the gravitational field) extended to infinity and, in so doing, bound the universe together.

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Who actually discovered gravity before Newton?

Greco-Roman world – The Ionian Greek philosopher Heraclitus ( c. 535 – c. 475 BC ) used the word logos (‘word’) to describe a kind of law which keeps the cosmos in harmony, moving all objects, including the stars, winds, and waves. In the 4th century BC, the Greek philosopher Aristotle taught that there is no effect or motion without a cause,

  1. The cause of the downward motion of heavy bodies, such as the element earth, was related to their nature, which caused them to move downward toward the centre of the universe, which was their natural place.
  2. Conversely, light bodies such as the element fire, move by their nature upward toward the inner surface of the sphere of the Moon.

Thus in Aristotle’s system heavy bodies are not attracted to the Earth by an external force, but tend toward the centre of the universe because of an inner gravitas or heaviness. The 3rd-century-BC Greek physicist Archimedes discovered the centre of mass of a triangle.

  • He also postulated that if the centres of gravity of two equal weights was not the same, it would be located in the middle of the line that joins them.
  • Two centuries later, the Roman engineer and architect Vitruvius contended in his De architectura that gravity is not dependent on a substance’s weight but rather on its ‘nature’ ( cf.

specific gravity ): If the quicksilver is poured into a vessel, and a stone weighing one hundred pounds is laid upon it, the stone swims on the surface, and cannot depress the liquid, nor break through, nor separate it. If we remove the hundred pound weight, and put on a scruple of gold, it will not swim, but will sink to the bottom of its own accord.

Who discovered gravity not Newton?

Sir Isaac Newton – The Discoverer of Gravity! –

Sir Isaac Newton was an English mathematician and mathematician and physicist who lived from 1642-1727. The legend is that Newton discovered Gravity when he saw a falling apple while thinking about the forces of nature. Whatever really happened, Newton realized that some force must be acting on falling objects like apples because otherwise they would not start moving from rest. Newton also realized that the moon would fly off away from Earth in a straight line tangent to its orbit if some force was not causing it to fall toward the Earth. The moon is only a projectile circling around the Earth under the attraction of Gravity. Newton called this force “gravity” and determined that gravitational forces exist between all objects. Using the idea of Gravity, Newton was able to explain the astronomical observations of Kepler. The work of Galileo, Brahe, Kepler, and Newton proved once and for all that the Earth wasn’t the center of the solar system. The Earth, along with all other planets,orbits around the sun. Two astronomers, J.C. Adams and U.J.J. LeVerrier, later used the concept of Gravity to predict that the planet Neptune would be discovered. They realized that there must be another planet exerting a gravitational force on Uranus because Uranus had odd perturbations in its orbit. (Perturbations are deviations in orbits.)

Who came first Newton or Galileo?

Isaac Newton was born on Christmas Day, 1642, the same year Galileo died.2. He did much of his greatest work during a two year period from 1665 to 1667 when he was at the village of Woolsworth to escape the Great Plague which was ravishing London.

How did Galileo contribute to Newton’s first law?

Home Science Physics Alternate titles: Newton’s first law law of inertia, also called Newton’s first law, postulate in physics that, if a body is at rest or moving at a constant speed in a straight line, it will remain at rest or keep moving in a straight line at constant speed unless it is acted upon by a force,

The law of inertia was first formulated by Galileo Galilei for horizontal motion on Earth and was later generalized by René Descartes, Before Galileo it had been thought that all horizontal motion required a direct cause, but Galileo deduced from his experiments that a body in motion would remain in motion unless a force (such as friction ) caused it to come to rest.

This law is also the first of Isaac Newton’s three laws of motion, Although the principle of inertia is the starting point and the fundamental assumption of classical mechanics, it is less than intuitively obvious to the untrained eye. In Aristotelian mechanics, and in ordinary experience, objects that are not being pushed tend to come to rest.

  • The law of inertia was deduced by Galileo from his experiments with balls rolling down inclined planes.
  • For Galileo, the principle of inertia was fundamental to his central scientific task: he had to explain how it is possible that, if Earth is really spinning on its axis and orbiting the Sun, we do not sense that motion.

The principle of inertia helps to provide the answer: since we are in motion together with Earth, and our natural tendency is to retain that motion, Earth appears to us to be at rest. Thus, the principle of inertia, far from being a statement of the obvious, was once a central issue of scientific contention,

By the time Newton had sorted out all the details, it was possible to accurately account for the small deviations from this picture caused by the fact that the motion of Earth’s surface is not uniform motion in a straight line. In the Newtonian formulation, the common observation that bodies that are not pushed tend to come to rest is attributed to the fact that they have unbalanced forces acting on them, such as friction and air resistance.

In classical Newtonian mechanics, there is no important distinction between rest and uniform motion in a straight line: they may be regarded as the same state of motion seen by different observers, one moving at the same velocity as the particle and the other moving at constant velocity with respect to the particle.

What theory did Galileo prove right?

Who Developed The Law Of Universal Gravitation Portrait of Galileo Galilei by Justus Sustermans The year was 1608 and the first telescope had just been invented, intended to be used to see far away objects across land. But when word of this invention reached the Italian scientist Galileo Galilei, he thought to use it to look at the skies.

  • Galileo was quick to master the art of making his own telescope, which could magnify objects by up to 20 times.
  • The general consensus at this time was that the Sun orbited around the Earth, but with the help of Galileo’s observations, our cosmic perspective changed forever.
  • The idea that the Sun and other cosmic bodies orbited around the Earth was called the geocentric model,

Many of the ideas behind the geocentric model came from the ancient philosopher Aristotle and ancient astronomer Ptolemy. Aristotle believed all of the heavenly bodies were perfect spheres, with perfectly smooth surfaces and without blemishes. This made them different to the Earth, which he believed was imperfect as it had mountains, valleys and ridges.

What is the other name of Galileo law?

What is the other name of Galileo’s law of falling bodies?A. Law of motionB. Newton’s first lawC. Newton’s second lawD. Newton’s third law Answer Verified Hint: At first we need to understand what statement Galileo gave and what is the concept and reason behind it.

Complete step by step answer: So, option C, that is Newton’s second law, is the correct option. Note:

To understand what is the other name for Galileo’s law of falling bodies we at first have to know about what is Galileo’s law.Scientists at first used to think that force is the cause of speed.Now Galileo showed that acceleration is caused by a force which in turn gives speed to a body.On the basis of the law of parabolic fall, Galileo said that the force of gravity which causes all bodies to move downward and the fall of a body on the surface of the earth at a constant acceleration is actually a constant force.

In other words, we can say that a constant force does not lead to constant speed but it leads a body to a constant acceleration.Now later scientists found that a body will continue to remain in a state of motion as long as no factors disturb it. Now, let us see that what Newton’s second law of motion says,Newton’s second law of motion said that the acceleration of an object is totally dependent upon two factors that is the net force acting upon the object and the mass of the object.So, by comparing the statement given by Galileo and then Newton’s second law of motion we can say that Galileo’s law of falling bodies can also be said as Newton’s second law of motion.Newton’s first law of motion says that every object will stay at rest or in a state of motion until and unless an external force is applied to it.

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In Newton’s second law of motion, he said that force is directly proportional to the acceleration and mass of the body, and in Newton’s second law of motion it is said that to every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction. Students must have a clear concept of what is Galileo’s law of falling bodies.

Why is it called universal law of gravitation?

Newton’s law of gravity is considered ‘universal’ because it is believed to be applicable to the entire Universe. It is called so because it is applicable on all bodies having mass(like the sun, moon, earth or an apple) and the bodies will be governed by the same law, that is newton’s law of gravitation.

What are the 3 laws of universal gravitation?

If the mass of one of the objects is doubled, then the force of gravity between them is doubled. If the mass of one of the objects is tripled, then the force of gravity between them is tripled. If the mass of both of the objects is doubled, then the force of gravity between them is quadrupled; and so on.

Is universal gravity a law or theory?

Gravity: It’s Only a Theory | National Center for Science Education All physics textbook should include this warning label: This textbook contains material on Gravity. Universal Gravity is a theory, not a fact, regarding the natural law of attraction.

This material should be approached with an open mind, studied carefully, and critically considered. The Universal Theory of Gravity is often taught in schools as a fact, when in fact it is not even a good theory. First of all, no one has measured gravity for every atom and every star. It is simply a religious belief that it is “universal”.

Secondly, school textbooks routinely make false statements. For example, “the moon goes around the earth.” If the theory of gravity were true, it would show that the sun’s gravitational force on the moon is much stronger than the earth’s gravitational force on the moon, so the moon would go around the sun.

  1. Anybody can look up at night and see the obvious gaps in gravity theory.
  2. The existence of tides is often taken as a proof of gravity, but this is logically flawed.
  3. Because if the moon’s “gravity” were responsible for a bulge underneath it, then how can anyone explain a high tide on the opposite side of the earth at the same time? Anyone can observe that there are two — not one — high tides every day.

It is far more likely that tides were given us by an Intelligent Creator long ago and they have been with us ever since. In any case, the fact that there are two high tides falsifies gravity. There are numerous other flaws. For example, astronomers, who seem to have a fetish for gravity, tell us that the moon rotates on its axis but at the same time it always presents the same face to the earth.

  • This is patently absurd.
  • Moreover, if gravity were working on the early earth, then earth would have been bombarded out of existence by falling asteroids, meteors, comets, and other space junk.
  • Furthermore, gravity theory suggests that the planets have been moving in orderly orbits for millions and millions of years, which wholly contradicts the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

Since everything in the Universe tends to disorder according to the Second Law, orderly orbits are impossible. This cannot be resolved by pointing to the huge outpouring of energy from the sun. In fact, it is known that the flux of photons from the sun and the “solar wind” actually tends to push earth away.

There are numerous alternative theories that should be taught on an equal basis. For example, the observed behavior of the earth’s revolving around the sun can be perfectly explained if the sun has a net positive charge and the planets have a net negative charge, since opposite charges attract and the force is an inverse-square law, exactly as proposed by the increasingly discredited Theory of Gravity.

Physics and chemistry texts emphasize that this is the explanation for electrons going around the nucleus, so if it works for atoms, why not for the solar system? The answer is simple: scientific orthodoxy. The US Patent Office has never issued a patent for anti-gravity.

  1. Why is this? According to natural law and homeopathy, everything exists in opposites: good–evil; grace–sin; positive charges–negative charges; north poles–south poles; good vibes–bad vibes; and so on.
  2. We know there are anti-evolutionists, so why not anti-gravitationalists? It is clearly a matter of the scientific establishment elite’s protecting their own.

Anti-gravity papers are routinely rejected from peerreviewed journals, and scientists who propose anti-gravity quickly lose their funding. Universal gravity theory is just a way to keep the grant money flowing. Even Isaac Newton, said to be the discoverer of gravity, knew there were problems with the theory.

He claims to have invented the idea early in his life, but he knew that no mathematician of his day would approve his theory, so he invented a whole new branch of mathematics, called fluxions, just to “prove” his theory. This became calculus, a deeply flawed branch having to do with so-called “infinitesimals” which have never been observed.

Then when Einstein invented a new theory of gravity, he, too, used an obscure bit of mathematics called tensors. It seems that every time there is a theory of gravity, it is mixed up with fringe mathematics. Newton, by the way,was far from a secular scientist, and the bulk of his writings is actually on theology and Christianity.

  1. His dabbling in gravity, alchemy, and calculus was a mere sideline, perhaps an aberration best left forgotten in describing his career and faith in a Creator.
  2. To make matters worse, proponents of gravity theory hypothesize about mysterious things called gravitons and gravity waves.
  3. These have never been observed, and when some accounts of detecting gravity waves were published, the physicists involved had to quickly retract them.

Every account of anti-gravity and gravity waves quickly elicits laughter. This is not a theory suitable for children. And even children can see how ridiculous it is to imagine that people in Australia are upside down with respect to us, as gravity theory would have it.

  • If this is an example of the predictive power of the theory of gravity,we can see that at the core there is no foundation.
  • Gravity totally fails to explain why Saturn has rings and Jupiter does not.
  • It utterly fails to account for obesity.
  • In fact, what it does “explain” is far outweighed by what it does not explain.

When the planet Pluto was discovered in 1930 by Clyde Tombaugh, he relied on “gravitational calculations”. But Tombaugh was a Unitarian, a liberal religious group that supports the Theory of Gravity. The modern-day Unitarian-Universalists continue to rely on liberal notions and dismiss ideas of anti-gravity as heretical.

  1. Tombaugh never even attempted to justify his “gravitational calculations” on the basis of Scripture, and he went on to be a founding member of the liberal Unitarian Fellowship of Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  2. The theory of gravity violates common sense in many ways.
  3. Adherents have a hard time explaining, for instance, why airplanes do not fall.

Since anti-gravity is rejected by the scientific establishment, they resort to lots of hand-waving. The theory, if taken seriously, implies that the default position for all airplanes is on the ground. While this seems true for Northwest Airlines, it appears that JetBlue and Southwest have a superior theory that effectively harnesses forces that overcome so-called gravity.

It is unlikely that the Law of Gravity will be repealed given the present geo-political climate, but there is no need to teach unfounded theories in the public schools. There is, indeed, evidence that the Theory of Gravity is having a grave effect on morality. Activist judges and left-leaning teachers often use the phrase “what goes up must come down” as a way of describing gravity, and relativists have been quick to apply this to moral standards and common decency.

Finally, the mere name‚ “Universal Theory of Gravity” or “Theory of Universal Gravity” (the secularists like to use confusing language) has a distinctly socialist ring to it. The core idea of “to each according to his weight, from each according to his mass” is communistic.

  • There is no reason that gravity should apply to the just and the unjust equally, and the saved should have relief from such “universalism.” If we have Universal Gravity now, then universal health care will be sure to follow.
  • It is this kind of universalism that saps a nation’s moral fiber.
  • It is not even clear why we need a theory of gravity: there is not a single mention in the Bible, and the patriotic Founding Fathers never referred to it.

Overall, the Theory of Universal Gravity is just not an attractive theory. It is based on borderline evidence, has many serious gaps in what it claims to explain, is clearly wrong in important respects, and has social and moral deficiencies. If taught in the public schools, by mis-directed “educators”, it has to be balanced with alternative,more attractive theories with genuine gravamen and spiritual gravitas.

How many Newton’s laws are there?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia – Newton ‘s First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. Newton’s Laws of Motion are three physical laws which provide relationships between the forces acting on a body and the motion of the body, first formulated by Sir Isaac Newton.

What was Galileo’s contribution to gravitational theory?

According to legend, Galileo dropped weights off of the Leaning Tower of Pisa, showing that gravity causes objects of different masses to fall with the same acceleration.

What did Galileo discover in physics?

Galileo Galilei Galileo Galilei was the founder of modern physics. To assess such a claim requires that we make a giant leap of the imagination to transport us to a state of ignorance about even the most elementary principles of physics. Today, the simple laws of motion as defined by, for example, are known to the most modest students, yet Galileo spent his life unravelling these mysteries.